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قديم 23-04-2012, 08:18 PM   #147
الذاكره ممتلئه الذاكره ممتلئه غير متصل
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الصورة الرمزية الذاكره ممتلئه

 










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وهذا

the three important ( ethics- advocacy- empowering)
Ethics
 Social science is not a neutral enquiry into human behaviour and institutions.
 It is strongly implicated in the project of social control, whether by the state or by other agencies that ultimately serve the interests of a dominant group.
 Social scientists recognize the potentially exploitative and damaging effects of being re******ed on.
 An ethically aware social scientist will see the possible dangers and try to forestall them.
 The re******er might exploit subjects during the re****** process.

 In covert re******, subjects cannot give full, informed consent because re******er deliberately mislead them as to the nature and purpose of re******, or conceals the fact that re****** is going on.
 This create ethical problems because it is deception.
eg: Milgram experiments on obedience to authority (pg: 15).
 Most disciplines have strong concern with ethical standards, manifested by published codes of conduct, professional oaths, ethics committees etc.
 They work on the basis of balancing the needs of a discipline in its pursuit of knowledge and truth with interests of people on whom re****** is conducted.
 The interests of the re******ed are a negative force limiting what re******ers can do.
 An ethical re******er ensure that their privacy is protected.
 In ethical re******, there is a wholly proper concern to minimise damage and offset inconvenience to the re******ed, and to acknowledge their contribution.
 Human subjects deserve special ethical consideration, but they do not set the re******er’s agenda.
 Positivist emphasise on distance in order to avoid interference or bias.

 Positivism is strongly committed to the idea that observations procured in a scientific manner have the status of value-free facts.
 The positivistically inclined re******ers go beyond the idea of ethics and make themselves more directly accountable to the re******ed.
 They move to an advocacy position.
ADVOCACY
 Advocacy position is characterised by commitment on part of re******er not just to do re****** on subjects but re****** on and for subjects.
 This commitment formalises common development in field situations.
 Re******er use his/her skills or authority as an ‘expert’ to defend subjects’ interests, getting involved in their campaigns for healthcare or education, cultural autonomy or political and land rights, and speaking on their behalf.
eg: The case of the Ann Arbor ‘Black English’ trial in 1979 (pg: 16-18).
 Sociolinguist William Labov suggests two principles:
(1) Error correction: If we as re******ers know that people hold erroneous views on something, we have a responsibility to attempt to correct those views.
(2) The debt incurred: When a community has enabled linguists to gain important knowledge, the linguist incurs a debt which must be repaid by using the said knowledge on the community’s behalf when they need it.
This is an advocacy position.
 Labov stresses that the advocate serves the community, and that political direction is the community’s responsibility.
 While Labov’s positivism is in some ways extremely radical, it is so within a positivist framework.
 Labov’s positivism is clearly visible in his uneasy juxtaposition of ‘objectivity’ and ‘commitment.’
 In Labov’s view, a re******er’s advocacy might undermine the validity of his/her findings.
 Labov advises advocate re******ers to take an auxiliary role, but in practice it leaves them with some very significant powers: the power to identify the ‘community’ whose interests they will speak for, and the power to decide on an objective truth which they will speak.
 Labov glosses over the anti-positivist argument that observation is theory-laden and observers bring their values and interests to it.

EMPOWERING RE******
• We have seen ‘ethical re******’ as ‘re****** on, ‘advocacy re******’ as re****** on and for and ‘empowering re******’ as re****** on, for and with.
• It is the centrality of interaction ‘with’ the re******ed that enables re****** to be empowering.
• Empowerment is not a requirement on all re****** projects.
• The 3 issues that we take up here are; the use of interactive methods; the importance of subject’s own agendas; the question of feedback and sharing knowledge
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