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قديم 23-04-2012, 08:16 PM   #146
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وهذا
chapter 2 : different ways of speech- components of speech
Q.2. What fundamental notions does ethnography deal with? (pp. 11-12)
1. Ways of speaking: the relationship among speech events, speech acts, and styles on the one hand, and personal roles, abilities, attitudes, beliefs, and situations and contexts on the other.
2. Fluent speaker: a person who has both the knowledge and the ability to use it fluently. The standards of fluency may be different in different communities and cultures.
3. Speech community: a community sharing knowledge of rules for the use and interpretation of speech.
4. Speech situation: activities such as fishing, trips, parties, etc that may be considered from the socio-linguistic stand as speech situations. A speech situation may consist of one o more speech events.
5. Speech event: A speech event may consist of one speech act or several speech acts.
6. Speech act: Various types of sentences may be used to produce the same speech act (request expressed in imperative, declarative, or interrogative); and one sentence may express many speech acts depending on the situation and intonation.

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Components of speech
1. Message form 2. Message content 3. Setting 4. Scene 5. Speaker/sender 6. Addressor 7. Hearer/ receiver or audience
8. Addressee 9. Purposes- outcomes 10. Purposes- goals 11. key ( to
provide the manner or spirit in which an act is done) 12. channels (oral,
written, telegraphic transmission of speech). 13. Forms of speech
(language s and dialects) 14. Norms of interaction (rules governing
speaking). 15. Norms of interpretation 16. Genres (categories such as
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