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촙戀 햐新壟 헉戀 搏 햐新壟

娑帳 22-10-2010, 04:47 PM   #1
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寔苦 序鵬

휼潺菉菉菉菉菉菉菉菉菉菉

諡角竟 動 悳祥 3 宸 햐휼連連連連 4


휼潺 連烟墻竇 4

학 戴菰
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娑帳 23-10-2010, 09:52 PM   #2
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戀鄂 휨 핫 廬堪 悚피
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娑帳 23-10-2010, 11:35 PM   #3
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헥 暗魅 凡 戀怒
枇 悳祥 3 & 4
殺曷 動袞

!!



햐竭莎

Bachelor Degree B.A. >>> Done
Arab Open University - 2013



Master Degree>>> General MBA @ UBT. >>> Done - 2016



Currently >>> PhD - Business Economy @University of Putra Malaysia


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娑帳 23-10-2010, 11:40 PM   #4
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햐竭莎

C:\Users\Admin\Pictures\2869gna.jpg
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娑帳 23-10-2010, 11:50 PM   #5
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햐息픗炤
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娑帳 24-10-2010, 12:00 AM   #6
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햇閣핥:
햐拭한床 햐촹殺 庠훗 흑핥茉 makavelli 拭헌鉤 햐拭한床
햐息픗炤
艱崍 햐閼欄필 햐顧픽爵

arr, pp, npv, irr


!!
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娑帳 24-10-2010, 12:18 AM   #7
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塞洋피
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娑帳 24-10-2010, 08:01 AM   #8
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Net present value

抑 綽賈 叛 莎蓍 햐翅   雜厓 試簫 햐莎蓍 햐膏殺 100 欄햐   松 顧흉 莎視洋 휨 擡 宋 諫輦 庵玳 臺 艱 諫輦 試簫 90 欄햐   急 疎 抑했 博 搬허 刊崑 훵損  孼 傀한 햐奮팥 햐拐演 殼健 햐癎嬌
良 햐搬허 햐擧핌 珏鎧 伴 莎蓍 햐蒔贖 塞翅 寔 햐緣   邵 鞍干窮 朗枇 햐莎蓍 햐膏殺 遜蒔贖 宋伴 학 峠 햐텁墾翅 寔훤 허 簫 


The PV cash flow if year n = Actual cash flow of year n divided by (1+r) ^n



N= the year of the cash flow



R= the opportunity of investing rate expressed as decimal instead of as a percentage.



愕掛 햐試 햐新競 枇 햐庠픽 抑 眼孱 헉 唵率 학 峠 拭落 動프 竟할 翅 庄핥 헐 寔훤 遜反  학 峠 햐NPV 新京 雜厓 暗휼 햐拭落 墻輦 寔훤 허 학 峠 鄂奸 햐 NPV 覃素 墻輦 蝕鄂 헉 햐拭落 凡 寔훤 簫 酌 動프 햐竟할  墻輦 顧픽 急 叛 網場 蝕蘿 햐蒔贖 햐暗權 햐視屈 cash flow
鞍훔 햐텁墾翅 岸聯 햐鞍훔 햐 奮量 樸欄 雜厓 試簫 松 햐鞍훔 峠鰐 20 % 澗殘 0.2 훌損角훔 叛 網場 핥干逑 햐奮量 햐樸欄   松 峠鰐 試簫 30 % 澗殘 0.3 훌孫합紹 햐樸欄 
諫輦 網場 햐顧픽 叛 網場 巳蓍 햐峠 備 騷顎 蝕庄 伴 ( 1+ 鞍훔 햐텁墾翅 훌孫합紹 햐樸欄)^n 寔婢緡 햐 祠 曷擧 博 햐擡庄  
馭槿 暗軟 흉賁 햐拐戀 損 擡 安蝕 햐鄂奸 햐塞 宸 炬 軋佶 햐鄂奸 햐塞 宸 햐蒔贖 햐촹殺 顔筵 松 簪謖 覃素 헐 新京 


宋沫 햐試햐
햐緣 햐膏殺 햐蒔贖 臆 100 햐
顧픽 햐莎蓍 햐膏殺 墻輦 100/ (1+0.2)^0 = 100 햐   疎 햐祠 햐寔婢 햐張 孼 糧 雜厓 햐擡 햐膏殺 췰 博 寔婢 햐 햐祠 糧 墻輦 햐鄂奸 戀賈   抑 100 伴 1 = 100 햐
햐擡 햐충刷
Cash flow = 20 thousand
Calculation of PV
20/ (1+ 0.02) ^1= 16.67 thousand


햐擡 햐改厓
Cash flow = 40 thousand
Calculation of PV = 40/ (1+ 0.02) ^2 = 27.78 thousand


햐擡 햐改蕭
Cash flow= 60 thousand
PV= 60/ (1+0.2) ^3= 34.72 thousand


햐擡 햐饑휨
Cash flow= 60 thousand
NP= 60/ (1+0.2) ^4= 28.94 thousand


햐擡 햐曠息
Cash flow= 20 thousand
NP= 20 (1+ 0.2) ^5= 8.04 thousand


햐擡 햐曠息 叛 햐干屬 宸 햐竟할 흇휼 20 햐
NP= 20 (1+ 0.2) ^5= 8.04 thousand


宸 炬 安蝕 햐鄂奸 햐塞 宸 凡 햐훰헥 헐 擡 햐糧
簪謖 햐鄂奸
124.19 햐   抑 軋佶 宸 햐蒔贖 햐촹殺
124.19 햐 100 햐 = 24.19 햐   햐鰐酌 新京 雜厓 햐拭落 寔훤 遜動床 帳色 헉 桿揀 햐竟할 헐 햐翅序顎

---------------------------------

햐動 핸簫 遜奮菉 / 詩碣鉤 필緣 헉 戀怒 煉沿 햐痘 枇 饑휨 햐鴨한 ..
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娑帳 24-10-2010, 08:04 AM   #9
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pay back period ( pp)

孼 햐扮騏 헐 햐豺 햐堪 刊罵 謖信 헐 拭落 翅 헉 丈猛 庵僿碣 헐 起 햐翅:

雜厓 試簫 動床 蝕庄 網菰 拭落 墻孫 100,000 抑 幹儺 翅 孼 햐豺 햐堪 叛窮 雜信 햐拭落 諫輦 朗枇 햐玟팥필 簡猛 起 햐翅 헐 햐諫孫 햐豺婢緡.

網場 顧픽:
愕掛 햐試햐 햐新競 枇 햐庠픽
諫孫 햐拭落 헐 햐竟할 = 100000
朗枇 햐총훌 史 햐渴햇 遜擡 햐충刷 = 20 햐
朗枇 햐騎핏 遜擡 햐改厓 史 햐渴햇= 40 햐
朗枇 햐騎핏 史 햐渴햇 遜擡 햐改蕭= 60 햐
朗枇 햐총훌 史 햐渴햇 遜擡 햐饑휨= 60 햐
朗枇 햐총훌 史 햐渴햇 遜擡 햐曠息 = 20 햐
핍饑좡 햐干屬 宸 햐竟할 枇 햐擡 햐曠息= 20 햐

햐쭝 網場 햐顧픽
安蝕 宸 起 햐翅 墻輦 훌騷햐 疎 豺婢 宸 햐動床  햐총훌 遜擡 햐충刷
-100 + 20 햐 = - 80 햐
遜擡 햐改厓 安蝕 햐鄂奸 햐殺 훌騷햐 蝕 한훌 햐擡 햐改厓
-80 햐 + 40 춘 = - 40 춘

遜擡 햐改蕭 庵 햐拐挻 햐覃휴 햐鄂奸 安蝕 蝕 한훌 햐擡 햐改蕭
- 40 햐 + 60 햐 = + 20 햐

遜擡 햐饑휨
20 햐 + 60 햐 = 80 햐

遜擡 햐曠息
80 + 20= 100 햐

炬 흡 햐竟할 枇 햐擡 햐曠息
100+ 20= 120 춘


학 闇핏 헉 햐伴허 햐覃素 枇 햐擡 햐改蕭 簡殘 햐 新京 娠 雜厓 헉 枇 咬햐 良 햐擡 綽 簡猛 起 햐翅 閣衢 총훌 햐拭落   闇핏 췰例 쫍 햐擡 햐曠息 綽 햐干屬 宸 햐竟할 흡拌 햐鼓聯 伴 총훌 遜拭落 췰例  훌蔬賈孱 宋伴 햐豺 햐堪 綽 枇洋 핥揀逑 起 햐翅 軋휴 햐쪽
헐 擡堪 戀怒 헉 翅 老松 盞揀倦 起 햐翅   허 햐擡 햐改蕭 疎 햐鄂姦 新京 雜厓 핥揀倦 起 햐翅 훰초 햐총훌 宋賈 햐扮騏 枇 햐擡 햐改蕭 햐殺 峠 枇洋 핥揀逑 햐蒔贖 倦 한훌 暗戴 햐鄂奸 宸 햐擡 햐改厓 臆 40 伴 鄂奸 햐擡 햐改蕭 臆 60   60 / 40 = 2/ 3 擡

斡匠 伴張 헐 擡堪   澗殘 햐豺 햐簫尿 遜拭落 殺錟拮 起 햐翅 孼 擡堪 2/3 宸 햐擡  

춧臣 햐 pp 諫宸 枇 헉洋 網場 堂雜 玳紹 햐텁竿翅 햐奮팥 宸洋 헉 햐拭한雜 햐堪 帳色 헉 柬揀 한훌袞 휭揀 尿厓 堂雜 宸 햐鄂功 햐텡澗하爵 諫輦 寔蕃훔 추鎧 宸 햐拭한雜 햐堪 殼掛 豺 尿厓 쵤聯 笑錟拮하 起 햐翅   索 唵率 헉 莎蓍 햐蒔贖 햐豺婢 枇 塞 擡 刊鄂徙 蝕 햐擡戀 햐堪 乫張  
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娑帳 24-10-2010, 08:41 AM   #10
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枇 糧苽 283
宸 庠픽 햐추헐鰐庄
沌훗 10
흡動 햐한휨 헉戀 햐飢盞爵 蔬莎帳 햐핥墾翅 :


1- 蝕弓 햐玟팥 햐諡핥흡 ( ARR )
2- 扮騏 핥竿하 莎蓍 햐핥墾翅 ( PP )
3- 햐莎蓍 햐朗枇 햐膏殺 ( NPV )
4- 햐玟팥 햐逑咬 遜핥墾翅 ( IRR )


CIA Techniques
Accounting Rate of Return (ARR) Method
The ARR method takes the average accounting profit that the investment will generate and expresses it as a percentage of the average investment in the project as measured in accounting terms.

蓮 횻掛 視烟 햐騎 햐諡핥흡 햐冀 臺 雀沙 急 햐핥墾翅 硏娜 色談 宸 視烟 햐핥墾翅 枇 햐拭落. 햐試햐 埴生 枇 糧苽 286 宸 庠픽 햐추헐鰐庄

The Payback Period (PP) is the length of time it takes for the initial investment to be repaid out of the net cash inflows form the project.

蓮鄂 揀狀 伴 扮騏 聯盞 伴 鞍훔 試 覃휴碣. 蓮 햐扮騏 햐尿厓 햐簫尿 簫錟玟鉤 莎蓍 춘핥墾翅 . 試햐 糧苽 290 宸 庠픽 햐추헐鰐庄


Net Present Value method
This method calculates the present value of all the money coming in from the project in future and then sets it against all the money being spent on the project today.


蓮給 햐網場 殼掛 휨庄 햐핸閣한 峠憤 햐諫햐匠 戀孫戀팥 疎 紛狼 핥墾翅欄 練急 艱牆 迫簫厓 遜竭莎 蔬損 햐諫햐匠 戀孫戀팥 試햐 糧苽 293 宸 庠픽 햐추헐鰐庄


Internal Rate of Return (IRR) method
The IRR is the discount rate that, when applied to the future cash flows of a project, will produce an NPV of precisely zero. It involves trial and error at different discount rates.

토 햐玟팥 햐逑咬 遜핥墾翅 臆 珉한 叛 蝕弓 햐干枇 햐冀 叛窮 簪휴 伴 햐豺핑奬 햐暗權 宸 햐핥墾翅 .. 臺 雜猛鄂 NPV 柬헐 糧... 흇叛 쫍 臆 帳擧 햐鄂奸 宸 햐拭落. 動 햐試햐 枇 糧苽 302 햐儺 10.4


宸 햐暗해 햐愼蓍
枇 햐對竇
糧苽 300
Why NPV is superior to ARR and PP

煙焚 304 305
햐暗해 햐錟

煙焚 308
蔬莎帳 햐촨墾翅
宸 햐鄂功 햐反殺


沇倦 糧苽 317
Present Value Table
宸 햐娠色 鞍炚
戀錟卦허 핌鄂 햐핑閣한필
戀簫錟玟顎 횻悚 膏談
鎌팬 動玟
顧 햅하 窟竭 햐翅鉤




艱欄훌 良 헌 翅枇 햐沌훗
蝕 梱 硬雜 햐핥픗紹 핑 햐沌훗
蔬儺鵲 햐蝕松蓍 휄塞 헐黨


햐竿權 햐촘殘 曷 흑핥茉 罵햐 흉 宸廬 ; 24-10-2010 햐覃緡 08:44 AM
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娑帳 24-10-2010, 10:29 AM   #11
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휀 헉 宸 헐 햐悳祥 3


휼牆潺菉菉
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娑帳 24-10-2010, 07:00 PM   #12
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Lumijarvi (1991) investigated the methods used by project champions to convince fun -holders within organizations. He classified their justification into four main types of arguments:

햐헉戀 햐한휨 햐殺 息揀 松詩한枇 坤 枇洋 .. 戀蔬 柬干窮 宸 史 햐宸합欄 遜拭落 .. 諡헐殺 햇鄂 합膏 錡 햐허戀 逑咬 햐宸巫 .. 緣 勵 햐蒔金필 峠蔬햐 :..

1. Economic arguments: e.g. the profitability of an investment, as demonstrated by quantitative technique(s). They were emphasized extremely frequently although they did not seem to have much influence on the decision-makers.

蒔金필 햇澗하爵 : 諡헐紹 햇鄂拌 횻 햐拭落 寔훤 叛 網場 索爵 햐艱厓 .. 聯 炸倦 遡張 햐핌 햐常殘 伴 촹膏 햐寺한


2. Strategic arguments: e.g. an investment's strategic applicability or the contribution it will make to official strategy. They were employed very often and they had more effect on the superiors than economic arguments.


蒔金필 핥揀필酌爵 : 諡헐紹 햇鄂拌 횻 햐핥墾翅 寔閣 횻錟饑堪警 儺臣 .. 硏殺憶 殼健 伴 햐錡覃 했鎧 宸 햐蒔金필 햐춈澗하爵


3. Non economic argument: e.g. of political, cultural, social or environmental nature. Non-economic proposals- arguments were applied rarely, but when employed they were effective.


蒔金필 凡 햇澗하爵 : 悳핥爵 .. 拒햅爵 .. 핍曷핸爵 .. 흡편 .. 鄂局 聯色 叛窮 竭渺 墻輦戀 했鎧 奮伴爵


4. Production technology argument: Finally, proposal emphasized production technology arguments frequently and the decision-makers seemed to value them very highly.


蒔金필 艱厓 遜헉角 : 핥干逑 햐艱厓 햐宸핥훔 遜헉角 .. 勵핸 햐寺한 悚 莎蓍 玟殺 卿
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娑帳 25-10-2010, 12:22 PM   #13
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娠擧 翅鉤 B202A
 
햐廬騏 햐洛訥 遁巧 햐흉필

 











햅揀핫 拮: 息피피피피피피피피피博


帶쭐쭐쭙 춥戀 햐渴핏 :/

兜饑 遜塞 (f)



햐竭莎

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饑휜 학핸 햐寺쭝 햐牀帳 - 햐黨涓爵

懇牀厓 횻灼 햐改仰爵 촬簡 宴局 宴鄂 촨蝕洋 ..

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娑帳 12-12-2010, 04:10 PM   #14
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末素 崩햐
 
햐廬騏 햐洛訥 蝕複洑厓

 











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盞率連連連連連連連連連連連連連連連連連連連連連連連 連連連連連連

罵햐 鵬綽 할愼 演흡



햐竭莎

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功 暗 햐掌 伴 閔훌 햐干緊 輦儺 횻鄂信鄂 햐춤 眼
햐휀蓍 緣 한柬視 蔬玟暗 佛프 총戀琨 ..

唵孱 햐博 텼 햐演프
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兜饑 햐鎌蝕 햐搏흡 햐食竭苽 膏信 荳하堪
兜饑 헉
然牀 戀遡
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