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قديم 12-05-2011, 04:33 PM   #15
فرح سعادة فرح سعادة غير متصل
مشرف سابق
 
الصورة الرمزية فرح سعادة
افتراضي رد: نقاش الاختبار النهائي.


شوفي هذا الرابط بتلاقين فيه ملخصات للقصائد:
http://www.aoua.com/vb/showthread.php?t=215931

وهذا ملخص لاثنين من الشعراء:
Derek Walcott

The historical of the arrived of African slavery to the Caribbean:-
· Millions of Africans were transported to the New World between the 16th &19th centuries.
· Almost all came from Western Africa; they varied enormously between themselves in language and ******s.
· An English trader exchanges the goods with slaves.
· The trade in slaves was abolished in 1807, slavery itself by 1838.
· By the 20th centuries, Caribbean cultures exhibited a range of syntheses of very disparate elements.
The term "Creole" historically refers to all people, black and white, actually born in the Caribbean.
The Caribbean writerDerek Walcott born in Castries in 1930. One of his grandfathers was Englishman and grandmother was from African origin. He starts from English tradional "Modernism". Walcott literary work is concern on the value of the poor people & non standard forms of English.
He grew up aware of the history of slavery, exploitation and cruelty that had created the culture of his native land. His experience was not alienated from white culture. He had European culture and he admired Europe's culture and literature. But he didn't neglect his roots in Caribbean; he yearned to his homeland and childhood. All these characteristics of Derek Walcott are mentioned in his autobiographical poem "Another life". 'Another life is none dramatic verse. Another life published as a separate volume with twenty three chapters in 1973. It is the about man in middle age looking back to an idyllic childhood and youth during which he dedicated himself to both poetry and painting. The title is shows the main theme of the poem the experience of the poet:
· The life of his early days was "another life" distinct from the present.
· The life is "other" to Walcott's because it is fictionalized. It is the autobiography of a poet who is not simply "Walcott".
· The most important meaning of the phrase "another life" in this poem, however, revolves around the idea of creating a new life, "another life" in the Caribbean that is free from the entanglements of past misery.
· Wolcott's literary work employs negative effects of colonization. He ****** of equality; the poet tries to declare that all the water drinkers are humans, and all people are equal.

The taste of water is still shared everywhere,


Walcott went back to his people and described how they were poor, this kind of memories is called visionary moments. Also, Walcott could not forget blond girl and how she looked in next lines:
A schoolgirl in blue and white uniform,
Her golden plaits a simple cornet
Out of Angelico, a fine sweat on her forehead


In addition; he is aware of the history of slavery, exploiting, he shows in a 'divided child' growing up among token of European and Christian religion but yearning for 'African' roots. He uses the quest for roots ironically. He relates that kind of quest unconventionally with the black people of Africa decent. He touched the black people of African descent through some words such 'natural man' and 'ancestral, tribal country'.

In the deep country it found the natural man,


generous rooted.


And I now yearned to suffer for that life,


I liked for some ancestral, tribal country.

Returning to the history is an important theme in new writings in English, Walcott says "history is fiction", Derek depicted the homage to the Caribbean history through the interrogation of the slaughter that took place in Grenada where its population is Caribs. Most Caribs in Grenada were killed through their attacking and protesting against white settlers who sell their island to a French company. Some Caribs were killed and others jumped to the sea instead of submitting themselves to the enemies. The place was called Sauteurs, we can explore how Walcott described that battle in next lines in his poem:
Sauteurs! Their leap into the light? I am no more
Than that lithe dreaming runner beside me, my son, the roar
Of his heart, and their hearts, I am one with this engine
Which is greater than victory.
In short; the new post-colonial writings are characterized by their kind of writers, they are black writers and are not English natives. In addition, Walcott praised the British culture in one side and satirized it in another side through his poetry.
منقول.
وحسب ما فهمت انك تختارين لكل موضوع قصيدة أو قصيدتين علشان تكتبينهم كمثال في الاجابة على اسئلة الاختبار
مثال على حركة الموفمنت
مثال على ايند أوف امبير الخ.

التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة فرح سعادة ; 12-05-2011 الساعة 05:00 PM
فرح سعادة غير متصل  
قديم 12-05-2011, 04:54 PM   #16
فرح سعادة فرح سعادة غير متصل
مشرف سابق
 
الصورة الرمزية فرح سعادة
افتراضي رد: نقاش الاختبار النهائي.


هذا شرح حلو عن بلوك 6 علاقة الادب بالتاريخ لانه احتمال كبير يجينا سؤال عن هذا الموضوع فركزوا عليه:
في هاد لبلوك سندرس علاقة الادب بالتاريخ وكيف استطاع او دون الادب الاحداث التاريخية التي حدثت في الماضي كارهاب ستاليني و مشاكل الايرلنديين وانهيار الامبراطورية اليابانية

relationship between literature and history such as the Stalinist tyranny, the Irish 'troubles or the rise and fall of the Japanese empire

والتاريخ تناقل عبر الاافراد والاجيال بطريقة شفوية وتم اثباتها بشكل رسمي كتاريخ النساء والطبقة السوداء

by oral history as people's history, black history and women's history appear the official history

او بنئدر نحكي دون او سجل التاريخ بسبب االتاريخ الشفوي اي المحكي

طبعا الادب بكل انواعو "رواية, شعر, مسرحية الخ" سجل الاحداث التاريخية التي حدثت في فترة معينة من حياة الكاتب او الشاعر

في نقطة بعدني مافهمتها اللي هي هناك فرق ببين التاريخ والماضي .. وضح ذلك ؟؟

ياريت حد يفهمنا كيف ؟


Bearing Witness: A sub-genre of literature called 'bearing witness' addresses the need for a kind of literature that communicates to the present about a past that is unthinkable. The witness writer creates an archive which would 'contribute to [his people's] constitution'.

What exactly does the genre of bearing witness entail?
It is obvious that the past figures prominently in bearing witness as it is focused on a tragic past event that has a clear impact on the present. The poet or writer takes on 'the role of guardian of the society's historical past, its memory'.
The witness writer is writing about his people's suffering, documenting it and producing an archive that would prove necessary for a mass witnessing.

هل بدنا نعرف ونفسر معنى هالمصطلح الجديد "Bearing Witness" ونوضح دوره في الادب ..

هو نوع ثانوي من الادب الذي يربط الحاضر مع الماضي وعن طريق شهادة او تشريع او توضيح الكاتب لتلك الاحداث التي حدثت في الماضي يستطيع القارء او كل من قرا ودرس كتاباته ان يفهم تلك الاحداث فتكون اعمال ذلك الكاتب كارشيف او مرجع لذلك القارئ

مادور "Bearing Witness؟

يبرز الماضي في شهادة الكاتب الذي يركز على الاحداث الماساوية الماضية التي تؤثر بشكل واضح على الحاضر. الشاعر او الكاتب يقوم بدور الوصي او المقييم للماضي فهو ذاكرة الماضي والوصي على الحاضر امام قراءه اقرا الاسفل كمثال على ما ذكر:

The renowned Irish poet Seamus Heaney comments on the nature of the witness writer: He represents poetry's solidarity with the doomed, the deprived, the victimized, and the under-privileged. The witness is any figure in whom the truth-telling urge and the compulsion to identify with the oppressed become necessarily integral with the art of writing itself.

وهلئ بيجي دور الادب في تدوين التاريخ او الاحداث الماضية

فاهم الانواع الادبية التي قامت بذلك هي الرواية والشعر

رح نكتفي بشرح القصائد لانو الاغلب بحاجتها


Poetry and history

The genre of poetry can both magnify the momentous events of history in this century and revise and challenge our ideas of how history permeates literature.


The poetry of Akhmatova, Holub and Heaney bears witness. Akhmatova sees herself as doing this explicitly in 'Requiem' in bearing witness to the Stalinist reign of terror, while Holub's irony works more obliquely, to ridicule the orthodoxy of the Communist Party in Czechoslovakia after the abortive uprising of spring 1968 in Prague and the subsequent repression of artistic and intellectual freedom. Heaney demonstrates vividly how a poet not only engages with a particular historical experience, in his case that of the Troubles in Northern Ireland since 1969, but more fundamentally with an Irish literary tradition that has meditated on the uneasy relations between Britain and Ireland over the centuries.


ساهم الشعر بشكل كبير في تدوين الاحداث التاريخية وستناول شعر 3 شعراء هم:


Akhmatova, Holub and Heaney

- Akhmatova التي تحدثت عن الارهابي - ستاليني الطاغي the Stalinist reign of terro في قصيدتها 'Requiem'

- Holub الذي يتحدث في قصيدته عن الحزب الشيوعي الارتادوكسي في تشيكوسلوفاكيا (في موضوع تاريخي مهم )

- واخيرا Heaney الذي كتب عن المصاعب والعقبات والاحداث الايرالندية


ولازم نفهم قصائد هالشعراء الثلاث :


Ocean's Love to Ireland by Seamus Heaney -

Casualty by Seamus Heaney -

Requiem by Anna Akhmatova's -

A Helping Hand by Miroslav Holub -

The Corporal Who Killed Archimedes by Miroslav Holub -

Polonius by Miroslav Holub -


وهاد الملخص بفيدكم لدراسة رواية بلوك 6 الى جانب ملخص تحرير
منقول
فرح سعادة غير متصل  
قديم 12-05-2011, 04:56 PM   #17
فرح سعادة فرح سعادة غير متصل
مشرف سابق
 
الصورة الرمزية فرح سعادة
افتراضي رد: نقاش الاختبار النهائي.


تابع
ما الفرق بيت التاريخ والماضي والحاضر:

History is a form of representation and interpretation of past events which affected literary texts. i.e. History is everything that happened in the past: dates, facts, et

History is different from the past because past is what happened while the history is concern with how we tell the story of what happened.

So, history tells facts only which tell real and hidden experience of some people by implicit way.

While present depends on the past, because we can develop and predict the present according to the past events.

This means that presents is shaped according to historical events


* ساتحدث عن الشاعرة اخماتوفا:

اخماتوفا شاعرة معاصرة للمعاناة التاريخية في روسياو لقد صورت معاناتها الشخصية كشاهدة للظلم والاستبداد والقمع والخوف في ظل حكم ستالين
تتجسد معاناتها في موت زوجها بالاضافة لسجن ابنها ومنعها من زيارته وبالتالي كانت قصيدتها صدى قلبها المجروح على فراق ابنها حيث تجسد القصيدة معاناتها في انتظار ابنها على اسوار السجن

لم تكن قصيدتها بمثابة قصيدة شخصية تمثل معاناتها بل معاناة الشعب الروسي كله لانها كانت صوت الغضب الذي ينادي بالامان والاستقرار .


Anna Akmatova, was one of Russia’s most important female poets. Her life, marked deeply by the Revolution, was full of loss. Loss, grief, and suffering are expressed in her poem Requiem, which is one of her most famous works.


During Joseph Stalin’s rule in Russia, many voices were silenced. If there was a piece of literature, news, or other such document that Stalin did not view appropriate to publish, it was not published. Stalin ran a totalitarian government in which he oversaw all public affairs. Since he had final say as to what the public was exposed to, nothing negative regarding him was published. Stalin also imprisoned many people for speaking out against him. He also sentenced several millions to death. One of those who Stalin attempted to silence during his reign was Anna Akhmatova.

Anna Akhmatova was born Anna Andreevna Gorenko. She married and had a son, Lev Gumilyov. He was one of the men that Stalin imprisoned in an attempt to silence Akhmatova. He was imprisoned for seventeen months as an attempt to force Akhmatova to write only pro-Stalin poetry (Magill 1810). While Anna Akhmatova was waiting to visit her son in prison, she would wait in line for hours with other mothers, wives, and sisters outside the prison walls. She also started to write poems that symbolized the struggle of the Russian people and the injustices they faced. She refused to give into Stalin’s demands, and these poems were a symbol of her determination. The poems are put together in Requiem which is associated with a Catholic funeral service.

There are several basic themes and meanings found within Requiem. The first is the idea that Akhmatova was protesting official injustices (Magill 1812). She wanted to be a voice for all the women she waited with who could not speak without her. She never made her contempt for Stalin a secret. “Requiem recounts the suffering of the Russian people under Stalinism- more specifically the women with whom Akhmatova stood in line outside the walls of the prison where her son was” (dybka.home.mindspring.com).

Religion is another theme found in the poems, although not as discussed by the critics. Akhmatova related her stories to those of Mary and Jesus. Like Mary, Akhmatova was forced to watch her son suffer for the people. She “uses religious language for different purpose seeing it through Mary’s eyes” (Stine 27). Mary watched her son suffer as he carried the cross. Similarly, Akhmatova suffered by waiting for her son to be brought out of the prison.

The poem Requiem is broken down into several parts. Each part represents something different. The “Dedication” section is Akhmatova’s dedication the poems to the women who waited outside the prison walls with her. She made it known that she wanted the memory of the women and the prison to live on. The “Prologue” is used to depict what it was like for all people during Stalin’s reign of terror, when anyone could be arrested without cause. Part One is used by Akhmatova to recall the arrest of her son. She witnessed the horror of his arrest. She wanted people to related directly with the horror of Stalin. Part Two is the section in which Akhmatova is able to express her feeling of being alone. Her son is in prison and her husband was killed in a further attempt to silence her. She was left with no one. Part Three discusses how Akhmatova feels, especially in regard to the feeling that her spirit is disintegrating even further. Part Four is a recollection of Akhmatova’s childhood, a time in which she was much happier. And was not forced to live in constant fear. Part Five is a foreshadowing of the horrible death soon to come as well as the deaths of so many. Part Six is a stage of delirium. Akhmatova is in a state of confusion. She expresses her hurt and emotions to a greater extent in this part than other parts. In Part Seven “The Sentence,” Akhmatova’s son is sentenced. In Parts Eight and Nine, Akhmatova feels as though the intense pain she feels can be resolved through religion. This is seen in the references above to Mary and Jesus. Religion is continued be used in Part Ten “The Crucifixion” Akhmatova recalls Christ’s agony as he walked the cross to his crucifixion (Magill 1810-1811). “Epilogue One” speaks out “about fear and suffering and how it affects the people” (Stine 28). “Epilogue Two is not a consolation but the memory that must be killed so that one can go on living” (Stine 28), which is the main idea that Akhmatova was trying to accomplish.

Requiem was not published in Russia until after Stalin’s death. Instead, Anna Akhmatova instead published the works in Germany and the United States. After Stalin’s death Akhmatova’s poetry was published in Russia. The complete works of Akhmatova were not published until the 1980s after the fall of the Soviet Union. Many critics consider her to be the best Russian poet since Pushkin.

Although her voice was silenced for many years, Anna Akhmatova did not allow Joseph Stalin to silence the voices of her or the many women who waited with her outside the prison walls. Akhmatova used her poetry to help show the world of pain and suffering that was Russia during Stalin’s reign. Even though Anna Akhmatova was one voice, she represented all the silenced voices of Russian women during Stalin’s totalitarian reign.


********************************

The main theme in thing fall apart is orientalism

colonial people pretend that the east are savages and they need to be civilized and
cultured and this is to justify their colonization

but the fact is unlike that because when they came to Nigeria every things are falling apart and the anarchy spread everywhere and this is obvious when okonkow returned from his exile he saw the change in his tribe's culture and how they convert their religion especially his son nowye

Achebe wants to show that Nigeria has its own beliefs and culture before the British came in although Nigerian culture might be bad and not proper but it does exist

so, Okonkow committed suicide on himself as a rebellious act against injustice of British and because of his feeling of loss of his identity.
"About empire of the sun

personal testimony means that the author is the bearing witness of historical events during his childhood

بالعربي بتعني انو الرواية كانت كشهادة شخصية من الكاتب نفسه عن الاحداث الي عاصرها في الحرب وبمعنى اخر هي مثل autobiographical feel about it يعني الكاتب كان شاهد عن احداث حقيقية حصلت بالتاريخ متل the Japanese attack on pearl harbor, the dropping of automatic bomb, the collapse of the British empire, then the rise and fall of Japanese empire and finally the rise of the USA power وقد قام الكاتب بتسطيرها كسيرة ذاتية عنه و هذا واضح من الاحداث التي حدثت مع جيم فلقد كان الكاتب يتكلم عن نفسه

والمقصود بال fiction هو الاحداث الغير واقعية او الخيالية بمعنى اصح ان الكاتب دمج الواقع الذي عاشه شخصيا باحداث لم يعشها شخصيا بل عاشها غيره ( اقصد انه لم يبتعد عن اهله خلال الحرب)وذلك ليرسم صورة معاناة الحرب واضحة في اذهان المستمع كاشاره لحياة الوحدة والمعاناه التي خلقتها اجواء الحرب فكان لا بد من هذا التداخل بين الواقع والخيال
منقول.
فرح سعادة غير متصل  
قديم 13-05-2011, 12:42 PM   #18
G6Wa A7bnii G6Wa A7bnii غير متصل
طــالب
افتراضي رد: نقاش الاختبار النهائي.







واحلى تقييم حق فرووحه ثاانكس على ردج




G6Wa A7bnii غير متصل  
قديم 13-05-2011, 04:42 PM   #19
فرح سعادة فرح سعادة غير متصل
مشرف سابق
 
الصورة الرمزية فرح سعادة
افتراضي رد: نقاش الاختبار النهائي.


وهذا بعد ملخص عن الشاعرة قريس نيوكولز
Grace Nichols
Nichols is Caribbean poet, born in Guyana in 1950, on e of 7 children. She began to write as journalist on anew paper. In 1977 she moved to UK. She unlike Walcott who is from St. Lucia in Trinidad, she is from Guyana. Unlike Walcott, Nichols reaches back to the African past and the history of slavery. Her poetry is much plainer, more direct, less poetic and more oral than Walcott's. She has a unique style in writing. She is a revolutionary poetess. She links between the cruel past of the slavery black and the sad present.
Nichols’ poems ‘Water pot’ and ‘Skin-teeth’ are two of the fifty-one poems in I Is a Long-memorized Woman. They refer to the experience of women in the period of plantation slavery.
Nichols uses in her poem "Skin-Teeth" simple language in vocabulary and syntax. She uses direct poetic language, employs light and few creoles. She uses short direct dramatic monologue in which the repetition of phrases helps to dramatis the threat gathering in the poem. She use oral English and narrates the events in her poems in the form of ironical speech.
In "Water pot" she describes the manners in which white males exploited black women. "Water pot" gives the impression of private narrative- a speaker talking to herself, trying to articulate a feeling, carefully ******ing for the right. The women struggle with her circumstances, and herself. In Africa, women have such strong and erect carriage that they can carry water pot on their heads without losing the liquid. The white and male are sneers at the assertion of dignity in her posture.
This poem gives a voice to the oppressed 'Other'.
فرح سعادة غير متصل  
قديم 13-05-2011, 07:38 PM   #20
فرح سعادة فرح سعادة غير متصل
مشرف سابق
 
الصورة الرمزية فرح سعادة
افتراضي رد: نقاش الاختبار النهائي.


هذي اسئلة فاينل السنة الماضية:
Part A:
Q1/ Do a close reading for one of the extraction (A) or (B)
(A) from "Passage To India" I think it was the part in the court
(B) The poem "waterpot" by Grace Nichols

Part B:
Q2/ About "Things Fall Apart"
I don't remember the Q. The tutor said it was about Imperialism and the destruction of Igbo society and its effect on them

Q3/ "Another Life" poem by Walcott.. Something about western and eastern culture ..?

Part C:
Q4/ relationship between history and literature.. explain and provide examples from two different genres

Q5/ poetry as a record of history.. explain and provide some examples
منقول.
فرح سعادة غير متصل  
قديم 15-05-2011, 08:22 PM   #21
G6Wa A7bnii G6Wa A7bnii غير متصل
طــالب
حزين نقاش الاختبار النهائي.


مرحبا فراشه المنتدى عندي طلب الك ويارب ماتخيبيني بدي تكتتيبيلنا اهم المواضيع من كل بلوك وياريت اذا عندك مقالات عن هاي المواضيع تحطيها وشكرا كتير على مجهودك وتعبك معنا

فيه نقاش خاص بالفاينل، ممكن ترجع، فيه معلومات مهمة ومفيدة.
شوفي هذي الروابط:
http://www.aoua.com/vb/showthread.php?t=267906
http://www.aoua.com/vb/showthread.php?t=55344
http://www.aoua.com/vb/showthread.php?t=262329

بلوك 4 اهم الاشياء الاساسيه A passage to India
“A passage to India”: characters de******ion, themes , style & language

Q: What is Orientalism?
Discuss the notion that Orientalism as representation rather than reality.
: Discuss the relationship between poetry and the end of Empire and what themes does it discuss at that period.

Q: what is the Movement? What are its major characteristics?

the themes of Larkin's poetry

Ted Hughes
Tony Harrison

اهم شيء بالشعر النقد مهم


بلوك 5

First novel
Things fall apart
By Chinua Achebe
التقاليد <التراث< العنصريه في الروايه
تعريف . New writings in Englishولماذا هي جديده

Novel 2
In a free state
By Neipul
التقنيات المستخدمه فيهاا روايه تتكون من خمس قصص
الشعراء بلوك 5 - Grace Nickolas و , Walket
اهم شيء في بلوك 5
بلوك 6 بس اذاكره احدد شنو المهم




سلام فراشه

شنو النقد اللي تقصدينه اهني

اقتباس:
the themes of larkin's poetry

ted hughes
tony harrison

اهم شيء بالشعر النقد مهم



ووين موجود النقد ؟


sorry اقصد الناقد لك روايه وقصيده
G6Wa A7bnii غير متصل  
قديم 15-05-2011, 08:44 PM   #22
فرح سعادة فرح سعادة غير متصل
مشرف سابق
 
الصورة الرمزية فرح سعادة
افتراضي رد: نقاش الاختبار النهائي.


Block 6: Literature and history : an introduction
In this block, we will introduce you to a number of literary text -> Their relationship to history. So, studying the literature text from the point of view of their relationship to history.
Why with history? For 2 reasons: 1- The main thrust of literary study in recent years decades has been to suggest the impact of a fresh understanding of history proccesses upon the meaning and interpretation of literary texts. It is an important aspect of a text, in the sense of bringing in its social, political and cultural context.
Poststructuralist -> Advanced + challanged this traditional conception in important ways -> example-> history is not a series of given facts, but a form of representation (mostly narrative).
2- The reason for choosing the block theme ( course litereture in the modern world ) significant relationship between literary text and contemporary reality.lt relationship between literary + contemporary reality -> however it can be defind -> e.g: Englishness -> as a concept -> in Georgian poetry or Modernism -> as a mode of experssion in post war writers such as V.Wools.
Text we will study: Two genres -> 1- prose fictio 2- poetry
This two genres which will highlights this issues: by directly addressing certain specific, large scale, public and extreme historical events.
Studying this texts, written by two historian but not will be studied as history document.
Authors + literary text -> foreground history in fairly obvious ways.
What is important to us about this is : The questions they provokes about the centeral issue.
Still, there is debete about-> 1- the meaning of history, 2- content, 3- porpuse.
This debate has been sharped by two factors, recently: 1- General but widespread -> the growth of social history -> validating new forms, new areas of enquiry -> e.g : oral history, people's history, women's history and black history.
- In Britain, the establishment of standardrised national history curriculom in Britain school.
Differences between past and history. Past-> embraces everything that ever happened.
History-> Chronicles, investigates and explain the past.
Clerify the sense in which we're using the term history, whether it is to signify -> 1- past events, 2- what is rememberd, 3- preserved of the past, 4- writen accounts of the past.
History is a different term than ideology and it is not as slippery as ideology. It also depends on ideological factors -> Ideological = how it is used and what it means.
What effect what we write and when? The moment in which we write and The ideologiese-> How it is used, what it means and neutral or coloured by particular class, race or gender.
Questions to ask when we try to understand the relationship between history and literature.
Q1- How is our response to a work affected by some knowledge of the circumestances of its origin, publication and reception?
Q2- Whether literature offers unique and lasting insights into the time of its appearance. -> it is true/possible?
e.g: The German writer on the history: Gunter Grass -> On 30 January 1983, 50 years after the seizure of power by Hitler and National Socialist -> deliverd a memorial address-> reffereing to the continuing division of Germany: He asked (p.3 3rd paragraph )
' Why should German people should suffer for something that should be relegated to the history books. Why shouldnot they live normally and forgatefully of the past.'
Grass -> reffereing also to a less tangible, less erased things -> 'the enduring inherited guilt' for that ' irremediable ' breach in German history.
Grass's words echo and add a gloss to Walter Benjamin's well known image of history as a frightened, backward-looking angel propelled into the future.
For Grass the insight of history is the need to resist, to protest against anti-democratic forces at home and abroad and the nuclear threat -> every one he went on to urgue, should resist what history or past has delivered to the present.
Grass's own action -> resistence ( his novel: The Tin Drum )
p.4 Last paragraph -> example on feminism and history: interchange between different specialist discourses.
p.5 About the relationship between prose fiction and history. An example: ' The Juggler ' :
( The Prose Anthology – p.129-132 ):
- Narrative is about different things.
- The center character -> Eddly ( The Juggler: Vice Kapo )= the leader of the group
- Story -> Affirmation of ' humanity '
Eddy: Labelled as a criminal ( but he is not indeed, he save the narrative's live and deffinitly he is not a killer ). He is a criminal of a revoulting kind.
The juggler (Eddy ), have at least momentarily, foud away of transcending their terrible sorroundings.
Q- Is the Juggler is a fictional story or a history documentery? Both
It is explicit that the story is telling a historical events from words such as camps,Germany, Nazi, etc.
Levi -> Wrote ' The Juggler '. He admitted that he had already written about the things he had seen and experienced at Auschwitz ( Nazi Camp during the second world war ).
Laurance Leraer point out to -> The world of fiction is not purely imaginary, but overlaps with the world of history.
The realistic novel historically derives its narrative techniques from among other things, historical narrative!
-Borne witness -> Bearing witness = شاهد عيان
Read Poetry and History on ur own for p.7 and 8.
For this two pages -> Heaney, Akhmatova and Holub -> has borne witness .
Past -> what happened
History -> how we tell the story of what happened ( Chronicles, investigates and explain the past. )
History is -> past events, what is remembered (preserved of the past),
wriien account of the past, particular interpretations of the
past.
P.9 – Poetry ( 'September song' -> by Hill )
Q1- How would you desribe the way this poem deals with historical events? Obscure or oblique in confronting the events of the Holicaust. He aknowledge the terrible events that had occurred in Nazi Germany in his poetry of the 1950 published in For the Unfallen (1959), ' September Song ' from his collection King Log (1968 ). ' September song ' is dense with characteristic ambiguities, many of them devastating and tragic.
Allusion -> ( untouchable ), ( passed over ) -> refer to the ( Jewish faith ) and it is bitterly ironic.
The poem is full of harshness, pathos, moving from the measured, sadistic cruelty described in the second stanza to the ominous sensuality of autum in the fourth stanza. In third stanza, the poet refer to his birth date -> suggest a commemorating an alter ego, who could have died.But In the third stanza we have a bracket, ( I have made
An elegy for myself it
Is true )
Why a bracket sorounding the 3rd stanza and why he would make an elegy for himself? He answer it in the last line: (This is plenty. This is more than enough.) Hill saying that language cannot be true to suffering and ideed he appears to be endorsing Adorno's view that ' to write lyric poetry after Auschwitz is barbaric. '
Poetry may revise our sense of the meaning of history-> e.g: Bishop's ' At the Fish house ' and Rich's ' Culture and Anarchy ', both poems seems to offer challenges to the idea that history is exclusively about public events and struggles on a massive human scale.
-Q2- What does the poem say about the relationship between literature and history? The poem ' september Song ' suggest -> pardox relationship between poetry and history. In order for his poem, his elegy, to succede, he must full silent to be genuinley true to a certain past experience it may not always be possible to use language.
He used language + make his poem into awarning of the denger of forgetting the past.
Drama and history
e.g: End game, Sweeney Agonists, The Dreaming of the Bones.
End game -> Have least to do with time or the past, yet its timelesness and placelesness is a postmodern charactristic.
Audience see it as post-nuclear wasteland
It is very refusal locate it in a relationship to history.
It deals with a highly concrete historical reality.
Adorno distinguish Beckett ( and others ) from those who fail to realise that their lazy or blinkered apolitialism is in itself a political attitude.
Beckett -> suggest: Transcends politics
His theme-> ' The abdication of the subject ' -> The transcends
commitment.
Q- What the phrase ' The abdication of the subject' means? It refers to Marxist theories of determinism.
( I ) explenation of it= Is just an atom of corporate body. Result-> No one is with free will but we all are governed with laws as immutable as those of physics.
Subjectevity may be an illusion but we survive by it -> see for more details the first paragraph, p.11
Back to Beckett -> He transcends commitment
Transcends politics -> theme -> The abdication
Q- What is the relationship between commitment and history? Does those works ( where the sense of history is most emphatically foregrounded are the commitd one? First we should know what commitment means here-> A will on the part of the artist to direct change. ( involves a sense of historical continuity )So it is past is what brought the artist to the moment of writing (informed choice – possible) p.11 2nd paragraph
3rd paragraph - In what ways are those observations peculiar to drama? And is the same broad correlation between a sense of history and an author's commitment is equally characteristic of poetry and fiction? (Pls, read it your self for better understanding.) Performance-> vital element
Drama and history have a special relationship.
Performance-> is an event, a public event
Performance-> event -> public event -> shared by audience -> in particular time.
The point -> we want to compare how this relationship of commitment to history works in each drama, nove and poetry…
Drama and history-> Drama -> performance ( as a kind of literature – making of history )
Presented by ( play ) ( audience ) ->public event ( in a sense in the making of history )
Drama -> Communal ( Not personal )
Expresses ( Declares )
Speaking aloud.
John Kani says : ' our theatre gave them back their voices ' refering to the first black audience of the play, ( the island ) -> the audience thought it was political and in sense it was.
Different between drama performance and novel is that, it can speak aloud, express and declares. It renders public and communal what on the page is morely personal. So it is also socially cathartic.
Adorno suggest that drama may inadvetntly trivialis what it seek to express -> drama risk to make a work unimportant ( e.g -> one of black comedy and the other of a movie. ' example on how a silly movie can take the center attention from an important history events and focus on for example a plane crashes.
كتبته: MiMi & CoCo
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التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة فرح سعادة ; 15-05-2011 الساعة 08:46 PM
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يمكن هذي الاسئلة تعطينا فكرةعلى الاشيلء المهمة الي نركز عليها:
PART I Answer ONE question from this section

Question 1

a) Analyse the following poem in terms of the relationship between its formal features (including structure, rhythm, rhyme and imagery) and its meaning.
b) Use this analysis to describe briefly what seem to you to be the most productive aspects of this kind of ‘practical criticism’ and what its limitations might be.

Edward Thomas, ‘As the Team’s Head Brass’

As the team’s head brass flashed out on the turn
The lovers disappeared into the wood.
I sat among the boughs of the fallen elm
That strewed an angle of the fallow, and
Watched the plough narrowing a yellow square
Of charlock. Every time the horses turned
Instead of treading me down, the ploughman leaned
Upon the handles to say or ask a word,
About the weather, next about the war.
Scraping the share he faced towards the wood,
And screwed along the furrow till the brass flashed
Once more.

The blizzard felled the elm whose crest
I sat in, by a woodpecker’s round hole,
The ploughman said. ‘When will they take it away?’
‘When the war’s over.’ So the talk began –
One minute and an interval of ten,
A minute more and the same interval.
‘Have you been out?’ ‘No.’ ‘And don’t want to, perhaps?’
‘If I could only come back again, I should.
I could spare an arm. I shouldn’t want to lose
A leg. If I should lose my head, why, so,
I should want nothing more. ... Have many gone
From here?’ ‘Yes.’ ‘Many lost?’ ‘Yes, a good few.
Only two teams work on the farm this year.
One of my mates is dead. The second day
In France they killed him. It was back in March,
The very night of the blizzard, too. Now if
He had stayed here we should have moved the tree.’
‘And I should not have sat here. Everything
Would have been different. For it would have been
Another world.’ ‘Ay, and a better, though
If we could see all all might seem good.’ Then
The lovers came out of the wood again:
The horses started and for the last time
I watched the clods crumble and topple over
After the ploughshare and the stumbling team.


Question 2

a) Discuss what you consider to be the most significant aspects of narrative technique in the following extract. These may include the use of narrator, focalisation, free indirect speech, point of view, language and de******ive style.
b) Use this analysis to describe briefly what seem to you to be the most productive aspects of this kind of ‘practical criticism’ and what its limitations might be.

From James Joyce, ‘A Painful Case’

Mr Duffy abhorred anything which betokened physical or mental
disorder. A medieval doctor would have called him saturnine. His face,
which carried the entire tale of his years, was of the brown tint of
Dublin streets. On his long and rather large head grew dry black hair
and a tawny moustache did not quite cover an unamiable mouth. His
cheekbones also gave his face a harsh character; but there was no
harshness in the eyes which, looking at the world from under their
tawny eyebrows, gave the impression of a man ever alert to greet a
redeeming instinct in others but often disappointed. He lived at a little
distance from his body, regarding his own acts with doubtful sideglances.
He had an odd autobiographical habit which led him to
compose in his mind from time to time a short sentence about himself
containing a subject in the third person and a predicate in the past tense.
He never gave alms to beggars, and walked firmly, carrying a stout
hazel.

He had been for many years cashier of a private bank in Baggot Street.
Every morning he came in from Chapelizod by tram. At midday he
went to Dan Burke’s and took his lunch – a bottle of lager beer and a
small trayful of arrowroot biscuits. At four o’clock he was set free. He
dined in an eating-house in George’s Street where he felt himself safe
from the society of Dublin’s gilded youth and where there was a certain
plain honesty in the bill of fare. His evenings were spent either before his
landlady’s piano or roaming about the outskirts of the city. His liking
for Mozart’s music brought him sometimes to an opera or a concert:
these were the only dissipations of his life.

He had neither companions nor friends, church nor creed. He lived his
spiritual life without any communion with others, visiting his relatives at
Christmas and escorting them to the cemetery when they died. He
performed these two social duties for old dignity’s sake, but conceded
nothing further to the conventions which regulate the civic life. He
allowed himself to think that in certain circumstances he would rob his
bank but, as these circumstances never arose, his life rolled out evenly –
an adventureless tale.






PART II Answer ONE question from this section

Questions 3 and 4 cover texts from Block Four. Questions 5 and 6 cover texts
from Block Five.

Question 3

How did recognition of the ‘end of Empire’ affect British literary culture?
Discuss with detailed reference to at least two texts from Block Four.

Question 4

‘Literary texts always reflect currents in the society in which they are produced, though these currents may not always be evident at the time.’

To what extent is this statement valid in the case of texts which imply or focus on ‘end of Empire’? In your answer make detailed reference to at least two texts from Block Four .

Question 5

Do you agree with the claim that the new writings in English reflect some of the very pressures that repressed their authors for so long? Your discussion should make detailed reference to at least two texts from Block Five .

Question 6

‘Every literature must ... speak of a particular place, evolve out of the necessities of its history, past and current’ (Chinua Achebe). Is Achebe’s statement supported by the ‘new writings in English’ you have studied? You should make detailed reference to at least two texts from Block Five.


PART III Answer ONE of the following two
questions

In answering Question 7 you should make detailed reference to at least TWO texts from BLOCK SIX. For Question 8 you should make detailed reference to at least two texts; at least one should be from Block Six, but you may choose your second text from any other Block on the course.

Question 7

‘The texts of literature differ from those of history in not making a claim to truth.’ Discuss this statement with detailed reference to at least two texts from Block Six .





Question 8

How would you characterise the kinds of insight into history offered by literary texts? Your discussion should make detailed reference to at least two texts, one of which must be from Block Six ; the second may be from any other block.


A319 texts

The following list is a reminder of the A319 texts from which you may choose.

Block 4 End of Empire

A Passage to India ; Poetry by Larkin, Hughes, Hill, Harrison and MacLean.

Block 5 New Writings in English

Things Fall Apart; In a Free State ; The Painter of Signs; Poetry by Walcott and
Nichols.

Block 6 Literature and History

Requiem ; Poetry by Heaney and Holub; Empire of the Sun.
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قديم 17-05-2011, 03:53 PM   #24
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يا أخوة يا أخوات الله يعطيكم العافية، الي عنده نقاش عن الفاينل يناقش هنا، لأن هذا الموضوع مخصص له، ومافيه داعي لفتح مواضيع جديدة تشتتون النقاش فيها، أتمنى من الجميع اللتزام لأن أي موضوع جديد بينفتح فيه نقاش الفاينل بنقله هنا، أتمنى من الجميع التعاون من أجل المصلحة العامة.
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قديم 17-05-2011, 06:55 PM   #25
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افتراضي رد: نقاش الاختبار النهائي.


ملخص لرواية In a Free State مع ترجمتها:
The story is set in an East African state that has recently acquired independence. The King, although liked
by the Colonials, is weak, and is on the run while the President is poised to take absolute power. The level of violence in urban centres of the country is rising and there are rumours of violence in the countryside. There is mention of the Asian community being "deported".
Bobby is an official who has been attending a conference in the capital city. He now heads back to the governmental Compound where he lives, and he has offered a lift to Linda, another colleague's wife. We learn early on that Bobby is homosexual. He is rebuffed by a young Zulu when he tries to pick him up at the Hotel bar. He soon discovers that Linda has plans of her own as they embark on the journey.
The relationship between the two is complex from the outset; it seems Bobby is intent on aggravating the initially calm Linda. His previous history of mental illness is explored. Things go from bad to worse when they put up at a Hotel, run by an old Colonel who can not adapt to the new conditions in the country. There, they have dinner, and they witness a scene between the Colonel and Peter, his servant, who he accuses of planning his murder. Furthermore Bobby discovers that Linda was planning some extra marital activity with a friend along the way, and he becomes furious and hostile.
The two reach their destination, but not before witnessing the site where the old King was recently murdered, a philosophical Muslim planning to move to Egypt and the beginnings of a genocidal wave of violence. Bobby is beaten by the army at a check point, where he and Linda experience first hand the growing violence.
The story follows the conventions of a road trip with the reader becoming aware, as do Bobby and Linda, of the situation and how serious it has become.


في ولاية حرة من قبل في إس نايبول. وقد نشرت في عام 1971 باعتبارها حكاية الراوي.

الراوي هو في البداية على عبارة لمصر ، ويخلص إلى سنوات عديدة في وقت لاحق كسائح في مصر مرة أخرى.


حكاية الرئيسية
من الواضح ان القصة في دولة شرق افريقيا التي حصلت مؤخرا على الاستقلال. الملك وعلى الرغم من أنه أحبه المستعمرون ، الا انه كان ضعيفا ، وعلى المدى البعيد بينما يستعد الرئيس للاستيلاء على السلطة المطلقة. كان مستوى العنف في المراكز الحضرية من البلاد آخذ في الارتفاع ، وهناك شائعات عن العنف في الريف. هناك ذكر للجالية الآسيوية بأنها ترحل.

بوبي هو المسؤول الذي كان يحضر مؤتمرا في العاصمة. وهو يرأس الآن مرة أخرى مجمع الدوائر الحكومية حيث يعيش ، وانه قد تعرض لحياة ليندا ، زوجة لزميل آخر. ونحن نعلم في وقت مبكر أن بوبي هو مثلي الجنس. وقد صد بوبي من قبل الشاب زولو عندما كان يحاول التقاط ما يصل اليه في حانة الفندق. انه سرعان ما يكتشف ان ليندا لديها خطط خاصة بها ، وهم يشرعون في الرحلة.

العلاقة بين الاثنين علاقة معقدة منذ البداية ، على ما يبدو بوبي عازم على ان يثير هدوء ليندا في البداية. تاريخه السابق يكشف عن مرض عقلي. سارت الأمور من سيئ إلى أسوأ عندما وضع في فندق ويديره كولونيل من العمر الذين لا يستطيعون التكيف مع الظروف الجديدة في البلاد. هناك ، لديهم عشاء ، وهنا مشهد بين العقيد وبيتر ، وهو عبده ، الذي اتهمه بالتخطيط مقتله. وعلاوة على ذلك بوبي يكتشف أن ليندا كانت تخطط بعض النشاط خارج إطار الزواج مع صديق على طول الطريق ، ويصبح غاضب وعدائي.

وصول اثنين من جهتهم ، ولكن ليس قبل ان يشهد الموقع الذي اغتيل مؤخرا الملك القديم ، وتخطيط المسلمين الفلسفية للانتقال إلى مصر وبدايات موجة الإبادة الجماعية للعنف. وتعرض بوبي للضرب من قبل الجيش في نقطة تفتيش ، حيث كان والخبرة ليندا مباشرة أعمال العنف المتصاعدة.
منقول

التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة فرح سعادة ; 17-05-2011 الساعة 06:58 PM
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قديم 17-05-2011, 07:43 PM   #26
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يسلموووووووووووووو فرح سعاده ويعطيك العافيه ماقصرتي

التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة فرح سعادة ; 17-05-2011 الساعة 08:21 PM
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قديم 17-05-2011, 08:21 PM   #27
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اقتباس:
المشاركة الأصلية كتبت بواسطة فراشه المنتدى مشاهدة المشاركة
يسلموووووووووووووو فرح سعاده ويعطيك العافيه ماقصرتي
وأنت بعد يا فراشة المنتدى ما قصرتي، وناقاشاتك رائعة ومفيدة، بس أتمنى، ما نكثر عبارات الشكر، ونركز النقاش في الاختبار، وياليت نتعاون في حل أسئلة الاختبارات السابقة،أنتم شايفين وشلون طريقة بعضها ، محتاجة ناخذ فكرة عن طريقة حلها.
شاكرة ومقدرة جهد كل من ساهم في أثراء هذا النقاش خاصة فراشة المنتدى وg_madlol

التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة فرح سعادة ; 17-05-2011 الساعة 08:23 PM
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قديم 17-05-2011, 11:34 PM   #28
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هذا ملخص بلوك6:
This block involves the study of a number of literary texts from the point of view of their relationship to history. There are two reasons for the choice of this block theme.

The first reason: is that one of the main thrusts of literary study in recent decades has been to suggest the impact of a fresh understanding of historical processes upon the meaning and interpretation of literary texts. It has long been the case that some literary criticism has taken history as an important aspect of the study of a text, in the sense of bringing in its social political and cultural context, but poststructuralist thinking has advanced and challenged this traditional conception of the historically oriented in a number of ways.


The second reason: The relationship between literature and history so as to help you reflect upon the course as a whole and the texts you have studied. We will also introduce you to a selection of new texts from two genres prose fiction and poetry which highlight this issue by addressing specific and extreme historical events , such as Irish troubles or the rise and fall of the Japanese empire in the Far East.
Please read p.2 and 3


Prose fiction and history:

The Juggler:

Primo Michele Levi was an Italian Jewish chemist and writer. He was the author of two novels and several collections of short stories, essays, and poems, but is best known for If This Is a Man, his account of the year he spent as a prisoner in the Auschwitz concentration camp in Nazi-occupied Poland. Levi , an industrial chemist who was born in Turin in 1919, was arrested in 1943 for being a member of a partisan group, and transported to Auschwitz in 1944 for being a jew.One of a tiny hadful of survivors after the war, he continued to work as a chemist while beginning the series of writings which tell the story of what he had seen and experienced with the aim of bearing witness.


For Levi historical, is the collective witnessing of a fundamental, unexpected event, which happened therefore it can happen again.


The narrative is about different things, but it centres on the character of Eddy, the 'vice Kapo' and juggler.

In the preface to the collection of stories that contains ' The juggler', Primo Levi admitted that he had already written about things he had seen and experienced at Auschwitz, things that should be told.Levi story is unquestionable historical, but we are still left with the question: is it fiction or documentary? Or is it both?


Poetry and history:

In this block we are going to study Heaney, Akhmatova and Holub- has borne witness, to use Levi's phrase, to past events that their poetry has registered such events.

Poets have a sense of themselves as guardians of their society’s historical past, its memory

Registering the suffering of individuals

Drawing attention to the repetitions and ironies of history

Akhmatova bears witness in “Requiem” to the Stalinist reign of terror

Holub ironically to the orthodoxy of the Communist party in Czechoslovakia

Heaney engages with Ireland’s “Troubles” and an Irish literary tradition

These poems are not “documentary” texts

They register public events
They express deeply felt sentiments to “public” historic events
BUT
They also write out of the personal situation of the poet him or herself

“The past can be seized only as an image which flashes up at the instant when it can be recognized and is never seen again” Benjamin (Reader p. 349)

What many of these writers wish literature to express is that certain events and situations in the past must not be forgotten (p. 8)


In this brief section, we want to consider how the genre of poetry, compared to the other two genres, can both magnify the momentous events of history in this century and revise and challenge our ideas of how history permeates literature.

These three poets do not speak simply for the historical situations in which they have found themselves. Poetry like the other genres is emphatically not documentary evidence. While these three poets do register public events, and express deeply felt responses to the public historical circumstances, they have witnessed, they also write out of other circumstances. Heaney's poem ' Exposure' reflects on the burden of being a poet who is expected to provide the right answers as well as the right questions to the political problems of Ireland.


Hill's 'September Song', this poem confronts the events of Holocaust. Hill like Davie is an English poet who acknowledged the terrible events that had occurred in Nazi Germany in his poetry of the 1950s, published in For the Unfallen(1959). September song' from his collection King log(1968), is dense with characteristic ambiguities, many of them tragic. The allusions to the Jewish faith in the words 'untouchable' and 'passed over' in the first stanza are bitterly ironic. Please readp p second paragraph.

Drama and history:

If we think about the relationship between drama and history by looking back at plays we have studied, would we call these historical or unhistorical?

Endgame,The Dreaming of the Bones and Sweeney Agonistes all seem unhistorical, they make no reference to historical events, and a deliberate timelessness seems to be an important element in their construction.


Poetry and history:

The term 'history' and 'literature' can not be taken to imply a simple opposition between, on the one hand, an unproblematic world of real happenings, and on the other hand, fictional interpretations of this world conveyed by novels, stories, plays and poems.

We can think of the relationship between the two as a relationship between different kinds of interpretation, different kinds of writing, neither of which can claim superior legitimacy.

Heaney demonstrates vividly how a poet not only engages with a particular historical experience, in his case that of the Troubles in Northern Ireland since 1969, but more fundamentally with an Irish literary tradition that has meditated on the uneasy relations between Britain and Ireland over the centuries.


Please read p.14 and 15 and 16 for Seamus Heaney.

"Funeral Rites", how does Heaney employ this Viking history in these poems?

In funeral Rites, the Viking past is invoked in a number of ways: the reference to Gunnar, hero of an Old Icelandic saga entitled Volsungsaga.

The effect of using this Viking history is to set contemporary conflict within a long historical perspective, longer than Nationalist, Unionist, Catholic, Protestant or Christian histories.




Anna Akhmatova's "Requiem"

The Bolsheviks criticized Akhmatova—see page 27. Also more criticism on page 29 from the Soviet state: Akhmatova's subject is utterly limited: it is the poetry of an overwrought upper-class lady who frantically races back and forth between boudoir (which is a woman's bedroom or private sitting room) and chapel.

"Requiem" addresses the predicament of Russia during Stalin's Terror and the responsibilities of the writer at such a time.
Lev, Akhmatova's son, was imprisoned for 17 months.
In Akhmatova's "Requiem," history and the future are framed within the Christian idea that although mother and child suffer great agony, the resurrection will follow.

The strongest image in the poem is the monument of herself, an idea which does not represent hubris on her part, but a genuine acknowledgement of her role as the voice of her people, to emphasize the importance of remembering. The whole poem is committed to this idea.

The poem begins: "I stand as witness to the common lot,/survivor of that time, that place…"
The importance of gender to the representation of history in "Requiem" has already been discussed in terms of the collective suffering of the mothers waiting for their sons outside thenprison, and the grief of the biblical women at Christ's crucifixion.
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