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قديم 15-03-2014, 11:49 PM   #1
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شرح المقال الثالث Child Agency in Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry




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Child Agency in Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry Kelly McDowell
توكيل (توجيه الطفل للعمل بارادته )الطفل برواية رو لاف ثاوندر


التحميل من هنا

In Little House on the Prairie, Pa instructs Laura: 'Do as you are told and no harm will come to you' (Wilder, 1971, P. 146). This is an example of the overt didacticism in which most classic children's literature is engaged. Classic works function on a didactic trajectory, which serves to instill the proper values of childhood, created by adults, in the errant child characters and, in turn, in the intended child reader. The effect, whether intentional or not, is the establishment of a clear division between childhood and adulthood. Children occupy the object position, dependent on the direction of adult subjects. That children's literature is most often written for children by adults is necessarily problematic. Rose (1993) posits: 'There is, in one sense, no body of literature which rests so openly on an acknowledged difference, a rupture almost, between writer and addressee. Children's fiction sets up the child as an outsider to its own process, and then aims, unashamedly, to take the child in' (p. 2). Thus, children's literature depends on a slippage between childhood and adulthood. Furthering this idea, Rose says
Children's fiction sets up a world in which the adult comes first (author, maker, giver) and the child comes after (reader, product, receiver), but where neither of them enter the space in between. . . . It (is) not an issue here of what the child wants, but of what the adult desires - desires in the very act of construing the child as the object of its speech. Children's fiction draws in the child, it secures, places and frames the child.

في المنزل الصغير على البراري، بابا قال للورا "افعلي كما يقال لك، ولا ضرر سيأتي اليك" . وهذا مثال من الرسالة التعليمية العلنية التي يشاركها معظم ادب الاطفال القديم
الاعمال الكلاسيكية تعمل على التوجيه التعليمي، والذي يعمل على غرس القيم السليمة في مرحلة الطفولة التي ينشئها الكبار بشخصيات اطفال والذي يعمل على توجيه الطفل القارئ سواء عن قصد أم لا
وهو هو إنشاء تقسيم واضح بين الطفولة والبلوغ
الطفل يحتل موقف الشخص المقصود، معتمد على اتجاه مواضيع الكبار
والذي يكون اشكالية ان ادب الاطفال معظمه للاطفال مكتوب من قبل الكبار
ليست قضية ما يتمناه الطفل ولكن ما يتمناه الكبار

2
Extracted from 'Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry: A Culturally Specific, Subversive Concept of Child Agency', in Children's Literature in Education 33:3 (2002), pp. 213-25.

238 Mildred Taylor, Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry (1976)
The adult writer writes to the child, to draw the child into the story, while writing for the child, to instruct the child how the adult world desires her to be. The effect is to cement the distinction between childhood and adult-hood, to uphold the boundary between the two worlds. The unequal relation and imbalance of power reveals the hierarchical relationship between the adult writer and the child reader. Classic children's literature and fairy tales are, of course, the most overtly didactic of the genre. Often, child characters, as well as intended child readers, occupy the object position and are directed by adult subjects. In this relation, children are denied subjectivity and agency. Of course, more recent children's literature offers more diverse representations of children who are allowed greater freedom and agency. This is not to say that these works are entirely undidactic; any children's novel almost always falls into didacticism in one way or another. The didacticism present in more contemporary works is in not so much of a 'how to' or instructional style; rather, the ideas presented function more as tools for children to use (or not) in the building of their own subjectivity. The ideas exist as choices rather than rules; with choices, children are allowed greater opportunity to act with autonomy. In Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry, Taylor takes the modern concept of child agency and employs it in relation to the very specific position of cultural fixity and immobility of African-American children in the Depression-era South. She extends and refines the concept with regard to the specific social/historical position of her characters. Enabling child agency becomes a necessary part of resistance. The result is a modified type of subversive child agency. In this article, I consider the various ways in which this specific type of agency is manifest in the novel. I demonstrate that the novel depicts the necessity of child agency as a form of resistance for oppressed cultures.

الكاتب البالغ يكتب للطفل، لرسم الطفل بالقصة، بينما الكتابة للاطفال لتوجيه الطفل كيف عالم الكبار يتمناه ان يكون.
العلاقة الغير متكافئة والغير متوازنة للقوة تكشف العلاقه الهرمية بين الكاتب البالغ والقارئ الطفل
ادب الاطفال الكلاسيكي والقصص الخرافية ، بطبيعة الحال فأن معظمها تعليمي بشكل علني بهذا النوع
في كثير من الاحيان، شخصيات الطفل، وكذلك الاطفال القراء المقصودين، تحتل المركز الكائن الموجه من قبل مواضيع الاطفال . بهذه العلاقة الاطفال تنكر ذاتية الاطفال ومقدرتهم على فرض القوانين
في الآونه الاخيرة، ادب الاطفال يقدم تمثيلات أكثر تنوعا من الأطفال الذين يسمح لهم بحرية عظيمة وفرض القوانين او القيام بالاعمال التي يريدونها
ولكن لا يمكننا ان نقول بأن هذا العمل خالٍ من التعليم او التوجيه بالكامل، فكل رواية اطفال دائما معظمها ملئ بالتعليم بطريقة او باخرى
ولكن التعليم لا يكون بطريقة افعل وكيف وانما بعرض وظائف كادوات للاطفال لبناء هوياتهم او ذواتهم الخاصه
الافكار تاتي كخيارات وليست كقوانين
يسمح للأطفال بفرصة أكبر للعمل مع الحكم الذاتي
برول اف ثاوندر، اخذت تايلور المفهوم الحديث (وكالة الطفل) توجيه الطفل (بخلق احكامه باختياره ) ووظفتها بربطها بموقف معين جدا بالثقافة الثابته للأطفال الأميركيين الأفارقة في عصر الكساد والجنوب
فهي وسعت وهذبت مفهوم متعلق بوضع اجتماعي تاريخي معين لشخصياتها
والنتيجة نوع معدل لوكالة الطفل الهدامة (التوجيه المعتمد على الطفل). بهذا المقال، اعتبر طرق متنوعة بحيث ان هذا النوع الخاص من التوجيه واضح بالرواية
أنا اثبت أن الرواية تصور ضرورة وكالة الأطفال كشكل من أشكال المقاومة لثقافات المظلومين.


The role of historical understanding One of the ways that this type of child agency is enabled in the novel is through a demystification of history. History, for the Logan children, is not what they read in books at school because, of course, the African-American history found in the books is fabricated by the dominant culture. The Logan children get their knowledge of history from their family, mostly through the oral tradition. As a result, the children are very connected to their his-tory. It becomes a vital force in their lives. Because it is passed on to them by their elders, history has special significance and becomes an intimate and lived experience. Narrator Cassie makes numerous references to the family's history. Her knowledge is extensive and unusual for her age. In the first chapter, she recounts the story of the Logan land:

دور الفهم التاريخي احد الطرق التي يمكنها هذا النوع من توجه الطفل الذاتي في الرواية خلال إزالة الغموض عن التاريخ
التاريخ، لاطفال لوغان، ليس ما يقراونه في الكتب في المدرسة لانه بالطبع، التاريخ الافريقي الامريكي الموجود بالكتب معدل من قبل الثقافة السائدة
اطفال لوغان يحصلون على معرفتهم من التاريخ من عائلتهم، غالبا عن طريق التقليد الشفوي
ونتيجة لذلك، الاطفال مرتبطون جدا بتاريخهم
يصبح قوة حيوية بحياتهم، لانه يتصل بهم من قبل آبائهم
التاريخ له اهمية خاصة، ويصبح تجربة حميمية حية
الراوي كاسي تنشئ تقدم عديد لتاريخ العائلة.
معرفتها واسعة النطاق و غير عادية لسنها . في الفصل الأول ، وقالت انها تروي قصة أرض لوجان :


Child Agency in Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry 239
Once our land had been Granger land . . . , but the Grangers had sold it during Reconstruction to a Yankee for tax money. In 1887, when the land was up for sell [sic] again, Grandpa had bought two hundred acres of it, and in 1918, after the first two hundred acres had been paid off, he had bought another two hundred. It was good rich land, much of it still virgin forest, and there was no debt on half of it. But there was a mortgage on the two hundred acres bought in 1918 and there were taxes on the full four hundred, and for the past three years there had not been enough money from the cotton to pay both and live too. That was why Papa had gone to work on the railroad. In 1930 the price of cotton dropped. And so, in the spring of 1931, Papa set out looking for work, going as far north as Memphis and as far south as the Delta country. He had gone west too, into Louisiana. It was there that he found work laying track for the railroad. He worked the remainder of the year away from us, not returning until the deep winter when the ground was cold and barren. The following spring after the planting was finished, he did the same. Now it was 1933, and Papa was again in Louisiana laying track. 4-5
Able to recall exact dates and details, Cassie exhibits a strong connection to her history. She knows it so well because of the immediacy it has for her. Her history has impacted her life in ways that she can clearly see.

هنا نلاحظ حديث كاسي عن ارضهم الزراعيه التي تدهورت بسبب الضرائب وانه السبب الذي دفع والدها للعمل بالسكك الحديدية عام 1930 .. نرى هنا ان كاسي قادرة على تذكر التواريخ والتفاصيل الدقيقة ، كاسي على اتصال قوي بتاريخها ، تاريخها اثر على حياتها بطرق تستطيع رؤيتها بوضوح

It is because of past events that her father is forced to leave the family. Thus, Cassie can feel history's effects quite poignantly. For the Logan children, history is represented through specific events that directly intersect with factors of race and class. It becomes transforma-tive; knowing their history allows the Logan children greater freedom and agency. We see this effect when grandmother, Big Ma, tells Cassie the story of her grandfather, Paul. She explains that Paul, born into slavery, managed to work to save the money to buy their land. Hearing about her grand-father's strength and self-reliance gives Cassie a sense of pride and allows her to realize that, although she is oppressed, she is not devoid of agency. If her grandfather, born a slave, could rise above his situation to own his own land, perhaps Cassie, too, could be an agent in her own future. The history of slavery is demystified for the children when Papa allows them to hear Mr. Morrison's tales of his family. He explains that his parents came from 'breeded stock.' When Cassie asks what this means, he answers her, in honest, uncoded terms.

'Well, Cassie, during slavery there was some farms that mated folks like animals to produce more slaves. Breeding slaves brought a lot of money for them slave owners, 'specially after the government said they couldn't bring no more slaves

وبسبب الاحداث الماضية اجبر والدها على مغادرة عائلتها. لذلك، تستطيع كاسي رؤية تأثير التاريخ جدا.
لاطفال لوغان، التاريخ مثل من خلال احداث معينة والتي تتقاطع بشكل مباشر مع عوامل العرق والطبقة
يصبح تحويلي؛ معرفة تاريخهم يسمح لأطفال لوجان بحرية وتعلم ذاتي أكبر . ونحن نرى هذا التأثير على الجدة الكبيرة، وتحكي لكاسي قصة جدها، بول.
وتشرح أن بول، ولد في العبودية، وتمكن من العمل لحفظ المال لشراء أراضيهم تسمع عن قوة جدها والاعتماد على الذات يعطي كاسي الشعور بالفخر ويسمح لها بتحقيق ذلك، على الرغم من أنها مظلومة الا انها لا تخلو من قدرتها على الاعتماد على نفسها والتعلم تصبح متكله على نفسها
اذ جدها الذي ولد عبدا استطاع شراء املاكه ربما كاسي ايضا تصبح معتمدة على نفسها بالمستقبل


240 Mildred Taylor, Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry (1976)
from Africa, and they produced all kinds of slaves to sell on the block. And folks with enough money . . . could buy 'zactly what they wanted. My folks was bred for strength like they folks they grandfolks 'fore 'em. Didn't matter none what they thought 'bout the idea. Didn't nobody care.' Tut my mama and daddy they loved each other and they loved us children, and that Christmas they fought them demons out of hell like avenging angels of the Lord.' He turned his back toward the fire and grew very quiet; then he raised his head and looked at us. 'They died that night. Them night men kilt 'em. Some folks tell me I can't remember what happened that Christmas — I warn't hardly six years old — but I remembers all right. I makes myself remember.'
164-5

Mr. Morrison displays the intimacy of his connection to history. Because of the immediate and enormous effect on his life, he remembers his past vividly. In fact, it is crucial for him to remain connected to it. He makes himself remember. One of the ways to do this is to share his story with the Logan children. It is also necessary for them to know about racism's past in order to understand the origins of the unfair treatment that they experience in their own lives. This is why David Logan says to Mary: '"These are things they need to hear, baby. It's their history"' (163).

السيد موريسون يعرض حميمية علاقته بالتاريخ . بسبب تأثيره الفوري و الكبير على حياته ، وقال انه يتذكر ماضيه بشكل واضح. في الواقع، فإنه من المهم بالنسبة له أن يبقى على اتصال به، يجعل من نفسه متذكرا له. وواحد من الطرق لكي يفعل ذلك هو مشاركته مع اطفال لوغان. من المهم لهم ان يعرفو عن ماضي العنصرية من اجل فهم المعاملة غير العادلة التي يتعرضون لها في حياتهم

Although Mary is concerned with protecting her children, she, herself, often engages in the effort to demystify history for the children. One of the most important ways that she does this is by teaching the history of slavery in her classroom. Through a valiant and subversive act, she teaches her students the brutal reality of history. The act eventually costs her her job when members of the school board are alerted to the content of her classes. While sitting in on her class, board member Harlan Granger says, pointing to a text book: "I don't see all them things you're teaching in here."' Mary responds by saying: "That's because they're not in there."' When he warns her not to deviate from the textbook, she resolutely states: "all that's in that book isn't true"' (203). She is willing to risk losing her job to teach her students a history that is realistic and uncoded. She interrupts and opposes the clean, unproblematic history found in White textbooks. By teaching the specific effects of slavery, she reveals its horrors — despite racist efforts to maintain silence. Through its specific manifestation in their lives, history is demystified, unlike the mystified history found in their textbooks. It becomes a radical history, one that exposes the inconsistencies and rup-tures of a culturally unequal society.
Unveiling racist power structures The effort to teach the history of slavery demonstrates Mary's concern for unveiling racist power structures. She continually attempts to teach her own children the ways in which power works against them.

على الرغم من ان ماري تهتم بحماية اطفالها، هي، بنفسها غالبا ماتشارك في الجهود الرامية إلى إزالة الغموض عن التاريخ للأطفال
واحدة من أهم الطرق التي تفعل ذلك هي عن طريق تدريس تاريخ العبودية في فصولها الدراسية
من خلال الشجاعة والتغيير، تعلم طلابها واقع التاريخ الوحشي
الفعل الذي كلفها وظيفتها في نهاية المطاف عندما تنبهواأعضاء مجلس إدارة المدرسة لمحتوى دروسها
وقالت انها مستعدة لخطر فقدان وظيفتها لتعليم طلابها التاريخ الذي هو واقعي و غير ملعوب به


Child Agency in Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry 241

She feels that her children will be empowered through this knowledge and will be able to act more intelligently with a greater awareness of their environment. We see this when she takes the children to see Mr. Berry, who has been burned nearly to death by the 'night men.' The burning has left the man horrifically deformed. Cassie tells the reader: The face had no nose, and the head no hair; the skin was scarred, burned, and the lips were wizened black, like charcoal' (107). Mr. Berry is unable to speak, unable to stand light on his damaged eyes, or even the feel of clothes against his charred skin. The Logan children stand by silently as their mother talks to the debilitated man. On the way home, she explains her reason for bringing the children to see him. In a resolute tone, she says:
'The Wallaces did that, children. They poured kerosene over Mr. Berry and his nephews and lit them afire. One of the nephews died, the other one is just like Mr. Berry. .. . Everyone knows they did it, and the Wallaces even laugh about it, but nothing was ever done. They're bad people, the Wallaces. That's why I don't want you to ever go to their store again — for any reason. You understand?'
108

شعرت بأن ابنائها سيتحسنوا بهذه المعرفة وسيكونون قادرين على التصرف بذكاء اكثر ببيئتهم
ونرى ذلك عندما اخذتهم لرؤية السيد بري الذي احرقه رجال الليل
بعينه المدمرتان وشفاهه المتفحمة وجلده المشوه غير قادر على الكلام، غير قادر على الوقوف والرؤية بعينيه
وهنا تشرح لاطفالها سبب اخذهم لرؤيته بلهجه حازمه وتقول


'The Wallaces did that, children. They poured kerosene over Mr. Berry and his nephews and lit them afire. One of the nephews died, the other one is just like Mr. Berry. .. . Everyone knows they did it, and the Wallaces even laugh about it, but nothing was ever done. They're bad people, the Wallaces. That's why I don't want you to ever go to their store again — for any reason. You understand?'

The children nod, 'unable to speak' as they think of the disfigured man they have just seen. There is no effort here to shield them from any unpleasantness, no accommodation for their youth. For Mary, it is more important that they understand the possible repercussions of incautious action than it is to shelter them from unpleasantness. She unveils the power structure for her children, showing them exactly what power is capable of, who wields it, and who is victimized by it. On leaving Mr. Berry, Mary begins to organize her boycott of the Wallaces' store. She talks to the neighbors, sharecropping families who live on the land belonging to Harlan Granger. She tells the neighbors that the Wallaces are allowing the children to drink and smoke at their store while they accrue charges for which their families will be held responsible. She attempts to organize the community to patronize shops that would treat them more justly in the neighboring town of Vicksburg. And she offers to make trips to Vicksburg for the neighbors. Mr. Jamison, the attorney who has befriended the family, offers to back the neighbors' credit so that they may shop at the store in Vicksburg. The Logan children watch their mother as she works as a political organizer. She teaches them that they too can be active agents. She emphasizes the necessity of caution, as she demonstrates by taking the children to see Mr. Berry, but she also stresses the importance of agency. By revealing the ways in which power works, she shows them how agency is possible.

اطفالها بذهول " غير قادر على الكلام؟"
ليس هنالك جهد هنا لحمياتهم من أي احداث غير سارة
تكشف لهم هيكل السلطة وتبين لهم بالضبط السلطة التي تقدر عليها
فتبدا بمقاطعة متجر ولس، تتحدث الى الجيران والكزارعين الذين يعيشون على ارض جرانر
. السيد جاميسون ، المحامي الذي أصبح صديقا لل عائلة ، يقدم دعم الائتمان للجيران بحيث ان يكون باستطاعتهم التسوق في متجر فيكسبيرغ . أطفال لوجان يشاهدون أمهم لأنها تعمل كمنظم سياسي. تعلمهم أنهم أيضا يمكن أن يكونوا عناصر نشطة . انها تشدد على ضرورة توخي الحذر ، كما أنها توضح ذلك من خلال رؤية الأطفال للسيد بري ، لكنها تشدد أيضا على أهمية الاعتماد على النفس والتعلم، تبين لهم كيف ان العمل بالعقل وبثقه مهم


242 Mildred Taylor, Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry (1976)
Mary's boycott is a subversive act, much like her act of covering the issuance charts on the inside of the textbooks of her students. The charts display the condition of the book each time it is reissued and the race of the student to whom it is reissued. It allows the board of education to ensure that African-American children only get books that are in the poorest condition. Each time the students open their books, the charts glaringly remind them of their inferiority. Mary takes it upon herself to cover the charts so that the students are not forced to look at them everyday. In an almost seditious act, she exerts an agency to resist the racist practice. By doing so, she displays to her students, as well as to her own children, that agency is possible and, in fact, crucial and that there are always ways to resist domination. David Logan also serves as an example to the children. He exerts agency when he sets fire to the Logan crops in order to prevent a lynching. When the 'night men' come for T.J., David knows that the only way to prevent them from taking him is to create a diversion. Knowing that the men will be called away by Harlan Granger to fight the fire, whose own land could eventually be destroyed by it, David enacts the only means he can to prevent T.J.'s lynching. Although he loses a quarter of his own crops, he manages to save T.J.'s life. David does not tell his children what he has done, but Cassie and her eldest brother, Stacey, know. Cassie describes the moment of her realization:
Stacey looked around at me sharply, his face drawn, his eyes anxious, and with-out even a murmur from him I suddenly did know. . . Papa had found a way, as Mama asked, to make Mr. Granger stop the hanging: He had started the fire 302; emphasis mine

مقاطعة ماري عمل تخريبي سياسي، كعملها بتغطية مسائل الرسوم البيانية داخل الكتب الدراسية لطلابها
الرسوم البيانية توضح حالة الكتاب بكل مرة يتعم اعادة اصداره فيها ومعدل الطالب للذين يتعم اعادة اصدار الكتب لهم
لانها تتيح لمجلس التعليم تامين الكتب للاطفال الافارقه الامريكان ان يحصلو على الكتب ذات الحالة المهترئه السيئه
لوغان يوضح للاطفال انه يمارس الاجنسي (العمل الذي ) عندما يضرم النار بالحقل من أجل منع الإعدام خارج نطاق القانون
ديفيد يقول انه السبيل الوحيد لتخليص تي جي من الاعدام ، على الرغم من انه سيفقد ربع محاصيله


Agency can, indeed, be exerted but, because of their oppressive environment, they must be clever about exerting it. Their parents serve as examples to them of how they can triumph. Their victories may never be large or obvious, yet, with an awareness of how power works, they have the ability to exert some control over their lives. They learn this despite their racist society, which suggests that any sort of agency is impossible. Often, we see the elders allow the children to make their own decisions. The children are given information, but the choice of how to use the information is often left up to them. We see an example of this when Uncle Hammer responds to Stacey giving his new coat to T.J. Although Hammer thinks Stacey has made a bad decision, he does not take it upon himself to get the coat back from T.J. nor does he force Stacey to ask for it back. He is concerned with making Stacey aware of the outcome of his decision and allows Stacey to live with its effects. Hammer does reprimand him, but he does so in order to make Stacey aware of his own part in his fate. During the scene, Hammer emphasizes the importance of making intelligent decisions:



Child Agency in Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry 243

'Now you hear me good on this — look at me when I talk to you, boy!' Immediately Stacey raised his head and looked at Uncle Hammer, 'If you ain't got the brains of a flea to sec that this T.J. fellow made a fool of you, then you'll never get anywhere in this world. It's tough out there, boy, and as long as there are people, there's gonna be somebody trying to take what you got and trying to drag you down. It's up to you whether you let them or not. 156-7; emphasis mine
Hammer makes Stacey aware of the realities of their environment, but he leaves it up to Stacey to decide what to do with the information. Hammer, in fact, forces Stacey to stand by his decision to give the coat away. When T.J.'s father brings him to the Logan house to return the coat, Hammer makes Stacey tell him that it now belongs to T.J.. He demonstrates to Stacey the impact of his decisions and, thus, makes him aware that he is an agent in his own future. Another moment when the Logan children are allowed to choose their fate occurs when Mr. Morrison finds them at the Wallaces' store after Mary has forbidden them to go. He tells the children that he will not tell their mother but will leave it up to them to do so. He also does not reprimand Stacey for fighting with T.J.. Instead, he validates Stacey's need to attempt to solve problems, even, at times, through the use of violence. But he lets the children know that they must make decisions intelligently. He says:
'Sometimes a person's gotta fight. ... But that store ain't the place to be doing it. From what I hear, folks like them Wallaces got no respect at all for colored folks and they just think it's funny when we fight each other. Your mama knowed them Wallaces ain't good folks, that's why she don't want y'all down there, and y'all owe it to her and y'allselves to tell her. But I'm gonna leave it up to y'all to decide.' 95-6
When Stacey tells Mr. Morrison that he will tell his mother, the two of them share an intimate moment of understanding. Cassie describes the scene: `[Stacey's] eyes met Mr. Morrison's and the two of them smiled in subtle understanding, the distance between them fading' (96). Here we see the distinction between 'child' and 'adult' collapse. The 'child,' Stacey, acts in an 'adult' manner by taking responsibility for his actions. Mr. Morrison real-izes this and acknowledges Stacey's autonomy. At this moment, the two exist on the same level, the boundary that separates the child and adult worlds is destabilized.

244 Mildred Taylor, Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry (1976)
The most powerful example of unveiling racist power structures occurs after Cassie is pushed off of the sidewalk in Strawberry by Mr. Simms and made to apologize for being in the way of his daughter, Lillian Jean. Cassie is humiliated when Mr. Simms demands that she call Lillian Jean `Miz.' When Cassie asks her mother why Mr. Simms pushes her, Mary explains, in clear, unveiled terms:
'Because he thinks Lillian Jean is better than you are, Cassie [. . .] I didn't say that Lillian Jean is better than you. I said Mr. Simms only thinks she is. In fact, he thinks that she's better than Stacey or Little Man or Christopher John—' 'Just 'cause she's his daughter?' I asked, beginning to think Mr. Simms was a bit touched in the head. 'No, baby, because she's white.'
139
Here we see the chance for Mary to shield her daughter from racism's harsh reality. She could play on Cassie's naivete and give her a coded answer, but she does not. She goes on to explain to Cassie the long history of racism that has led to the imbalance of power. She ends her de******ion by telling Cassie that she may be forced to call Lillian Jean `Miz,' but she will never be forced to respect her. She hints of a tactic for resistance and, thus, encourages her daughter's own subversive agency. Mary says: "Baby, we have no choice of what color we're born or who our parents are or whether we're rich or poor. What we do have is some choice over what we make of our lives once we're here. . . . And I pray to God you'll make the best of yours" ' (142). When David returns, Cassie seeks his advice about the situation. David says: '"You know the Bible says you're s'pose to forgive these things. . . . S'pose to turn the other cheek. . . . But the way I see it, the Bible didn't mean for you to be no fool" ' (192). David goes on to explain to Cassie that there will be many things that she, like him, will be forced to do in order to survive. Then he says:

'But there are other things, Cassie, that if I'd let be, they'd eat away at me and destroy me in the end. And it's the same with you, baby. There are things you can't back down on, things you gotta take a stand on. But it's up to you to decide what them things are. You have to demand respect in this world, ain't nobody just gonna hand it to you. How you carry yourself, what you stand for – that's how you gain respect. But, little one, ain't nobody's respect worth more than your own. . . . Now, there ain't no sense in going around being mad. You clear your head so you can think sensibly. Then I want you to think real hard on whether or not Lillian Jean's worth taking a stand about, but keep in mind that

Child Agency in Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry 245

Lillian Jean probably won't be the last white person to treat you this way. . . . This here's an important decision, Cassie, very important — I want you to under-stand that — but I think you can handle it. Now, you listen to me, and you listen good. This thing, if you make the wrong decision and Charlie Simms gets involved, then I get involved and there'll be trouble.'
193-5
The scene is one of the most powerful displays of respect in the novel. David knows full well the extreme danger of the situation. He is aware that the wrong decision could put Cassie and the rest of the family in harm's way. Yet, he validates his daughter's feelings and her need for self-respect. He explains that there are always compromises to be made. One should always exercise caution when determining how to act. But, he lets Cassie know that he believes that some things are worth fighting for. He encourages her to take a stand against Lillian Jean but to be clever about it. In essence, he advises his daughter to be covert in orchestrating her revenge. He acknowledges her need for subjectivity and validates her anger and hurt pride. We see that he considers his daughter's self-worth to be extremely valuable and worth fighting for and allows her to make her own decision about exactly how to fight for it.


اقوى العروض او المشاهد بالروايه مشاهد الاحترام ، كمعرفة الوالد لحاجة ابنته للاحترام
يعترف بحاجتها الذاتيه ويؤكد غضبها


The historical timing of the novel Taylor's desire is to be an agent in the further passing on of history, her personal history that, for her, is a shared, symbolic history, a history of African-American experience. She is engaged in the effort to supplement (and contradict) the history that for so many years since the abolition of slavery has been laid down in books by white writers. The effort to reclaim history has been increasingly crucial for race theory. Taylor joins many who have worked to rewrite the history books to include more accurate and realistic information. Homi Bhabha stresses the importance of reclaiming history for minority cultures. In his essay, 'The Location of Culture' (1998), he discusses the concept of allowing memory to speak both the good and bad of history. For Bhabha, it is necessary to revive the past through an intense engagement with memory. He cites Toni Morrison's Beloved as such an attempt. The women in the novel engage in an effort to resurrect the history of slavery, its 'murderous rituals of possession and self-possession, in order to project a contemporary fable of a woman's history that is at the same time the narrative of an effective, historic memory of an emergent public sphere of men and women alike' (937). In Beloved, Scethe undergoes a process of reclaiming her personal history, which is an act of

246 Mildred Taylor, Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry (1976)
reclaiming slavery's painful past for African Americans. Bhabha feels that a people can only be freed from the burdens of history through this sort of intense engagement with the past. This seems to be the project with which Taylor is engaged. She joins in the effort to reclaim and revive a specific, realistic African-American history. Much like the Logan elders, she demystifies history and unveils power structures for her readers. The effect of this intense engagement with the past is a new, radical history, one that has the potential to transform those who have been denied a connection to the past through the mystification and fabrication of history by the dominant culture. The didacticism found in Taylor's fiction is meant to enable the minority culture to resist domination. Thus, the child characters are treated in a way that is very different from those of classic children's novels. Because of the necessity of resistance, they are given greater autonomy and treated as subjects, regardless of age. And, they work as active agents, just as their elders do. This destabilizes the distinction between childhood and adulthood upon which the didacticism of classical children's literature so firmly rests. It deconstructs the barrier between the two worlds. Whereas it is necessary to construct and maintain this barrier in classical children's literature, in Taylor's novel, born of specific social/historical forces, it becomes necessary to deconstruct it. As a result of this process, children are encouraged to question author-ity. Rather than blindly accepting the conditions of their racist society, they are prompted to oppose the authority that is forced on them and view themselves as powerful agents of change. The racial specificity of Taylor's novel necessitates this type of child agency. Because minority children face a world that denies them power, both in childhood and adulthood, it is cru-cial for them to develop and exert their own subversive agency. As we see in the novel, this opens the possibility for becoming child and adult subjects, despite the attempts of the dominant culture.

تخصيص تيلور للعرق من الشايلد اجنسي (تعليم الطفل للعمل بالذكاء والاعتماد على نفسه)

References

Bhabha, Homi, 'The location of culture,' in Literary Theory: An Anthology, Julie Rivkin and Michael Ryan, eds. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 1998. Rose, Jacqueline, The Case of Peter Pan, or, The Impossibility of Children's Fiction. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1993. Taylor, Mildred D., Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry. London and New York: Puffin, [1976] 1995. Wilder, Laura Ingalls, Little House on the Prairie. New York: Harper Collins, 1971.



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