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قديم 22-04-2011, 04:55 PM   #1
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سوف تكون مناقشه mta 303
الاشياء الاساسيه والمهمه للمنهج
wish u all the best
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قديم 22-04-2011, 05:15 PM   #2
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: Mention the method of academic re******.
There are four major methods of academic re******
.

These are incremental re******, corpus linguistics re******, functional grammar and functional and transformational – generative grammar re******. In the following lines, I will discuss these methods in some details.
The first method is the incremental re******, which means building on studies of previous work. For example, Mosters work an abstract subjects and passive verb form. In this method, we find out about what other re******ers have discovered as the first part of the re****** process. This can be done by looking at a certain number of school textbooks or at re****** articles in particular journals.
The second method is corpus linguistics, which focuses on providing basic de******ion or classifications of phenomena that are not yet available. This can be done through the use of "Longman Grammar of spoken and written English. This method based on the used of the language in the different registers and how it vary. For example, the usual grammatical features of conversation or fiction.
The third method is the functional grammar, which focuses on the development of theory and mode is to describe how language works. Functional grammar concentrates on explaining language use in terms of meaning of and the use of the language in terms of field, tenor and mode. For example, painter's analysis of child language.
The fourth method is the transformational – generative grammar method. The transformational – generative grammar is an approach to syntactic theory developed by Chomsky which focuses on specifying rules for generating the sentences of a language. However this method focused on the competence and performance of the speaker in real situation.
In conclusion, I have talked about the four method that can be used for academic re******. These are: the incremental re****** method, corpus linguistics re****** method, functional grammar method and transformational – generative grammar method.




1- Describe briefly the deffirrence between comparable
2- According to Lawson, comparable corpora are sets of naturally occurring texts in two or more languages, and are similar to any other well selected corpora. Moreover, a comparable corpus should be relied on to explore the way in which linguistic forms function in the naturally occurring language

corpora and parallel corpora The term parallel corpora, on the other hand reserves for original texts and their translations; for the reason, these are also commonly referred to as translation corpora. Moreover, a parallel corpus can be used to identify the different linguistic forms which individual translators believe to be functionally equivalent.

Define stylistic and explain forensic linguistic mean
STYLISTICS: The study of the characteristic language choices made by particular writers or groups of writers (or, more rarely, particular speakers).

forensic linguisticsIn recent years, linguists have increasingly been called on as expert witnesses in legal cases in order to help judges and juries reach a more reliable verdict, usually by interpreting the most likely intended meaning, or establishing the most likely authorship, of statements or documents. This has resulted in the growth of a new field of forensic linguistics.
- ‘Forensic linguistics is not a new field, but over the past few years it has become more structured and better within the academic and forensic communities’, Gerald McMenamin describes.
3- Forensic linguistics illustrates a few questions of: phonetics, semantics, pragmatics (intended meanings), stylistics, discourse analysis, and trademarks.


4- describe briefly the functional eqiulivence in translation- Mona Baker proposes that a good translation generally matches the cultural expectations of the target audience, not only in terms of its experiential content but also in terms of its tenor relations and its overall coherence as a text. In other words, it strives for functional equivalence in terms of meaning: experiential, interpersonal and textual.
- In Baker’s words, the paramount importance in translation is the function of the category rather than the form it takes

5- describe the pragmatic affect of a text in translation- A third set of features falls somewhere between the obligatory and the optional. It is more a matter of recognizing how things are achieved through particular languages- an approach known as pragmatics- the study of language as it is used in a social context or the study of language use.
-In summary, the target text should ideally produce an analogous pragmatic effect on the audience as the source text. Hickey explains that any translation must be capable of potentially affecting its readers in whatever way the source text was capable of doing to its readers. Therefore the task facing the translator is a challenging one.

The pragmatic effect of an UTTERANCE is the effect which it has on someone’s feelings, beliefs or behavior.

PRAGMATIC FORCE: See SPEECH ACT

6- describe defining style in dictionary

7- Explain what is meant by inter\intra-lingual subtitle in translation.
- not replace ST (the original version of the text). They are presented in synchrony.
There are two types of subtitling, what are they?
- There are two types of subtitling:
• Intralingua (monolingual) which is used for the benefit of the deaf people , as well as second language learners
• Interlingua (bilingual) which is subtitling into another language. This is the most common type.


discuss briefly the goal of subtitle
discuss briefly of authorship studies - Authorship studies: a term that covers both forensic stylistics and literary stylistics.
- Forensic stylistic: questions of authorship identification, in attempting to attribute a text to an individual, forensic stylistic uses linguistic clues at all levels from accent, spelling and punctuation to overall textual coherence.

LITERARY STYLISTICS: - The application of STYLISTICS to literary texts.

Literary stylistics is another field which attempts to identify what is distinctive about the language use of individual writers

Stylometric analysis originated in the middle of the nineteenth century, but has evolved considerably since then with the developments in statistical techniques and later with the computerized analysis of texts




1- What is back translation and what's its benifit?2- - Back translation: a literal translation in the reverse direction, which works from the target language back into the source language. It is a useful window into the logical structures of other grammars.


3- Define stylistics and forensic stylistics?Stylistic: the study of the characteristic language choices made by particular writers or groups of writers or, more rarely, particular speakers.
- Forensic stylistic: questions of authorship identification, in attempting to attribute a text to an individual, forensic stylistic uses linguistic clues at all levels from accent, spelling and punctuation to overall textual coherence.
Forensic Linguistics: The application of linguistics (especially phonetics, semantics, pragmatics, stylistics, discourse analysis and semiotics) to legal issues. A closely related field is Forensic Stylistics which is the application of Stylistics to legal issues, particularly questions of authorship identification.
Example: The Bentely Case (Malcolm Coulthard)


3-What do you understand by it- clefting and wh- clefting?it-clefing and wh- clefting :
via the pronoun "it " for example it was the great depression that originally helped Hitler to commence his journey to power .
- Clefting (it-clefting / pseudo-clefting): the use of a grammatical construction where information is broken into two clauses, to provide extra focus to one piece of information. It-cleft: it was his voice that held me. Wh-cleft: what I want is something to eat.
-

4-What is pragmatic effect?
- Pragmatic effect: an impact on the hearer, the effect of an utterance on someone’s feelings, beliefs or behaviour
5- Discusse briefly Critical Discourse Analysis?
CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS:- A multidisciplinary approach to text analysis which investigates the way language acts to disseminate particular points of view or ways of thinking within society. For example, the way in which texts in flounce public opinion in relation like politics, economy and religion.



6-What is functional equivelance in translation
?
• Functional Equivalence: It is the extent to which lexicogrammatical choices in one text (especially in a source text ST)) produce a similar effect to those in another text (e.g. target text (TT)) in terms of Experiential, Interpersonal, and Textual meanings.

Question 1: three definitions : you should answer all definitions.


1( critical discourse analysis:- A multidisciplinary approach to text analysis which investigates the way language acts to disseminate particular points of view or ways of thinking within society. For example, the way in which texts in flounce public opinion in relation like politics, economy and religion.


2( HOMOPHONE \ HOMOGRAPHHOMOGRAPH: Homographs are different LEXICAL ITEMS that have the same written form: lead (go first), lead (****l).

HOMOPHONE: Homophones are different LEXICAL ITEMS that have the same spoken form: blue, blew.



3( TRANSFORMATIONAL –GENERATIVE GRAMMARTRANSFORMATIONAL- GENERATIVE GRAMMAR (TGG):- An approach to syntactic theory developed by Noam Chomsky, This focuses on specifying rules for generating the sentences of a language.









Question 2: gives you sentences and you will asked if it is true or false. If it false change it to correct form. I do not remember the sentences.
Part 2 : three questions and you should answer all questions:

1) Define stylistic and explain forensic STYLISTICS mean
2) explain the generation of examples in dictionaries.

3) describe briefly the functional equivalent in translation
. The generation of examples: one of the most important tasks of the lexicographer is to find examples to illustrate the word being defined. All learner’s dictionaries give a lot of examples while monolingual dictionaries give far fewer. Examples have to be as short as possible, given the space restrictions of every dictionary. And examples should reflect the typical grammatical behavior of a word, for example, if it is usually passive. Finally, an example should not offend anyone
• Functional Equivalence: It is the extent to which lexicogrammatical choices in one text (especially in a source text ST)) produce a similar effect to those in another text (e.g. target text (TT)) in terms of Experiential, Interpersonal, and Textual meanings.





1- Describe briefly the deffirrence between comparable

- Comparable Corpora: they are sets of naturally occurring texts in two or more languages, and similar to any other well-selected corpora, in size, distribution, age, topic and so on.

Example: PAROLE / Preparatory Action for Linguistics Resources Organisation
- Parallel Corpora: they are sets of naturally occurring texts in their original language, and their translations, therefore they are commonly referred to as translation corpora.

Example: TELRI / Trans-European Language Resources Infrastructure
discuss briefly of authorship studies

- Authorship studies: a term that covers both forensic stylistics and literary stylistics

Stylometric analysis originated in the middle of the nineteenth century, but has evolved considerably since then with the developments in statistical techniques and later with the computerized analysis of texts
1- describe defining style in dictionary2- The wording of definitions: there is a major difference in defining styles between learner’s dictionaries and native-speaker dictionaries. In both types of dictionary, definitions have to be as concise as possible. They have to be simple and straightforward and, as far as possible, use language that is clear and sounds natural.


- Subtitling is an expanding international study. It refers to condensed written translations of original dialogues which appear as lines of text, usually positioned toward the foot of the screen. Luyken defined subtitling as a type of translation in which TT (translated version of text) does not replace ST (the original version of the text). They are presented in synchrony.
There are two types of subtitling, what are they?
- There are two types of subtitling:
• Intralingual (monolingual) which is used for the benefit of the deaf people , as well as second language learners
• Interlingual (bilingual) which is subtitling into another language. This is the most common type.

ل good translation :

a good translation generally matches the cultural expectations of the target audience , not only in terms of its experiential c o n t e n t , but also in terms of its tenor relations and its overall coherence as a text .

in other words, it strives for functional equivalence in terms of meaning : experiential , interpersonal and textual



1- تعريف controlled variable & Independent variable
2- factors in small-scale corpra
4- describe good translation
5- define back translation

Identifying the variables

A- The controlled variables: those that the re******er hold constant

B- The varying variables: those that the re******er manipulates for the purpose of his re****** (independent variables).

C- The dependent variables: the features(s) in which the re******er expect, or observe, the behaviour of his subjects to differ (grammatical features)
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قديم 22-04-2011, 05:17 PM   #3
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• The definitions:

• Ch 24:

• Iterlingual subtitles: Interlingual (bilingual) subtitles provide a translation from one language to another.

• Interlingual subtitles: interlingual (monolingual) subtitles provide a written version of speech, especially for the deafened hard of hearing.

• 2- Redundancy: Is the tendency for language, particularly spoken language, to involve more than is strictly necessary to convey information. For example: at the level of morphology, the – s in ten years is redundant since ten already indicates plurality at the level of discourse, anger may be conveyed by tone of voice as well as by linguistics’ choices.

• 3- comparable corpora: is in translation studies, comparable corpora are sets of naturally occurring texts in two or more language which are similar in size, topic.

• 4- parallel corpora; texts or translation corpora: is in translation studies, parallel corpora are sets of naturally occurring texts in their original language, accompanied by the same texts in translation.

• 5- colligation or grammatical pattering: is the tendency for two or more words from different grammatical categories to co- occur in the same structural relationship. For example the verb want colligate with the structure to infinitive.

• 6- functional equivalence: is the extent to which lexicogrammatical choices in one text (especially a translated text) produce a similar effect to chose another text in terms of experiential, interpersonal and textual meaning.

• 7- pseudo- clef ting: is an alternative term for the use of a wh – cleft. For example: what this country needs is a totally new transport policy.

• 8- thematic structure: is the way that a message is organized into theme and rhyme.

• 9- pragmatic force: is the communicative function associated with an utterance, for example: apology and request.

• Unit 23:

• Source language/ text: is in translation studies, the source language or text is the original from which a translation is mode.

• Target language/ text: is in translation studies, the target language is the language into which an original text is to be translated. The target text is the translated version of an original text.

• Parallel corpora/ texts: is in translation studies parallel corpora are sets of naturally occurring texts in their original language accompanied by the same texts in translation.



• Unit 22:

• Lexical richness: is a measure of the amount of new vocabulary in a text, developed by winter and wools in order to compensate for the greater frequency of function words over lexical words in any typical English language corpus.

• Literary stylistics: is the application of stylistics to literary texts.

• Plagiarism: is borrowing textual material from another source without acknowledging it.

• Forensic linguistics: is the application of linguistics
• (Especially) phonetics, semantics, pragmatics, discourse analysis and semiotics to legal issues.

• Unit 25:

• Critical discourse analysis or critical linguistics: is a multidisciplinary approach to text analysis, which investigates the way language, acts to disseminate particular points of view or ways of thinking within society. For example: the way in which texts influence public opinion in relation like politics, economy and religion.

• Ideology: is a set of assumptions, beliefs and expectations help by members of a community concerning the way the world is and the way the world is and the way it ought to be. For example: value systems and ways of thinking.





• Semontic prosody: is the way in which apparently neutral terms come to carry negative or positive associations through regularly occurring in particular collocations. For example: using terms and texts that are able to convey negative or positive views.

• Unit 21:

• Dynamic verb: it’s in traditional grammatical terminology dynamic verb refers to an action or event. For example: blow and smile.

• Virtual corpus: is a corpus, which is compiled electronically for online texts. For example: using the web.

• Monolingual corpus: is a corpus consisting of material in only one language.

• Multilingual corpus: does Tognini - Bonelli, discuss a corpus consisting of material in different languages, such as the translation corpora.

• Spoken corpus: is a corpus consisting of spoken material which has been transcribed. For example: the cancode corpus.

• Unit 17:

• Transformational – generative grammar (TGG): is an approach to syntactic theory developed by Noam Chomsky, which focuses on specifying rules for generating the sentences of a language.



• Unit 19:

• General reference corpus: is a corpus which tries to represent the whole of a language by including spoken and written material from a range of settings and text – types such as newspapers, fiction and lectures.

• Special purpose corpus: is a corpus compiled in order to focus on a particular variety of language. For example: “the learner corpus”.

بالتوفيق للجميع
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قديم 22-04-2011, 05:19 PM   #4
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defintion

application linguistic

TGG

idiom priciple

General reference corpora

part two

is there similar to litercy singnuture?

how interpreter mange the enfluce the flow ingormation?

mention three element cosrcture of dictiionary??

furthermore there is question about dictionary analysis
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قديم 22-04-2011, 05:46 PM   #5
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نحن اختبارنا ال 22 مش معقولة نحفظ الاسئلة الي مش مرتبطه بالواحدات الي داخله معنا
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قديم 22-04-2011, 09:42 PM   #6
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شيء طبعي راح تحفظين الجابتر اللي معكم ؟ دمعه يتيمه
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قديم 22-04-2011, 09:49 PM   #7
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ممكن احد يقولي فرع الرياض ايش الكتب اللي داخلة معانا ؟
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قديم 23-04-2011, 02:56 AM   #8
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اخت فراشة لا هنتي

ارفقي لنا الملف الي اخدتي منه هالمعلومات..او حطي الرابط لو سمحتي

لانه زي ما انت شايفة في كلمات مشفرة
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قديم 23-04-2011, 07:13 PM   #9
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http://arabsh.com/qzb3oi9qznwq.html


http://arabsh.com/9n1xfalmi6lv.html


http://arabsh.com/qzb3oi9qznwq.html
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قديم 23-04-2011, 07:28 PM   #10
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اقتباس:
المشاركة الأصلية كتبت بواسطة Hanouf86 مشاهدة المشاركة
ممكن احد يقولي فرع الرياض ايش الكتب اللي داخلة معانا ؟
الجابتر اللي معكم Book 4: Getting Down to It
Unit 17
Unit 18
Unit 19
Unit 20
Unit 21

Book 5:
Getting to Work
Unit 22
MTA
(week 8)
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قديم 23-04-2011, 08:44 PM   #11
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^^ يعطيك العافية
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قديم 24-04-2011, 07:05 AM   #12
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بس يابنات بالكورس قايد مكتوب الين الوحدة23 الامتحان؟
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قديم 24-04-2011, 07:50 PM   #13
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يا حلوين اش الجواب لسؤال ده Is there similar to literacy signature ? god bless you all
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قديم 24-04-2011, 08:04 PM   #14
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اقتباس:
المشاركة الأصلية كتبت بواسطة فراشه المنتدى مشاهدة المشاركة
thanks alot , i would like to ask u , is the both linking same or diffrent file?? ya3tek al 3afiah
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