عرض مشاركة واحدة
قديم 23-04-2012, 09:56 PM   #150
^lilly^ ^lilly^ غير متصل
طالب فعال
 
الصورة الرمزية ^lilly^

 











افتراضي رد: هنااا ستكون مناقشه mta


الأسئله اللي اتذكرهم


Criticisms of ethnography for being too scientific:

1-Its commitment to describe & explain the social world rather than seeking to change it. It failed to emancipate people from ideology in capitalist societies in contrast to the critical theory.
2-the relationship between the re******ers & the re******ed people is exploitative: the re****** focuses on powerless groups – the re******er exploits their powerlessness to carry out the re****** which serve the powerful & enable him to exercise control.—even when the re******er & the re******ed person are equal, power is still involved because the re******er is the one who makes decisions about what is to be studied, how & for what.
3-Ethnography's capacity to represent reality is not true. Representing the studied setting "as it is" is not possible because we do not have access to an independent reality. We have only interpretations which are just as much interpretations as are those of the studied people.- To give a sense of reality, ethnographers use rhetorical devices (similar to those used by realist novelists & travel writers). Re******ers may provide detailed de******ions of the studied setting to prove that they have been there.

Explain what is meant by on the spot observation' briefly outlining some
of its advantages and disadvantages. (Swan: Observing and recording talk in?

Types of observation:

-On spot observation: it is a non -participant observation: to observe while someone else is teaching OR to observe a group working independently: because it is difficult to observe & teach the class & take notes at the same time.

Taking field notes: record observation in an open ended way in a class or meeting. The notes may be the main source of information & they may supplement other forms of records.

Observation schedule: it helps to provide structured observation of talk – it is used to record the number & types of participants' contributions. Also it is used to investigate talk in different contexts.

Advantages of "on the spot observation": it provides useful evidence about the quality of interaction & about patterns in the distribution of talk between participants. It does not require technical equipments.
Disadvantages of "on the spot observation": It provides limited amount of data – there is no permanent record of talk ; the observation cannot be checked.

Explain 'Error Correction' and 'Debt-Incurred' in Advocacy according to William Labov , as discussed in Cameron et al. article 'Ethics, Advocacy, Empowerment?



One is the principle or “error correction”: if we, as re******ers, know that people hold erroneous views on something, we have a responsibility to attempt to correct those views, putting truth in the place of error.

The second principle is that of “debt incurred”. When a group has enabled linguists to gain important knowledge, then linguist incurs a debt which must be repaid through advocacy and commitment.

Discuss briefly ' communicative competence' as illustrated by Dell Hymes in "Toward ethnographies of communication".


 The term ’ethnography of communication’ indicate the necessary scope of ethnographic studies in basis and communicative in the range and complexity with which they deal.
 As to scope, one needs fresh kinds of data to investigate directly the use of language in contexts of situation to discern patterns proper to speech activity.
 As to basis, one cannot take linguistic form, a given code or even speech itself, as a limiting frame of reference. One must take as context a community, or network of persons investigating its communicative activities as a whole.
 Communicative form & function is in integral relation to each other.
 For ehnographies of communication, the aim is to keep the multiple hierarchy of relations among messages & contexts in view.

يمكن باقي سؤال بس ما اتذكره
^lilly^ غير متصل