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قديم 22-10-2012, 09:11 PM   #4
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افتراضي رد: دروس مفيده لتنمية مهارات الكتابة و تحسينها


ما هو البراجراف ؟
What is a Paragraph ?


A paragraph consists of several sentences that are grouped together. This group of sentences together discuss one main subject. In formal academic English, paragraphs have three principal parts. These three parts are the topic sentence, body sentences, and the concluding sentence
.
يتكون البراجراف من من عدد من الجمل يتراوح عادة من 8 إلى 12 جملة و لكن يمكن أن ينقص أو يزيد . يناقش البراجراف فكرة واحدة فقط . و فى اللغة اإنجليزية الرسمية يتكون البراجراف من ثلاثة أجزاء رئيسية و هى :
1- جملة الموضوع - المقدمة .
2- الوسط - و التى تشرح الفكرة الرئيسية .
3- الجملة الختامية .



ملحوظة هامة : فى أول البراجراف يجب أن تكون هناك مسافة خالية تسمىIndentation لتشير إلى بداية براجراف جديد .

1- جملة المقدمة . The Topic Sentence

A topic sentence usually comes at the beginning of a paragraph; that is, it is usually the first sentence in a formal academic paragraph. Not only is a topic sentence the first sentence of a paragraph, but, more importantly, it is the most general sentence in a paragraph. What does "most general" mean? It means that there are not many details in the sentence, but that the sentence introduces an overall idea that you want to discuss later in the paragraph
.

عادة ما تأتى جملة المقدمة فى أول البراجراف ، أى أنها أول جملة فيه . و هى أهم جمل البراجراف إذ أنها تبلور الفكرة الأساسية للموضوع و تطرحها دون مناقشة . و لكن يتم تطويرها و مناقشتها فيم بعد .
For example
the coloured sentence in the following paragraph is the " The Topic Sentence
. "
الجملة الملونة فى البراجراف التالى تشير إلى الجملة الرئيسية

There are three reasons why Canada is one of the best countries in the world.
First, Canada has an excellent health care system. All Canadians have access to medical services at a reasonable price. Second, Canada has a high standard of education. Students are taught by well-trained teachers and are encouraged to continue studying at university. Finally, Canada's cities are clean and efficiently managed. Canadian cities have many parks and lots of space for people to live. As a result, Canada is a desirable place to live.
2- المنتصف - جسم الموضوع The Body


They come after the topic sentence, making up the body of a paragraph
.
بعد جملة المقدمة تأتى جمل المناقشة مباشرة لتكون جسم الموضوع
They give details to develop and support the main idea of the paragraph
.
وتعمل هذه الجمل على شرح الجملة الريئسية فى البراجراف
. Whenever possible, you should include enough details in your paragraphs to help your reader understand exactly what you are writing about
.
و يجب أن تدعم الجملة الريئسية بالتفاصيل التى تساعد القارئ لفهم ما تصبو إليه مباشرة .
There are many ways to develop your paragraph
:
هناك عدة طرق لدعم أو مناقشة الفكرة الريئسية فى البرنامج :
1- Through details
1- عن طريق التفاصيل .
2- Through Examples
2- من خلال الأمثلة .
3- Through Incidents
3- من خلال رواية أو - حكى اقصوصة أو قصة
For example :

the coloured sentences in the following paragraph is the " The Supporting Details
"."
الجمل الملونة فى المثال التالى تشير إلى جسم - منتصف البراجراف بحيث تم مناقشة الفكرة الرئيسية من خلال الأمثلة .

There are three reasons why Canada is one of the best countries in the world. First, Canada has an excellent health care system. All Canadians have access to medical services at a reasonable price. Second, Canada has a high standard of education. Students are taught by well-trained teachers and are encouraged to continue studying at university. Finally, Canada's cities are clean and efficiently managed. Canadian cities have many parks and lots of space for people to live. As a result, Canada is a desirable place to live.
3- الجملة الختامية The Concluding - Clincher Sentence


In formal paragraphs you will sometimes see a sentence at the end of the paragraph which summarizes the information that has been presented. This is the concluding sentence. You can think of a concluding sentence as a sort of topic sentence in reverse
.
فى بعض الأحيان تجد الجملة الختامية و هى ملخص كامل للمعلومات المذكورة فى البراجراف مذكورة و لكن فى صورة أخرى . أى أنها تمثل تلخيصا للبراجراف . أو بمعنى آخر ، هى طريقة أخرى للتعبير عن جملة الموضوع أو المقدمة .
for example :

the coloured sentences in the following paragraph is the " The Concluding - Clincher Sentence
. "
الجمل الملونة فى المثال التالى تشير إلى الجملة الختامية .

There are three reasons why Canada is one of the best countries in the world. First, Canada has an excellent health care system. All Canadians have access to medical services at a reasonable price. Second, Canada has a high standard of education. Students are taught by well-trained teachers and are encouraged to continue studying at university. Finally, Canada's cities are clean and efficiently managed. Canadian cities have many parks and lots of space for people to live. As a result, Canada is a desirable place to live
.

كان هذا عرض مجمل و سريع لأجزاء البراجراف و فى الدروس القادمة إن شاء الله سنتعرف على كتابة كل جزء منها لإخراج براجراف مميز .

This was a rapid outline of the parts of a paragraph . In the coming lessons , Inshallah we will know how to develop each part to present a unique paragraph .
Paragraph unity
وحدة البراجراف


A unified paragraph is one that focuses on one idea and one idea only. Look at the following example of a paragraph that lacks unity.

البراجراف ذو الوحدة الواحدة هو ذلك البراجراف الذى يناقش فكرة واحدة ، على سبيل المثال انظر إلى المثال التالى لهذ االبراجراف الذى تنقصة الوحدة .

Moving out of my parents' house and into an apartment didn't bring me the uncomplicated joy that I had expected. First of all, I had to struggle to make the rent every month, and the landlord was much less understanding than my parents. Then I realized I had to do my own laundry, clean up the place now and then, and fix my own meals. One nice thing about my mother is that she is an excellent ****. She even attended a French *****ng school before she married my father. It's true that I liked the greater freedom I had in my apartment—no one constantly asking me what time I'd be home, no one nagging me about cleaning up my room or raking the front lawn—but I wasn't thrilled with spending most of a Saturday getting rid of a cockroach infestation, or Sunday night doing three loads of smelly laundry.


Notice how the colored sentences interrupt the flow of the paragraph, which is really about the down side of leaving home and not about the writer's mother.

لاحظ كيف تعمل هذه الجملة الملونة على تشتيت تتابع الجملو تسلسلها داخل البراجراف فلا علاقة لموضوع البراجراف بوصف والدة كاتب هذا البراجراف

Paragraph coherence
منطقية البراجراف .



Along with developing a single idea, a paragraph should be well organized. You can use many of the same principles—chronology, inductive and deductive patterns, and so on—that you use to organize complete essays.

تتساوى أهمية أن يكون البراجراف مناقشا لفكرة واحدة مع كونه منظما و بمعنى آخر يكون الإنتقال سلسا و منطقيا بين الجمل . بمعنى إرتباط كل جملة بما قبلها و تمهد لما بعدها ، و لكى يتحقق هذا الامر حاول أن تكتب الجملة الجديدة داخل البراجراف و بحيث تكون الجملة السابقة فى ذهنك .

Once you've decided on the order of your details, make sure the connections between sentences in the paragraph are clear. The smooth, logical flow of a paragraph is called paragraph coherence. Write each sentence with the previous one in mind.

و لكى يسهل عليك تحقيق الأمرين السابقين عليك بما يلى :


Connecting with words and phrases
الربط فيما بين الجمل و العبارات



Achieving paragraph coherence by connecting ideas is your first step
. .

لكى يتحقق الترابط و التماسك المنطقى داخل البراجراف يجب أن تربط ما بين الأفكار و التى تمثل الخطوة الأولى و لتحقيق ذلك انتبه جيدا لما يلى :

Use a pronoun whose antecedent appears in the previous sentence.

1- استخدم أحد ضمائر الفاعل المناسبة لتشير إلى الاسم فى الجملة السابقة . لاحظ المثال التالى :

Gabriel Garcia Marquez suspends the laws of reality in his novels. He creates bizarre and even magical situations that reveal character in surprising ways.
*


Try repeating words or phrases important pivotal in the sentence. Noted the following example:



2- حاول تكرار الكلمات أو العبارات المحورية الهامة فى الجملة . لاحظ المثال التالى :

The idea of a perfect society, though never realized, continues to intrigue political philosophers. None of these philosophers seem to agree on where perfection lies.


Use a synonym.

3- حاول استخدام مرادفات الكلمات قدر الإمكان ، لاحظ المثال التالى :

According to my re******, physical beauty is still considered a more important asset for women than for men. Looks are everything, according to several girls I spoke to, while the boys I interviewed felt that their athletic prowess and social status were at least as important as their appearance.
*

Use word patterns, such as first, second, third, and so on.

4- حاول استخدام الكلمات الترتيبية و التى تدل على التتالى و الترابط فى جمل البراجراف التالية مثل : first, second, third, and so on.

The reasons for the dean's announcing his decision today are clear. First, students will recognize that he is listening to their concerns. Second, faculty will applaud the end of a disruptive period of indecision. Third, wealthy and influential alumni—though not particularly pleased by all the details of the plan—will be overjoyed that the controversy will be off the front page of the paper.
*

Use transitional words and phrases. Many words and phrases signal connections between sentences in a paragraph or between paragraphs in a paper. Look at the colored words in the following sentences
.

5- حاول استخدام العبارات الإنتقالية التى تربط ما بين الجمل داخل البراجراف و بين البراجرافات فى المقال ، لاحظ الكلمات الملونة فى النص التالى :

The main character worships her. Later, his adoration turns to hatred.
o


She treated him well. For example, she bought him a car and new clothes.
o

The product promised he'd grow new hair. But all he grew was a rash.
o

Hamlet disdained Ophelia. As a result, she killed herself.
o

Elizabeth was angry at Darcy. In fact, she wanted nothing to do with him.
o

The plan is too expensive. Furthermore, it won't work.
o

No one volunteered to help. In other words, no one cared.

In the preceding examples, the colored words or phrases explicitly connects the second sentence to the first by creating a particular relationship. Vary the transitional words you use
.

فى الأمثلة السابقة : تربط الكلمات و العبارات الملونة بوضوح بين الجملة الأولى و الثانية عن طريق توضيح نمط العلاقة بينها . و هناك أنواع كثيرة من الكلمات الإنتقالية :

Following is a list of words classified according to the relationships they suggest
.

و فيما يلى الكلمات الإنتقالية مصنفة فى مجالات واضحة :

1- الوقت و المكان .

Time or place: above, across from, adjacent to, afterward, before, behind, below, beyond, earlier, elsewhere, farther on, here, in the distance, near by, next to, opposite to, to the left, to the right

2- التمثيل و إعطاء الأمثلة .

Example: for example, for instance, specifically, to be specific

3- النتاقض .

Contrast: but, however, nevertheless, on the contrary, on the other hand

4- التشابه .

Similarity: similarly, in the same way, equally important

5- النتائج المترتبة على بعضها

Consequence: accordingly, as a result, consequently, therefore

6- التأكيد .

Emphasis: indeed, in fact, of course

7- الإسهاب أو التوكيد

Amplification: and, again, also, further, furthermore, in addition, moreover, too

8 - إعادة الشرح

Restatement: in other words, more simply stated, that is, to clarify

9- الختام و التلخيص .

Summary and conclusion: altogether, finally, in conclusion, in short, to summarize



التوقيع

الحمد لله افتكرت توقيع كنت اشوفه اتنرفز لذلك قررت احط فيس إيجابي
ممممم نصيحه خير الناس أنفعهم للناس
يا ربّ يا من تملك حوائج السائلين وتعلم ضمائر الصامتين ..
ارزقنا سروراً لايشوبهُ حزن وسعادةً لا يعكرها شقاء وعافية لا تزول .وارحم امواتنا واموات المسلمين للهم صل وسلم ع سيدنا ونبينا محمد " م شاء الله تبارك الله
لورين غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس