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قديم 22-04-2012, 03:36 PM   #99
love & stability love & stability غير متصل
طالب نشيط
 
الصورة الرمزية love & stability

 











افتراضي رد: هنااا ستكون مناقشه mta


شنو جواب هالسوال؟ ؟

3-Explain the concept of multiple literacies as it applies to Saxena's re****** in the article "Literacies among the Panjabis in sSouthall".

love & stability غير متصل  
قديم 22-04-2012, 04:40 PM   #100
^lilly^ ^lilly^ غير متصل
طالب فعال
 
الصورة الرمزية ^lilly^

 











افتراضي رد: هنااا ستكون مناقشه mta


^^^


Explain the concept of multiple literacies as it applies to Saxena's re****** in the article "Literacies among the Panjabis in sSouthall".

التعريف
Literacy is viewed as being plural and of many types. Different societies and cultures have different types of literacy, and literacy has different effects in different societies and cultures. Literacy is seen as a set of discourse practices both in speech and writing, and such language
Practices reflect the speakers' world views, and the speaker's identity. A change of discourse practices implies a change of identity.



Literacy in 1950s:
* Britain was in need for the cheap unskilled labor force. This factor attracted many Indian people to immigrate to Britain (Southall).
* The community in Southall consisted only Sikhs, Punjabi, and Hindus males.
* Their main literacy practice was writing letters for their families.
* Few people were able to speak English.
(2) Literacy in 1960:
*There was a significant increase in the number of immigrants [men brought their wives & children].
* Children learnt English in schools.
* Many parents tended to learn English in order to get well-paid jobs, to manage official papers, & to communicate with the children's school.
* There was not so much contact with British people because of the lack of interest to those immigrants & racism on the British's part.

(3) Literacy in 1970s:
* Because of the collapse in Britain's economy, those immigrants found themselves stuck to the working class jobs.
* They had involved to trade unions to protect their rights: they used English in these unions alongside their mother tongues to communicate with people.
* There was a sharp increase in racism & discrimination against them.
* Racism made them aware of the importance of expressing and maintaining their cultural identities through using their languages: they instituted their temples where their languages can be used & offered classes for teaching it
* Some of the subsequent generations (who born and brought up in Britain) refused their cultural traditions and values [i.e. marriage].
* The arrival of South Asians was of great assistance for those immigrants because they were well-educated and had great experience in maintaining their languages.

(4)Literacy in 1980s:
* Religious division between the Sikhs & Hindus began to emerge motivated by the violence between Sikhs & Hindus in the Punjab state in India.
* Southall became the main militant centre that supports the cause of independent Punjab as a separate Sikh nation.
* Sikh temples were important for promoting Sikh culture & language.
* Hindu temples were important for promoting the Hindi culture and language.
*Another group had been formed consisted of Hindus & Sikhs who believe in an Indian national cause: they believed in the promotion of Hindi and Punjab languages as symbols for Hindi and Sikh cultures rather than the Sikh and Hindu religions

الجواب طويل بس ترى سهل و الكلام واضح يعني افهميه
^lilly^ غير متصل  
قديم 22-04-2012, 07:52 PM   #101
love & stability love & stability غير متصل
طالب نشيط
 
الصورة الرمزية love & stability

 











افتراضي رد: هنااا ستكون مناقشه mta


مشكوره حبيبتي
الله يوفقنا كلنا يارب
انا توني ابدا بالمذاكره الله يستر
love & stability غير متصل  
قديم 22-04-2012, 07:57 PM   #102
love & stability love & stability غير متصل
طالب نشيط
 
الصورة الرمزية love & stability

 











افتراضي رد: هنااا ستكون مناقشه mta


ليلي ملفك نفس ملف فراشه والا ؟؟
love & stability غير متصل  
قديم 22-04-2012, 08:16 PM   #103
The moon face The moon face غير متصل
طالب فعال
 
الصورة الرمزية The moon face

 











افتراضي رد: هنااا ستكون مناقشه mta


اقتباس:
المشاركة الأصلية كتبت بواسطة love & stability مشاهدة المشاركة
مشكوره حبيبتي
الله يوفقنا كلنا يارب
انا توني ابدا بالمذاكره الله يستر
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
نفس الحآل...!!


شكراااااااا ليلي وفراااشتوووا على تفاعلكم


في ميزان حسناتكم يارب...!

الله يوفقنا ويسهل علينا وعليكم ياااااااااارب
The moon face غير متصل  
قديم 22-04-2012, 08:29 PM   #104
love & stability love & stability غير متصل
طالب نشيط
 
الصورة الرمزية love & stability

 











افتراضي رد: هنااا ستكون مناقشه mta


اقتباس:
المشاركة الأصلية كتبت بواسطة love & stability مشاهدة المشاركة
ليلي ملفك نفس ملف فراشه والا ؟؟
بالاضافه لسوالي السابق

احد عنده اجابه على هالسوال



1-Describe briefly the six features of ethnography as method outlined in Martyn Hammersley' article" Introducing ethnography".
love & stability غير متصل  
قديم 22-04-2012, 09:06 PM   #105
GueSS.q8 GueSS.q8 غير متصل
طالب مميز
 
الصورة الرمزية GueSS.q8

 











افتراضي رد: هنااا ستكون مناقشه mta


اقتباس:
المشاركة الأصلية كتبت بواسطة The moon face مشاهدة المشاركة
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
نفس الحآل...!!


شكراااااااا ليلي وفراااشتوووا على تفاعلكم


في ميزان حسناتكم يارب...!

الله يوفقنا ويسهل علينا وعليكم ياااااااااارب

^
^
^
^
^
^

وآنــا بعد

يا الله
GueSS.q8 غير متصل  
قديم 22-04-2012, 09:35 PM   #106
love & stability love & stability غير متصل
طالب نشيط
 
الصورة الرمزية love & stability

 











افتراضي رد: هنااا ستكون مناقشه mta


ممكن حد يفهمني هالسوال وجوابه بالعربي ؟؟
Discuss briefly ' communicative competence' as illustrated by Dell Hymes in "Toward ethnographies of communication".
n The term ’ethnography of communication’ indicate the necessary scope of ethnographic studies in basis and communicative in the range and complexity with which they deal.
n As to scope, one needs fresh kinds of data to investigate directly the use of language in contexts of situation to discern patterns proper to speech activity.
n As to basis, one cannot take linguistic form, a given code or even speech itself, as a limiting frame of reference. One must take as context a community, or network of persons investigating its communicative activities as a whole.
n Communicative form & function is in integral relation to each other.
n For ehnographies of communication, the aim is to keep the multiple hierarchy of relations among messages & contexts in view.
love & stability غير متصل  
قديم 22-04-2012, 10:04 PM   #107
الذاكره ممتلئه الذاكره ممتلئه غير متصل
طــالب
 
الصورة الرمزية الذاكره ممتلئه

 










افتراضي رد: هنااا ستكون مناقشه mta


بنات ممكن سؤال يمكن غريب بس اتمنى احد يعلمني
فيه كلمه تتكرر كثير بدايتها ......re
ايش هذي الكلمه ممكن احد يكتبها بحروف مفرقه علشان توضح لنا
ومشكورين مقدما *
الذاكره ممتلئه غير متصل  
قديم 22-04-2012, 10:29 PM   #108
برنسيس دودي برنسيس دودي غير متصل
طالب جديد
 
الصورة الرمزية برنسيس دودي

 










افتراضي رد: هنااا ستكون مناقشه mta


يبنات انا دخلت على موقع الجامعه
فرع السعوديه مكتوب خبر نيوووو

بصو مكتوب ايه

UK Makeup Midterms 2011/2012 New

Courses Validated by OU/UK (Computer Studies - Business Studies - Language Studies)

وبعدين حاطين رابط لملف اكسل
وموعد الماده اللي المفروض بكرا دي
يوم 9 من شهر خمسة
يوم الاربعاء
بليز حد يتاكد ليكون متاجل

او يكون في مكان تاني انا مش فهمه
برنسيس دودي غير متصل  
قديم 22-04-2012, 10:30 PM   #109
love & stability love & stability غير متصل
طالب نشيط
 
الصورة الرمزية love & stability

 











افتراضي رد: هنااا ستكون مناقشه mta


فهموني هالسالفه تكفون ما فهمت شي بصيح

Ethics
l Social science is not a neutral enquiry into human behaviour and institutions.
l It is strongly implicated in the project of social control, whether by the state or by other agencies that ultimately serve the interests of a dominant group.
l Social scientists recognize the potentially exploitative and damaging effects of being re******ed on.
l An ethically aware social scientist will see the possible dangers and try to forestall them.
l The re******er might exploit subjects during the re****** process.

l *Example provided by Mailgram where the re******ers misled their subject by electric shocks.

، In covert re******, subjects cannot give full, informed consent because re******er deliberately mislead them as to the nature and purpose of re******, or conceals the fact that re****** is going on.
، This create ethical problems because it is deception.
eg: Milgram experiments on obedience to authority (pg: 15).
، Most disciplines have strong concern with ethical standards, manifested by published codes of conduct, professional oaths, ethics committees etc.
، They work on the basis of balancing the needs of a discipline in its pursuit of knowledge and truth with interests of people on whom re****** is conducted.
، The interests of the re******ed are a negative force limiting what re******ers can do.
، An ethical re******er ensure that their privacy is protected.
، In ethical re******, there is a wholly proper concern to minimise damage and offset inconvenience to the re******ed, and to acknowledge their contribution.
، Human subjects deserve special ethical consideration, but they do not set the re******er’s agenda.
، Positivist emphasise on distance in order to avoid interference or bias.

، Positivism is strongly committed to the idea that observations procured in a scientific manner have the status of value-free facts.
، The positivistically inclined re******ers go beyond the idea of ethics and make themselves more directly accountable to the re******ed.
، They move to an advocacy position.
ADVOCACY
، Advocacy position is characterised by commitment on part of re******er not just to do re****** on subjects but re****** on and for subjects.
، This commitment formalises common development in field situations.
، Re******er use his/her skills or authority as an ‘expert’ to defend subjects’ interests, getting involved in their campaigns for healthcare or education, cultural autonomy or political and land rights, and speaking on their behalf.
eg: The case of the Ann Arbor ‘Black English’ trial in 1979 (pg: 16-18).
، Sociolinguist William Labov suggests two principles:
(1) Error correction: If we as re******ers know that people hold erroneous views on something, we have a responsibility to attempt to correct those views.
(2) The debt incurred: When a community has enabled linguists to gain important knowledge, the linguist incurs a debt which must be repaid by using the said knowledge on the community’s behalf when they need it.
This is an advocacy position.
، Labov stresses that the advocate serves the community, and that political direction is the community’s responsibility.
، While Labov’s positivism is in some ways extremely radical, it is so within a positivist framework.
، Labov’s positivism is clearly visible in his uneasy juxtaposition of ‘objectivity’ and ‘commitment.’
، In Labov’s view, a re******er’s advocacy might undermine the validity of his/her findings.
، Labov advises advocate re******ers to take an auxiliary role, but in practice it leaves them with some very significant powers: the power to identify the ‘community’ whose interests they will speak for, and the power to decide on an objective truth which they will speak.
، Labov glosses over the anti-positivist argument that observation is theory-laden and observers bring their values and interests to it.

*A good example of Advocacy can be found in some African students who speak AVBE(African Variety British English).These students are facing linguistics obstacles. So, their teachers think that they are disable. Finally, they asked sociolinguist Labov to speak in their behalf.

EMPOWERING RE******
• We have seen ‘ethical re******’ as ‘re****** on, ‘advocacy re******’ as re****** on and for and ‘empowering re******’ as re****** on, for and with.
• It is the centrality of interaction ‘with’ the re******ed that enables re****** to be empowering.
• Empowerment is not a requirement on all re****** projects.
• The 3 issues that we take up here are; the use of interactive methods; the importance of subject’s own agendas; the question of feedback and sharing knowledge


They work on the people for the people with the poeple.They encourage them, learn them and support them by every thing.)




love & stability غير متصل  
قديم 22-04-2012, 10:31 PM   #110
The moon face The moon face غير متصل
طالب فعال
 
الصورة الرمزية The moon face

 











افتراضي رد: هنااا ستكون مناقشه mta


بالتوفيق بنات


اختي ذاكره ممتلئه والله نكج عالجرح...بس انا ذاكره مفقوده


الكلمه



r e s e a r c h e r


The moon face غير متصل  
قديم 22-04-2012, 10:33 PM   #111
توف أتري توف أتري غير متصل
طالب نشيط
 
الصورة الرمزية توف أتري

 










افتراضي رد: هنااا ستكون مناقشه mta


اقتباس:
المشاركة الأصلية كتبت بواسطة الذاكره ممتلئه مشاهدة المشاركة
بنات ممكن سؤال يمكن غريب بس اتمنى احد يعلمني
فيه كلمه تتكرر كثير بدايتها ......re
ايش هذي الكلمه ممكن احد يكتبها بحروف مفرقه علشان توضح لنا
ومشكورين مقدما *
r e a s e a r c h
توف أتري غير متصل  
قديم 22-04-2012, 10:35 PM   #112
برنسيس دودي برنسيس دودي غير متصل
طالب جديد
 
الصورة الرمزية برنسيس دودي

 










افتراضي رد: هنااا ستكون مناقشه mta


يابناااااااااااااات بليز شوفو مشاركتي
بقولكم فيه جدول نيو على موقع الجامعه فرع السعودية
مكتوب ان الماده يوم 9/5
يووووم الاربعاء


اتاجل ولا ايه حد يتاكد معايا
برنسيس دودي غير متصل  
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