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قديم 21-01-2011, 08:08 PM   #15
The moon face The moon face غير متصل
طالب فعال
 
الصورة الرمزية The moon face

 











افتراضي رد: أسئلة الفاينال 2011, لمادة e300


يقهر صراحه...

تافه بالنسبه لصعوبه الماااده....

اللي قهرني اني ماراجعت البروسيس وكتبت من ذاكرتي تأليف..........!


يارب ننجح ياااااااااااارب
The moon face غير متصل  
قديم 21-01-2011, 10:38 PM   #16
Prřnçêssê Prřnçêssê غير متصل
طالب جديد
 
الصورة الرمزية Prřnçêssê

 









افتراضي رد: أسئلة الفاينال 2011, لمادة e300


لازم كتب عن كل البروسس
بالسؤال مطلوب لازم نكتب عن المينتال بروسس
وبهالسؤال لازم نكتب عن نظرية هاليدي بتصور
Prřnçêssê غير متصل  
قديم 23-01-2011, 05:22 PM   #17
mإيمانm mإيمانm غير متصل
طالب فعال

 










افتراضي رد: أسئلة الفاينال 2011, لمادة e300


مابعرف انا ماركزت عن المينتال بروكسس كتير يادوب كتبت تعريفه وحتى نسيت احطله المثال يادوب كتبت الاساسة وفي كمان نوعين ثانوين حطيتهم وخلاص المهم ننجح يارب
mإيمانm غير متصل  
قديم 23-01-2011, 07:22 PM   #18
عربية قح عربية قح غير متصل
طــالب
 
الصورة الرمزية عربية قح

 










افتراضي رد: أسئلة الفاينال 2011, لمادة e300


اقتباس:
المشاركة الأصلية كتبت بواسطة فراشه المنتدى مشاهدة المشاركة
الاسئله نوعا ما سهله لكن ذاكرنا الصعب وركزنا عليه تركيز كلي
وجانا سهل وتوهقناااا فيه






معليش يا فراشة إسمحيلي السؤال الثالث كان غير متوقع تماما الأول من التشابتر الثامن إلي كل الدكاترة إلي في جميع الأفرع ما شرحوه و الثاني من التشابتر الخامس إلي معظمه إقتباسات!!
فتحت التشابتر الخامس كذا مرة وحاولت أذاكر منه بس من جد كرامتي ما سمحتلي أذاكر تشابتر كله إقتباسات

وبعدان إحنى متعودين أن الأجزاء إلي فيها إقتباسات عادة ما تجي إشمعنا حبكت هذه السنة
عربية قح غير متصل  
قديم 23-01-2011, 09:45 PM   #19
mإيمانm mإيمانm غير متصل
طالب فعال

 










افتراضي رد: أسئلة الفاينال 2011, لمادة e300


خليها على الله بس نحن تعبنا واكيد الله كبير ومالح يضوعلنا تعب والله مابعرف شو خبصت بالاخر سؤال حتى انا قلت وبالمنتدى حكوا انه شابتر 5 مو مهم والتاني عن البروكسس اغلبه الماجر بروكسس حطيتلهم امثلة الا المنتال ماحطيتله لاني نسيت ويادوب حطيت تعريفه
امانة ادعولي خايفة كتير
mإيمانm غير متصل  
قديم 26-01-2011, 12:36 AM   #20
جريحه الحب جريحه الحب غير متصل
طــالب

 










افتراضي رد: أسئلة الفاينال 2011, لمادة e300


انزين نحط كله البروسس ولا بس المينتال
انا حطيتهم كلهم مع المنتال..
جريحه الحب غير متصل  
قديم 26-01-2011, 06:42 PM   #21
بَنفسج بَنفسج غير متصل
طــالب
 
الصورة الرمزية بَنفسج
افتراضي رد: أسئلة الفاينال 2011, لمادة e300


الفألُ بالقادم إن شاء الله ...


: )

بَنفسج غير متصل  
قديم 05-02-2011, 02:19 PM   #22
عربية قح عربية قح غير متصل
طــالب
 
الصورة الرمزية عربية قح

 










افتراضي رد: أسئلة الفاينال 2011, لمادة e300


اقتباس:
المشاركة الأصلية كتبت بواسطة جريحه الحب مشاهدة المشاركة
انزين نحط كله البروسس ولا بس المينتال
انا حطيتهم كلهم مع المنتال..

ياستي المفروض بس عن المنتال أما الباقي فلا مانع من ذكرهم
عربية قح غير متصل  
قديم 28-12-2011, 08:49 PM   #23
لوليتا لامبيكا لوليتا لامبيكا غير متصل
ملكة الألوان 2011
 
الصورة الرمزية لوليتا لامبيكا
افتراضي رد: أسئلة الفاينال 2011, لمادة e300A


شكرا للغالية بنفسج على تذكير الطلاب

وشكرا لمن وضع الاسئلة

لوليتا لامبيكا غير متصل  
قديم 15-01-2012, 10:06 PM   #24
Dying Rose Dying Rose غير متصل
طالب جديد
 
الصورة الرمزية Dying Rose

 









افتراضي رد: أسئلة الفاينال 2011, لمادة e300A


Can someone plz put for us the answer for the question of the processes
Dying Rose غير متصل  
قديم 16-01-2012, 03:55 PM   #25
love & stability love & stability غير متصل
طالب نشيط
 
الصورة الرمزية love & stability

 











افتراضي رد: أسئلة الفاينال 2011, لمادة e300A


هذي اجابه عن standard language
هذا تجميعي من الملخصات كل شي يخصوو



 Vernacular and standard languages.
- The vernacular is an unmodified and unstandardized variety, used in informal situations associated with specific functions (rituals, membership, ethnicity etc).
- Standard language: the prestigious variety that emerge as the result of social and political factors and economic influences.
In sociolinguistics, the focus includes the characteristics of the variety concerned (the vernacular or the standard) and the activities and social relations linked to its use.

In Western societies where women’s and men’s social roles overlap, the speech forms they use also overlap.
Women tend to use more standard forms than men. Men use more of the vernacular forms.
Standard speech forms are generally associated with high class status. Women use more standard speech forms as a way of claiming such status.
By using more standard speech forms women are looking to be valued by the society.
African Americans do not need a distinctive variety or code as a symbolic way of differentiating themselves from the majority group. They are visibly different. Nevertheless, this group has developed a distinct variety of English known as African American Vernacular English AAVE. This dialect has a number of features which do not occur in standard mainstream American English. These linguistic features act as symbols of ethnicity. They express a sense of cultural distinctiveness for African Americans. One of its most observed features is the complete absence of the copula verb “be” in some social and linguistic contexts:

AAVE American SE

She very nice She’s very nice
He a teacher He’s a teacher
That my book That’s my book

In recordings of Detroit speech, white Americans never omitted the copula verb “be”, whereas African Americans, especially those from the lower socio economic groups, regularly did.

Another distinctive grammatical feature of AAVE is the use of “be” to signal recurring or repeated actions.

AAVE American SE

She be at school on weekdays She is always at school ....

Children do be messing around a lot The children do mess
around a lot

I run when I bees on my way to school I run when I am on ..
Covert prestige refers to positive attitudes towards vernacular or non-standard speech varieties. The local accent is the only possible way of speaking to friends, work mates and family. It expresses group identify and solidarity.
Overtly negative attitudes to non-standard varieties of English, e.g. Patois and Creole reflect the depressed social position of the West Indian people in Britain rather than features of the language itself
Standard Language
Standardization is a part of a much wider process of economic, political and cultural unification. We can think of its growth as a long process of colonization, whereby it gradually “took over” the major social institutions of literature, government and administration, law, religion and education.

Standard English emerges as the language of political and cultural power, and as the language of the politically and culturally powerful. Standard English was regarded as correct English, and other social dialects were stigmatized not only in terms of correctness but also in terms which indirectly reflected on the lifestyles, morality and so forth of their speakers.
Standard language لغة فصحى، لغة مرموقة
لهجة اصبحت تستعمل للعلم والادب واكتسبت مركزا مرموقا بين اللهجات الاخرى واصبح ينظر اليها على انها اكثر صحة ودقة من اللهجات الاخرى التابعة للغة ما. وتدعى ايضا اللهجة الفصحى
standard dialect


Vernacular language
(1)لغة عامية.
(2)لغة محلية: لغة خاصة باقليم او جماعة او مهنة
Standard and Non-standard Dialects - A standard dialect (also known as a standardized dialect or "standard language") is a dialect that is supported by institutions. Such institutional support may include government recognition or designation; presentation as being the "correct" form of a language in schools; published grammars, dictionaries, and textbooks that set forth a "correct" spoken and written form; and an extensive formal literature that employs that dialect (prose, poetry, nonfiction, etc.). There may be multiple standard dialects associated with a language. For example, Standard American English, Standard British English, and Standard Indian English may all be said to be standard dialects of the English language.A nonstandard dialect, like a standard dialect, has a complete vocabulary, grammar, and syntax, but is not the beneficiary of institutional support.


Power behind the discourse is used in standardization.
Standardization is important in economic, political and cultural unification.
The rise of Standard English helped to the raise of power in the merchants.
There is difference between standard and non- standard language.
Standard English refers to correct English which is used in schools, universities and governmental offices. Nonstandard English refers to the language which is used in home and with friends.

Standardization is a part of a much wider process of economic, political and cultural unification. We can think of its growth as a long process of colonization, whereby it gradually “took over” the major social institutions of literature, government and administration, law, religion and education.

Standard English emerges as the language of political and cultural power, and as the language of the politically and culturally powerful. Standard English was regarded as correct English, and other social dialects were stigmatized not only in terms of correctness but also in terms which indirectly reflected on the lifestyles, morality and so forth of their speakers.


Standard language (pp76-78): is in origin a prestigious regional variety (dialect) that acquires importance and becomes codified (through grammars and dictionaries), and is used in formal situations (for High functions such as government offices, education, and literature).

The majority of world languages have no writing medium, and only a minority of the world languages is written and standardized.
Standard English which emerges in the 15th century was in origin the dialect of the London area. It was prestigious because it was the language of the court; and influential as it was used by the merchants of London. Its codification was accelerated by the introduction of the first printing press in 1476 by William Caxton.

Sociolinguistics considers all languages (whether standard or vernacular) as equally complex systems (none being primitive), and worth of studying; that standard language is one among other dialects and is not better than any other one for any internal virtues but has acquired more importance because of certain external factors , that the main difference between varieties is related to the social and political contexts in which they are used.
Women use more standard forms than men who use more vernacular forms than women, and this pattern is found from an early age.
Why?????

p. 164 Explanation 1: Women have a lower status compared with men so they use standard language to acquire status. But working women working in the home who have lower status than working women outside the home were found in a study to use less standard language than those at home.

p. 165 Explanation 2: Better behavior is expected from women than from men by the society because they serve as models for their children's speech. But interaction between mother and child is usually informal and relaxed.

p. 166 Explanation 3. : People who are subordinate or of lower power use more polite forms (children and women) but polite speech can be expressed in vernacular language too.

p. 167 Explanation 4. : Men prefer vernacular forms because they have macho connotations of masculinity and toughness, whereas standard forms are associated with femininity.

P.169 Explanation 5. : Women are more cooperative with their interviewers and accommodate to their middle class speech. Men are less cooperative in such situations, and working- class men may use more vernacular to distinguish themselves from their interviewers.

p. 170 Explanations 6. : Women's greater use of standard language may result from their sensitivity to the formal context of the interviews usually carried out by a stranger (of a different gender). Then it is clear that the relation between language and gender is a complex one.
A standard variety is generally one which is written, and which has undergone some degree of regularization or codification ( for example, in a grammar and a dictionary). It is recognized as a prestigious variety or code by a community, and it is used for H functions alongside a diversity of L varieties. The development of standard English illustrates the three essential criteria which characterize a standard: it was an influential or prestigious variety, it was codified and stabilized, and it served H functions in the it was used for communication at court, for literature and for administration

دعواتكم لي
love & stability غير متصل  
قديم 16-01-2012, 04:21 PM   #26
love & stability love & stability غير متصل
طالب نشيط
 
الصورة الرمزية love & stability

 











افتراضي رد: أسئلة الفاينال 2011, لمادة e300A


وهذا Lingua Franca

Lingua Franca is the language used for communication between people whose first languages differ.
o Serves as regular means of communication b/w diff groups in a multilingual speech community.
l Used for communication b/w people whose first languages differ.
l
l
l Lingua Franca لغة مشتركة
l (1) لغة معظمها مستمد من الايطالية ممزوجة بالفرنسية والاسبانية واليونانية والعربية مستخدمة في موانىء البحر الابيض المتوسط.
l (2) اية لغة مشتركة مولدة من عدة لغات تستخدمها جماعات كوسيلة للتفاهم اتلمتبادل بينها بسبب الاختلاف بين لغاتهذه الجماعة.
l
l A lingua franca is any language widely used beyond its native speakers, primarily for international commerce but extending to other cultural exchanges, such as diplomacy. The origin of the term lingua franca is Italian languageItalian (literally "Frankish language"), derived from the medieval Arab and Muslim use of "Franks" (ancient Germanic peoplesGermanic people) as a generic term for Europeans during the period of the Crusades.Originally "lingua franca" referred to a mix of mostly Italian with a broad vocabulary drawn from Turkish languageTurkish, Persian languagePersian, French languageFrench, Greek languageGreek and Arabic languageArabic. This mixed language (pidgin, creole language) was used for communication throughout the medieval and early modern Middle East as a diplomatic language; the generic de******ion "lingua franca" has since become common for any language used by speakers of different languages to communicate with one another.In an important sense, the terms "lingua franca" and "diplomatic language" remain distinct; the former refers largely to spoken languages which find common use, while the latter is typically limited to common written systems which do not ''directly'' find use among the common public. A prime example is Akkadian languageAkkadian, which (as shown in the Amarna letters,~1350 B.C.) was used for correspondence between Ancient EgyptEgypt and its Canaanite vassals, and neighboring kingdoms, as far away as Babylon. Akkadian, being one of the first "diplomatic languages", contained Sumerograms, from Sumer, the sumerogram being many hundreds of years older, from the beginning of written language. This diplomatic-level communication would, over time, serve language (hence cultural) transculturation, eventually developing the Greek alphabetGreek and Roman alphabetRoman writing systems, that we currently use today.

Languages which have served as a ''lingua franca'' - During the Roman Empire and for the following millennium the ''lingua franca'' was Greek languageGreek in the east and Latin in the west. The French language also served as ''lingua franca'' later on. French was the language of diplomacy in Europe from the 17th century until its very recent replacement by English, and as a result is still the working language of international institutions and is seen on documents ranging from passports to airmail letters. French was also the language used among the educated in cosmopolitain cities in North Africa such as Cairo, Egypt around the turn of the century until WWII. German languageGerman served as a ''lingua franca'' in portions of Europe during the 19th and 20th centuries, especially in business, politics, science (physics), and sociology. English languageEnglish is the current ''lingua franca'' of Western international business and has also displaced French in diplomacy since World War II, a trend arguably ignited by the conduct of French- and respectively English-speaking nations during the war (the de facto status of ''lingua franca'' is usually "awarded" by the masses to the language of the most respected and influential nation(s) of the time), and certainly influenced by the massive anglophonic cultural exports from the United States (movies and music).In other regions of the world, other languages perform the function of a ''lingua franca'': Portuguese languagePortuguese served as ''lingua franca'' in Africa and Asia in the 15th and 16th centuries. Swahili in East Africa, Russian languageRussian in areas formerly associated with the Soviet Union, German languageGerman in much of Eastern Europe until after World War II, Hindustani languageHindustani (along with English) in India, Malay languageMalay in South-East Asia, Bislama in the Pacific Islands, and various Pidgin languages in other locations and times. Until the late-19th and early-20th centuries, Classical Chinese served as both a ''lingua franca'' and diplomatic language for Far East Asia, used by China, Korea, Japan, the Ryukyus, and Vietnam in interstate communications. Currently, among most Chinese speaking communities, Mandarin Chinese serves the function of providing a common spoken language between speakers of different and mutually unintelligible Chinese dialects. In Switzerland, which has four different official languages, English serves as a lingua franca with citizens and the relatively high (20%) foreign population.''See also'': international auxiliary language

In a specific sense - Lingua Franca meaning "Frankish language" was an early language, used in the Mediterranean area from the 14th century or earlier and still in use in the 20th century. Lingua Franca was known by Mediterranean sailors including the Portuguese. When the Portuguese started exploring the seas of Africa, America, Asia and Oceania, they tried to communicate with the natives by mixing a Portuguese-influenced version of Lingua Franca with the local languages. When English or French ships came to compete with the Portuguese, the crew tried to learn this "broken Portuguese". Through a process of change the Lingua Franca and Portuguese wordstock was substituted by the languages of the people in contact.Polari, the gay cant (language)cant slang in 1950s-1960s United KingdomBritain, derives partly from Lingua Franca.

l Lingua Franca is one language often used by common agreement.
1- English has been called "the lingua franca of the whole world"
2- French, at one time was "the lingua franca of diplomacy"
3- Latin was a lingua franca of the Roman Empire and of western Christendom for a millennium.

l Lingua franca (pp80-82): is a language used in a multilingual community as a tool of communication (such as Swahili in many African countries. (Sometimes, lingua franca becomes the country's national language as in Tanzania.
ايضا من تجميعي من الملخصات

دعواتكم لي اجيب A
love & stability غير متصل  
قديم 16-01-2012, 04:47 PM   #27
love & stability love & stability غير متصل
طالب نشيط
 
الصورة الرمزية love & stability

 











افتراضي رد: أسئلة الفاينال 2011, لمادة e300A


وهذا pidgin


Pidgin is two (or possibly more) groups use their native languages as a basis for rudimentary language of few lexical items and less complex grammatical rules. (p25 or 124)
For example:
Tok Pisin :it is English based pidgin and it has its own writing system, its own literature, and its own newspapers and radio programs; it has even been used to address a united Nation meeting. (P25-----26)

o A language with no native speakers.
o Develops as a means of communication between people who do not have a common language.

Pidgin is the language that develops as a means of communication between people who do not have a common language. Pidgin languages have no status or prestige. They develop to serve a restricted function and have a short life, e.g. a trading pidgin disappears when the trade between the groups dies out.
l Pidgin Vs. Creole
Pidgin Creole
A language with no native speakers A pidgin which has acquired native speakers
Simplified grammatical structure Linguistically complex
Restricted domains & functions Can be used for all functions of any language
Not prestigious Has a prestigious position at least by its speakers.

Pidgin لغة هجين
لغة عامية مبسطة تستخدم للتفاهم بين جماعات مختلفة اللغات وخاصة الموانىء وللاغراض التجارية وتدعى ايضا
Hybrid language
او
Contact vernacular

Expert A Pidgin, or contact language, is the name given to any language created, usually spontaneously, out of a mixture of other languages as a means of communication between speakers of different tongues. Pidgins have rudimentary grammars and restricted vocabulary, serving as international auxiliary languageauxiliary contact languages. They are improvised rather than learned natively. Jiggery can develop to become creole languages. This requires the pidgin to be learned natively by children, who then generalize the features of the pidgin into a fully-formed, stabilized grammar (see Nicaraguan Sign Language). At this stage the language is no longer a pidgin, as it has acquired the full complexity of a human language, and becomes a creole. Often creoles can then replace the existing mix of languages to become the native language of the current community (such as Krio in Sierra Leone and Tok Pisin in Papua New Guinea). However, pidgins do not always become creoles—they can die out or become obsolete. The concept originated in Europe among the merchants and traders in the Mediterranean in the Middle Ages, who used ''Lingua franca'' (also named Sabir languageSabir). Another well-known pidgin is the ''Beach-la-Mar'' of the South Seas, based on English languageEnglish but incorporating Malay languageMalay, Chinese languageChinese, and Portuguese languagePortuguese words. Bislama, as it is now called in Vanuatu, is fairly mutually intelligible with Tok Pisin.Caribbean pidgins are the result of colonialism. As tropical islands were colonised their society was restructured, with a ruling minority of some European nation and a large mass of non-European laborers. The laborers, natives, slaves or cheap immigrant workers, would often come from many different language groups and would need to communicate. This led to the development of pidgins.The creation of a pidgin usually requires:
 Prolonged, regular contact between the different language communities
 A need to communicate between them
 An absence of (or absence of widespread proficiency in) a widespread, accessible interlanguage.Spanglish is not a Pidgin, it is a code switching because it shares vocabulary rather than inventing a new one.

Pidgin is two (or possibly more) groups use their native languages as a basis for rudimentary language of few lexical items and less complex grammatical rules. (p25 or 124)
For example:
Tok Pisin :it is English based pidgin and it has its own writing system, its own literature, and its own newspapers and radio programs; it has even been used to address a united Nation meeting. (P25-----26)
Pidgin (pp83-87): is a language that develops for communication among people who do not have a common language as a lingua franca. In the 17th & 18th centuries, pidgins developed in the Caribbean slave plantations as a language of trade for referential functions. The prestige language provides more vocabulary (and is thus called ' the Lexifier ‘) and the less prestigious language provides grammar (and is thus called 'the substrate'). A pidgin's grammar is usually very simple without gender, tense, or number inflections; and its vocabulary too is limited (a few hundred words only,), as a pidgin serves a narrow range of domains in communication; but in an ordinary language a speaker needs 25000-30000 words for communication. Pidgin languages do not have prestige, and have a short life as they often disappear because trade between the groups dies out, or one group learns the language of the other in case trade continued among them for long periods. In some cases, a pidgin becomes a creole or a full language.

Pidgins
A pidgin is a language which has no native speakers. Pidgins develop as a means of communication between people who do not have a common language. So a pidgin is no one's native language. Pidgins seem particularly likely to arise when two groups with different languages are communicating is a situation where there is also a third dominant language. Pidgins are used almost exclusively for referential rather than effective functions. Pidgin languages are created from the combined efforts of people who speak different languages. All languages involved may contribute to the sounds, the vocabulary, and the grammatical features, but to different extents, and some additional features may emerge which are unique to the new variety. Usually the prestige language tends to supply more of the vocabulary, while the vernacular languages have more influence on the grammar of the developing pidgin. The language which supplies most of the vocabulary is known as the lexifier (or sometimes the superstrate) language, while the language which influence the grammatical structure are called the substrate. Pidgins develop to serve a very narrow range of functions in a very restricted set of domains, they tend to have a simplified structure and a small vocabulary compared with fully developed languages. For pidgin language which is used only for trade, a few hundred words are sufficient. To sum up, a pidgin language has three identifying characteristics: [LIST][*]It is used in restricted domains and functions[*]It has a simplified structure compared to the source language [*]It generally has low prestige and attracts negative attitudes – especially from outsiders. [/LIST]
يارب دعواتكم لي انجح واجيب معدل حلو فوق ال 3
love & stability غير متصل  
قديم 16-01-2012, 10:14 PM   #28
love & stability love & stability غير متصل
طالب نشيط
 
الصورة الرمزية love & stability

 











افتراضي رد: أسئلة الفاينال 2011, لمادة e300A


وهذا كل شي يخص
creole مع الامثله


Creole[LIST][*]لغة هجين، لغة مختلطة: لغة مبسطة تتكون من عناصر من لغات عديدة.[*]الكرييولية: الفرنسية كما يسعملها كثير من الزنوج في جنوب لويزيانا.[/LIST]
For the languages, see Creole language''The term ''Creole'' is used with different meanings in different contexts, which can generate confusion. Generally it refers to a people or a culture that is distinctive or local to a region, but with various additional shades of meaning.

Development of a Creole - While the uses of the words "creole" and "pidgin" usually mix when referring to trade languages, linguists consider them two separate categories. Creoles are categorized as a bridge in langage development between a pidgin and a language. When a simple form of communication is created by combining and simplifying the traits of two or more languages, a pidgin is created. Pidgins have no native speakers and usually have no standard pronounciation, vocabulary, or grammar. A creole is the next step up from a pidgin, having native speakers, and a somewhat standardized yet simple vocabulary and word order. Creoles can become their own language, as with Old English, which merged the dialects and languages of Northern Germany and Scandanavia. This also happened with Tok Pisin, which has become a pidgin, creole, and now a language in a period of 90 years. Creoles can remain as a sort of second, local standard, like the Haitian creole, or they can be absorbed into the local dialect, which has happened in Latin America and a little in Hawai'i.

Latin American Creole - In most of Latin America ''Creole'' (Spanish languageSpanish, ''criollo'', Portuguese languagePortuguese, ''crioulo'') generally refers to people of unmixed Spanish peopleSpanish or Portuguese peoplePortuguese descent born in the New World. In Brazil, though, the word is a pejorative slang for a blacksblack individual.Throughout the Spanish colonization of the Americascolonial history of Latin America, the Spanish caste system made distinction between ''criollos'' and the higher-ranking and governing ''peninsulares'', despite both being of pure Spanish ancestry — the only distinction being that the latter were born on the Iberian Peninsula, hence the name. This formed a discontented ''criollo'' underclass that, together with the support of the other decreasing-in-rank underclasses — castizo, mestizo, mulatto, amerindian, zambo and ultimately black Slaveryslaves — impelled the Mexican War of Independence (1810–1821) and the South American Wars of Independence (1810–1825) against Spain, culminating in the establishment of republics throughout the former Spanish Empire. In Brazil, a very different process occurred, independence largely being granted without major war, and the relationship between unmixed Portuguese and Mestizo#Latin America mestiços kept mostly peaceful. Unlike in Spanish America, a Brazilian Empire Brazilian monarchy directly connected to the Portuguese monarchy was established. Those unmixed Portuguese born in Portugal living in Brazil were deemed ''galegos'' (literally Galicia (Spain)Galicians, in reference to the northern Portuguese origin of most, but also used on those born in south Portugal).



Creolization تهجين اللغة
تبسيط اللغة لاغراض التعامل اليومي، وينشأ هذا التبسيط من اتصال اهل اللغة بأقوام غريبة لا تعرف لغتهم.

Creolization is a process through which a simplified contact language becomes a fully developed native language, that is, a pidgin language becomes a creole language. The first process is referred to as ''pidginization'', the second is ''creolization'', notions used in contact-linguistics. There may be a stage after creolization called !''decreolization''.;Pidginizat ion:? Pidgin is a language that has no native speakers. It develops as three or more different languages (different peoples) interact mostly for the sake of trade. If there are three peoples, three languages one of which is dominant the inferior languages must still interact because they not only trade with the dominant people but also with each other. In this case they must simplify the dominant language so that they can speak in their low-class situation. For example on an island (Haiti, Hawaii). This "new" pidgin (contact) language will contain features from all the base languages. They will blend both grammatically and functionally. Though both its vocabulary and grammar is reduced as opposed to the base languages (Holm (1988) 4-5). At this stage it is not a fully developed language yet. ;Creolization: This is the second stage where the pidgin language develops into a fully developed language that is a creole language. This will be the mother-tongue for many people. The creolization process happens because people, especially children, using a pidgin develop native capacity (Noam Chomsky) in it therefore the structure of it changes as time goes on. It is a normal language with all the criteria a language needs. The morphology and syntax of the creole is richer than the pidgin's, its phonolgy has set rules and the functions in which the creole is used is increased. The vocabulary will contain more and more words according to a rational and stable system (Wardhaugh 56-57). ;Post-creole continuum/decreolization: The post-creole continuum comes into being when the process of decreolization begins, namely, if a society has two official languages, a 'crole Y' and a 'standard Y' and the standard has a great effect on the creole. In this case speakers of the creole start correcting their language according to the standard. Then a large scale of varieties can be observed. The Guayanaian varieties of the English sentence ''I told him'':1. aɪ tɔuld hɪm 1-3. middle-class use, acrolectic forms2. aɪ toːld hɪm 4-7. lower-middle class use, mesolectic forms 3. aɪ toːl ɪm 8. workers of the countryside use, basilectic form4. aɪ tɛl ɪm 9. elderly, illiterate village workers use, basilectic form5. a tɛl ɪm 6. aɪ tɛl ɪ7. a tel i8. mi tɛl i9. mi tɛl amSometimes it is hard to decide whether a language is a creole or a pidgin. DeCamp mentions some 'pure cases' in his work.


Creolized language لغة هجين، لغة مختلطة
لغة مبسط جدا تفي بأغراض التعامل اليومي وتنشأ من اتصال اناس ذوي لغات مختلفة.

Creole is when pidgin comes to be adopted by a community as its native tongue, and children learn it as a first language the pidgin becomes creolized. (p28)
Example:
1- Louisiana Creole, related to Haitian Creole, is spoken by blacks and whites in Louisiana.
2- Krio is spoken by million Sierra Leoneans. (P. 28)
 Creole: a Creole is a pidgin language that has acquired native speakers, i.e. it succeeded into passing to second generation as their native tongue.
Creole (pp88-93): When a pidgin becomes the language of a newly-born generation as a mother-tongue or first language, and acquires additional vocabulary and grammatical structures to serve their various necessary communicative functions (referential and social), it becomes a creole. A creole may remain as such in a society with rigid social divisions, or may develop towards the standard language from which it derived its vocabulary (i.e. decreolization).
A Creole is a pidgin which has acquired native speakers. A Creole is a pidgin which has expanded in structure and vocabulary to express the range of meanings and serve the range of functions required of a first language. Once a crele has developed it can be used for all the functions of any language – politics, education, administration, original literature, and so on.
*British Black English: Patios: the variety of Jamaican Creole used African Caribbean people to signal their ethnicity as black people :
1- it is Creole = so it is quite different from Standard English
2- features of pronunciation: stress & intonation patterns which differ from those of English: then & thin are pronounced [ den]& [din].3- plural forms do not have (s) on the end .4-tenses are not marked by suffixes on verbs (i.e. walk & play are used rather than plays played,walks,walkes ,etc.5- the form [ mi] is used for ( I , me, my).
* These regular varieties of British black English are examples of (anti-language), a term used to reflect their function of expressing opposition to the mainstream values of white British society which exclude black people & their culture .
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