العودة   منتديات طلاب الجامعة العربية المفتوحة > منتديات المشرفين والمنتديات المساعدة > أرشيف المواد والمواضيع القديمة

 
 
أدوات الموضوع انواع عرض الموضوع

قديم 15-01-2008, 02:42 PM   #1
الكعكه الشطوره الكعكه الشطوره غير متصل
طالب فعال

 











افتراضي احد يفهمني


السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته

الله يرضى عليكم ياجماعة الخير قولولي المسائل كيف ادرسها موفاهمتها

في ناس يقلون احفظي طيب واذا حفظت بتجي نفسها بالاختبار ؟

وكل واحد يحط توقعاته عن الأسئله وايش راح يجي
الكعكه الشطوره غير متصل  
قديم 15-01-2008, 02:56 PM   #2
ذggggق ذggggق غير متصل
عضو موقوف

 










افتراضي رد: احد يفهمني


اي بارت ياخيتو <---------مسوي فاهم


ذggggق غير متصل  
قديم 16-01-2008, 08:21 AM   #3
الكعكه الشطوره الكعكه الشطوره غير متصل
طالب فعال

 











افتراضي رد: احد يفهمني


انا في البارت الأول
الكعكه الشطوره غير متصل  
قديم 16-01-2008, 09:07 AM   #4
ذggggق ذggggق غير متصل
عضو موقوف

 










افتراضي رد: احد يفهمني


للاسف اني ادرس البارت الثاني

لكن شوفي الملخصات الموجوده في المنتدى وإسئلي المسجلين في الكورس


اتمنى لك التوفيق
ذggggق غير متصل  
قديم 19-01-2008, 04:06 PM   #5
نجـ سهيل ــم نجـ سهيل ــم غير متصل
طالب فعال

 










افتراضي رد: احد يفهمني


اقتباس:
المشاركة الأصلية كتبت بواسطة الكعكه الشطوره مشاهدة المشاركة
السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته

الله يرضى عليكم ياجماعة الخير قولولي المسائل كيف ادرسها موفاهمتها

في ناس يقلون احفظي طيب واذا حفظت بتجي نفسها بالاختبار ؟

وكل واحد يحط توقعاته عن الأسئله وايش راح يجي
هناك نماذج اسئلة اختبار نهائي وضعتها الاستاذة صفا الشوا على موقع المادة في المودل (نماذج محلولة) ستعطيك فكرة عن الامتحان وكيفية الاسئلة.
اما بالنسبة لكيفية دراسة المسائل: اعتقد من الافضل الفهم للمسالة والقاعدة الحسابية تحفظ
وتقريبا كلها اربع أو خمس قواعد حسابية. اربطي بينها وبين مسائل نماذج الامتحان النهائي اللي ذكرت أعلاه وستعطيك فكرة بإذن الله وتصور جيد.
وفي غالبها مسائل حسابية سهلة. متمنيا التوفيق للجميع
نجـ سهيل ــم غير متصل  
قديم 20-01-2008, 01:51 AM   #6
sondos15 sondos15 غير متصل
طــالب

 










افتراضي رد: احد يفهمني


مرحبا
ممكن حد ينزل لنا النماذج
عشان احنا طلبة فرع ثاني ما ندخل المودل
ارجو السرعه



التوقيع


sondos15 غير متصل  
قديم 20-01-2008, 02:08 AM   #7
بحـــــر بحـــــر غير متصل
طالب فعال

 











افتراضي رد: احد يفهمني


اقتباس:
المشاركة الأصلية كتبت بواسطة sondos15 مشاهدة المشاركة
مرحبا
ممكن حد ينزل لنا النماذج
عشان احنا طلبة فرع ثاني ما ندخل المودل
ارجو السرعه
نماذج فاينل
تقصدين


هذا الرابط ان شاء الله يفيدك

http://www.aoua.com/vb/showthread.php?t=14198

التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة بحـــــر ; 20-01-2008 الساعة 02:21 AM
بحـــــر غير متصل  
قديم 20-01-2008, 02:25 AM   #8
ღ مـــسلمـــه ღ ღ مـــسلمـــه ღ غير متصل
طالب فعال
 
الصورة الرمزية ღ مـــسلمـــه ღ

 









سؤال just for part one " report"


السلام عليكم ورحمة الله
كيف الهمه
حاسه حالي ضايعه .. الله يستر


قد تصفحة عدة مواضيع هنا تتحدث عن الربورت بارت وان و لم اخرج بنتيجه واضحه
ارجو اخباري هل هذه المواضيع لبارت وان ولا تو


- Globalization
- technology techniques
- agricultural indisification
Milk processing
Bkun Dam Story
food processing/ or food spoilage



و ان كانت لا ليست للبارت وان ......... و ياريت تخبرونا

1/ شو المواضيع المهمه او المواضيع المذكوره و من المحتمل ان تاتي بالفاينل بارت وان

2/ ووضع امثاله لكيفية الحل هنا


حتى تتضح الفكره للجميع ويسهل على الدارس الحصول عليها

أرجو من الجميـــــــــــــــــــع التعاون معي بهذا الموضوع علاما بانه عليه درجات عاليه بالاختبار

وان شاء الله سوف نخرج بفائده بأذن الله

بالتوفيق

التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة ღ مـــسلمـــه ღ ; 20-01-2008 الساعة 02:29 AM



التوقيع

=P2
(T471) ,, (T305) ,,( T172) ..
ღ مـــسلمـــه ღ غير متصل  
قديم 20-01-2008, 02:27 AM   #9
loooola loooola غير متصل
طالب جديد

 









افتراضي رد: just for part one " report"


هذي لبارت تو

اما التقارير المهمه لبارت ون هي

LCA

NHER

Transport

Co2

هذا حسب كلام استاذنا وبالتوفيج للكل
loooola غير متصل  
قديم 20-01-2008, 02:33 AM   #10
ღ مـــسلمـــه ღ ღ مـــسلمـــه ღ غير متصل
طالب فعال
 
الصورة الرمزية ღ مـــسلمـــه ღ

 









رد: just for part one " report"


اقتباس:
المشاركة الأصلية كتبت بواسطة loooola مشاهدة المشاركة
هذي لبارت تو

اما التقارير المهمه لبارت ون هي

LCA

NHER

Transport

Co2

هذا حسب كلام استاذنا وبالتوفيج للكل

جــــــــــــــــــزاك الله كل الخير يا اختي

و شكرا للك على الايضاح
______________________

اذا هل يوجد ملفات تخبرننا عن كل موضوع كيف ممكن ان نصيغها ونذكر النقاط المهمه لجعل الربورت كامل !!!
ارجو الافائده هنا

و شكرا
ღ مـــسلمـــه ღ غير متصل  
قديم 20-01-2008, 02:49 AM   #11
ღ مـــسلمـــه ღ ღ مـــسلمـــه ღ غير متصل
طالب فعال
 
الصورة الرمزية ღ مـــسلمـــه ღ

 









افتراضي رد: just for part one " report"


وجدت تقارير من موضوع اختي لحن القمر .........جزاها الخير يارب
اذا في مواضيع اخرى يا ريت ترفقوها هنا
وشكرا



تقرير عن LCA
Discuss the environmental life cycle approach to assessing cars. Your answer should contain:
a. A definition and brief explanation of what you mean by life cycle analysis (LCA).
b. The aim of an LCA.
c. Environmental impacts of a car throughout its life cycle? Illustrate your answer with a sketch to show how these impacts can be categorized in an LCA.
d. A conclusion which draws on the above analysis to justify your opinion of the merit of an LCA.

The life cycle analysis (LCA), a technique to pull together environmental indicators. Life cycle analysis is a system approach in that it traces environmental impacts at all stages of a product’s life cycle. It starts from the impacts arising from extracting and processing raw materials; then it identifies impacts from manufacturing and delivering a product, followed by the impacts involved in using a product, and finally examines what happens at the end of the product’s life-whether it is reused, the material from it is recycled or, if it is dumped, the environmental impacts concerned. An LCA is particularly useful if it is not immediately clear which are the major environmental impacts or at which stage of the life cycle the impacts occur.

The aim of LCA is to identify where the greatest environmental impacts occur in order to help decide the best approach to reduce them. Often a comparative LCA is undertaken on two design options: for example, the use of an electric vehicle to replace one powered by a conventional petrol engine. An electrical engine will result in no emissions at point of use, but the electricity has to be generated somehow, and so power station emissions associated with the energy used by such a vehicle need to be taken into account. An LCA can help to improve the design not only of a product (e.g. a car or train) but also of a service or a system. An example of the latter would be, if instead of traveling to a shop, you ordered shopping by the internet and it was delivered in a van servicing several households.

Student should sketch Figure 3.1 & 3.2 to show how these can be categorized in an LCA. The main materials used in the manufacture of cars are steel, non-ferrous ****ls (such as aluminum and copper), plastics and glass. Extracting and processing these materials involves a large amount of energy and water, the production of various emissions to air and water and the creation of a lot of solid waste. During manufacture and assembly of the car, further energy, water and other inputs are required and further emissions and solid wastes are produced.

After sale to the purchaser and during its useful life, the car will consume large amounts of petrol or diesel fuel which produces emissions, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), and air pollutants including carbon monoxide, un-burnt hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides, which are harmful to human health and/or the environment. During its life, the car will also require the replacement and disposal of many parts and components, particularly tyres, batteries and exhaust systems. At the end of its life cycle the car will normally be broken up and many of its materials will be recycled. This may reduce energy consumption and emissions compared with sourcing virgin materials. Finally, non-recycled materials (glass, rubber and fabrics) are buried as solid waste or may be burnt, producing further emissions.

In practice, a full LCA is a complex and expensive process and the results are not always clear cut. A particular problem is deciding the relative importance of different environmental impacts. For example, a number of packaging LCAs have identified a dilemma: plastic packaging, made form oil, has one set of environmental impacts, including depletion of a non-renewable resource and emissions in manufacture, while cardboard packaging tends to involve water pollution issues. Which of the two is the more important? Simply conducting an LCA will not answer this question.

An LCA systematically creates a list (or 'inventory') of environmental impacts, but comparing these impacts or deciding what to do once this information is gathered can be tricky. Consequently, in practice, LCAs are used more often to identify the main environmental impacts and at which stage in the life cycle these occur. LCAs are particularly helpful in systematically identifying environmental 'hot spots' and clarifying the decisions that need to be made. In many cases it is obvious where the largest effects are and more detailed studies can concentrate on where the situation is unclear. The LCA also illustrates that point about trade-off between environmental issues

ღ مـــسلمـــه ღ غير متصل  
قديم 20-01-2008, 02:53 AM   #12
ღ مـــسلمـــه ღ ღ مـــسلمـــه ღ غير متصل
طالب فعال
 
الصورة الرمزية ღ مـــسلمـــه ღ

 









إضاءة رد: just for part one " report"



تقرير عن NHER
Discuss the main ways of improving the energy efficiency of existing homes. Illustrate your answer with supporting evidence and examples of greener appliances used in the course materials. Outline the strength and limitations of NHER model.

The main technique developed to help minimize the impacts on the environment is called BREEAM (Building Re****** Establishment Environmental assessment Method). The homes for a greener world environmental standard enables new housing to be assessed at the design stage according to the BREEAM checklist of environmental criteria-from” global to indoor”. The main global criterion is CO2 emissions arising from consumption of energy for space and water heating.
This is assessed using a SAP rating. The second global issue relates to CFC and HCFC emissions associated with the production of foam insulating materials such as expanded polystyrene. CFCs cause ozone depletion while both CFCs and HCFCs are very powerful greenhouse gases. Another important criterion in the assessment is materials conservation. Credits are thus given for sourcing timber frame construction is also encouraged, because wood is a renewable resource while minerals 7 ****ls used for building are non-renewable. Other criteria in the BREEAM assessment are:
• Avoiding building on ecologically valuables sites
• Reducing formaldehyde emissions from the glue used in making insulation and fiberboard
• Eliminating hazardous materials such as lead paints and asbestos
• Reducing water consumption by installation of low flush toilets and rain water butts
• Maximizing use of daylight for lighting
• Providing household waste recycling bins
Many of the below elements can be retrofitted to existing homes, except where that would involve changing the basic form, construction and orientation of the building.
• Avoiding building materials with high “embodied” energy (e.g. aluminum);
• Reducing environmental impacts from extracting & making building materials (e.g. pollution from brick making)
• Designing homes that harmonize with their surroundings.
• Further reducing household water consumption by installing showers, recycling water & providing localized sewage treatment or composting toilets.
• Specifying HFC/HCFC – free refrigerators & water –conserving washing machines.
• Designing homes for ease of maintenance & long life.
• Reducing the amounts of solid wastes arising from house construction or demolition.
• Building at higher densities to reduce the land area required for homes.
• Planning homes to reduce transport demand & to encourage use of cycling & public transport.
• Increasing food production from gardens, allotments, etc.
• Minimizing fabric & ventilation heat losses through: built forms that minimize exposed surfaces, good quality construction, insulation & eliminating draughts.
• Maximizing heating & hot water system efficiency through: choice of fuels, energy efficient appliances & good controls
• Maximizing incidental gains from solar energy through the orientation , form & layout of the building & its glazing, plus a suitable oriented & insulated conservatory the benefits of “passive“ solar design can also be improved through thermally heavy construction that can absorb & then release heat .
• Installing “active” solar energy systems such as solar water heating panels & photovoltaic cells, usually on the roof of the building. Or using heat pumps (devices to extract useful heat from low temperature sources such as the air or ground water)
• Further fabric & ventilation losses by very high levels of insulation (super insulation), sheltering the building from winds or low temperatures, & installing heat – recovering mechanical ventilation or passive ventilation systems
• Improving the efficiency of he energy supply system, for example by adopting district heating & / or combined heat & power (CHP) systems or by supplying electricity from renewable energy sources such as wind power.
The greatest demand for household energy is for space & water heating but as the amount of energy for space & water heating is reduced, the proportion of household energy required to run lights & domestic appliances increases. This involves a shift from gas & other heating fuels to electricity. The household electricity consumption is rising throughout the industrialized world due to an increased number of households & ownership of appliances. The production & use of household appliances also raises other issues, including the release of toxic environmentally damaging chemicals, water consumption, waste disposal & materials recycling.
Refrigerators & freezers are the largest users of domestic electricity. Green freeze refrigerator which avoids the use HFCs & HCFCs by using hydrocarbons as a refrigerant & as a blowing agent for the foam insulation. The new technologies involved include the use of vacuum insulated panels for the casing. The best standard designs already use 75% less energy. Despite a number of policies, such as energy labeling to encourage the adoption of energy efficient cold appliances, higher prices and long replacement times mean that it is likely to take many years before such fridges and freezers are in general use.
The second largest electricity use is lighting. In this case, energy efficient compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) have been available for some 20 years. CFLs use a quarter to one fifth of the electricity, & last about ten times as long as a conventional tungsten filament lamp. But so far their adoption has been limited, mainly because of their substantially higher initial purchase. Even so, many consumers don’t seem to appreciate the savings of money, energy and materials that ca be achieved over the life of a CFL compared with buying ordinary light bulbs. Again there are policies to encourage people to adopt CFLs in their homes, and light fittings specifically designed for these lamps are available, but the displacement of the ordinary light bulb is likely to take some time.
The wet appliances are the third equal (with cooking appliances) electricity users in household. Although the potential for energy saving is not so great as for lighting or refrigeration, it is still substantial. And with washing machines & dishwashers there is a potential save for water & detergents. Washing machines were the first appliances to be subjected to a life cycle analysis study in preparation for eco-labeling by the EU. This study showed that over 90% of the environmental impacts of a washing machine occur during its use phase (mainly due to the electricity, water and detergent consumed) with production, distribution and disposal of the machine accounting for less than 105 of total environmental impacts.
There is a technical improvement to reduce energy; water & detergent consumption include new wash processes that use less water, low temperature detergents, & more efficient motors & controls. Detergent free wash processes are beginning to appear. They range from so called brown goods-televisions, video, recorders, set-top decoders, hi-fi equipment, etc. to the many small electrical and electronic toothbrushes. Although the individual energy consumption of and amount of materials used in making these goods is relatively small, their number and variety and hence their total impact, is increasing. In addition, the trends are for these products to be switched on continuously in standby mode, replaced more frequently and thrown away rather than repaired.

Strength of NHER:
1. The NHER model provides sensible, costed recommendations for improving energy efficiency and reducing fuel costs.
2. NHER & SAP provide a valid comparison of different dwellings under standard use.
3. The use of the Extended data facility allows a wide range of buildings to be given NHER ratings and enables the model to adjust the annual fuel costs according to the occupancy of the dwelling
Limitation of NHER:
1. The NHER model based on a number of assumptions and simplifications
2. The NHER is less accurate for more radical designs & does not recommend use of solar energy or other unconventional heating methods.
3. The NHER model assumes that all equipment is functioning properly and cannot take into account unusual pattern of use of the home

Tracking Transports Environmental Impacts
aDiscuss the transports environmental impact and sources. Examine the major health and land use effects from traffic.

Over the years, transport related environmental issues have risen up the social and political agenda. There are certain issues that are seen as important hot spot such as:
• local air pollution
• noise and other health impacts
• land take (direct and indirect)
• road traffic casualties
• global warming (e.g.CO2) emissions
• Traffic congestion.
The following pollutants emitted by road vehicles are known to have harmful effects on human health.
Level of impact Sources
Local (smell,air quality,health effects, accidents and noise PM, VOC, CO, SO2, O3, vehicle noise
Regional (Land use and waste disposal) Land takes infrastructure, disposal of scrap tyres, engine oil, chemicals.
Continental (acid rain) Vehicle exhausts emissions, NOx, SO2
Global (climate change and ozone depletion) Vehicle exhaust emissions (CO2), CFCs in air conditioning

Health effects
In recent years there has been a growing health effects of road traffic emissions,awareness of the detrimental which is largely a local air pollution issue.
inThe widespread health efects of transport activities have resulted many countries developing policies to reduce traffic emmissions. In Uk, the National Air Quality Strategy (NAQ) specifies “safe “targets for levels of eight pollutants, which are:Benzene
• Poly cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)
• 1,3 –butadiene
• Carbon monoxide (CO)
• Particulates (PM10)
• Nitrogen oxides (NOx)
• Ozone (O3)
• Sulphur dioxide (SO2)Exposure to air pollution,mucch of which is due to road traffic, can cause : child asthma, cancer, heat disease and premature deaths.
Life style health impacts
The transport’s impact on health also involves subtle and cumulative processes. This is because the rise in motorized travel has led to behavioral and life style changes.
and children find it hard to get out alone.In areas where there is a lot of traffic, the old people
Land use effects
for trunk road developments was one of the most publicisedLand take and emotive environmental issues of the late 20th century.
transport infrastructure by roads, parkingThe direct land takes of spaces, airports, railways, stations and parts can be a *******ions issue.
Reducing air pollution from traffic
Making regulation for emission control on vehicles such as exhaust catalytic converters and the phasing out of leaded petrol are a good way to reduce air pollution
Noise pollution
airport, main roads and railway lines.The noisiest areas may be near
noise is now believed to contribute toSuch lower level but widespread stress – related problems such as raised blood pressure and minor psychoactive illness.
Climate change
The important thing in climate change is to reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide CO2.
Air travel
obvious from national statisticEmissions from international air travel are often not
travel are excluded from theCO2 emissions from international air kyots treaty as they cannot be assigned it a specific country
though often hidden, environmental issue for the twenty-first century.Thus emissions from air travel are emerging as a key,
Conclusion
sectors areCO2 emissions from the domestic industrial and commercial declining, and are projected to continue to decline further.
The shift to a fuel with lower carbon ******* and more efficient generator means that CO2 emissions for electricity production are dropping.
estimated that to halt the growth e.g.: CO2 in the atmosphereThe IPCC and so limit the effects of climate change, emissions must be reduced worldwide by at least 60 % .

Environmental Impacts

Environmental Impacts is the greatest effects that the

household or personal exerts on environment .

Environmental Impacts: Select those household activities which have the greatest effect on the environment:

i. Type of food (pesticide, fertilizer use, consumption of fuels for food processing, transport, preservation and cooking )
ii. Home heating (CO2, greenhouse gas, SO2)

Over the year , transport related environmental issues have risen up the social and political agenda .
There are certain issues that are seen as important hot spot such as :
• local air pollution .
• noise and other health impacts .
• land take ( direct and indirect ).
• Road traffic casualties .
• Global warming (e.g. CO ² ) emissions .
• Traffic congestion .

The following pollutants emitted by road vehicles are known to have harmful effects on human health .
1. local ( particulates , VOCs , carbon monoxide , sulphur dioxide e.g. : smell , carbon monoxide , sulphur dioxide ozone , vehicle noise ).
2. regional ( land take of infrastructure , stimulates urban land use and waste , sprawl , disposal of scrap tyres , engine oil , chemicals etc.).
3. continental ( vehicle exhaust emissions – nitrogen oxide sulphur dioxide) e.g. acid rain .
4. global (e.g. : climate change , vehicle exhaust emissions , carbon dioxide , ozone depletion CFCs in air conditioning

بس هذا التقرير جدا طويل
ياريت احد يفيدنا و الله يجعلها بموازين اعمالكم
ღ مـــسلمـــه ღ غير متصل  
قديم 20-01-2008, 02:52 AM   #13
loooola loooola غير متصل
طالب جديد

 









افتراضي رد: just for part one " report"


العفوو حاضرين

شوفي هالموضوع


اول مشاركة واخر مشاركة بالصفحة الاولى

http://www.aoua.com/vb/showthread.php?t=36515
loooola غير متصل  
قديم 20-01-2008, 03:03 AM   #14
ღ مـــسلمـــه ღ ღ مـــسلمـــه ღ غير متصل
طالب فعال
 
الصورة الرمزية ღ مـــسلمـــه ღ

 









ناجح رد: just for part one " report"


اقتباس:
المشاركة الأصلية كتبت بواسطة loooola مشاهدة المشاركة
العفوو حاضرين

شوفي هالموضوع


اول مشاركة واخر مشاركة بالصفحة الاولى

http://www.aoua.com/vb/showthread.php?t=36515
لســـان عاجز عن الشكر .. شكرا لك اختي الكريــــــــــــمه

وفقك الله و يسر و سهل امورك مثل ما هونتها علي

وجزاك الله كل الخير .......
ღ مـــسلمـــه ღ غير متصل  
 

مواقع النشر (المفضلة)

أدوات الموضوع
انواع عرض الموضوع

تعليمات المشاركة
لا تستطيع إضافة مواضيع جديدة
لا تستطيع الرد على المواضيع
لا تستطيع إرفاق ملفات
لا تستطيع تعديل مشاركاتك

BB code is متاحة
كود [IMG] متاحة
كود HTML معطلة

الانتقال السريع


الساعة الآن 07:07 PM.


Powered by vBulletin® Version 3.8.1, Copyright ©2000 - 2020, Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd. TranZ By Almuhajir
جميع المواضيع والمشاركات تعبر عن وجهة نظر أصحابها
ولا تعبر باي شكل من الاشكال عن وجهة نظر منتديات AOUA
تصميم وتطوير : التكنولوجيا الماسية