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قديم 17-01-2012, 12:55 AM   #29
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افتراضي رد: أسئلة الفاينال 2011, لمادة e300A


وهذا البروسيس

. write about mental processes in systemic functional grammar, with examples

Process let us know that something is going on.
Example:
A toddler is laughing happily.

A family is eating a picnic under a tree.

A dog is playing with a ball.

We can see that each process involves a participating entity, typically by doing it or being affected by it.


Processes can be subdivided into different types: Material Process,Mental Process & Verbal Process.

Material processes: external action, both concrete and abstract action. Abstract for example resign, dissolve (committee). Concrete catch, play, run

Mental processes: processes that go inside the head such as thinking and sensing, intellectual action. They include cognition, I don't believe you, affection I hate injections, I saw the accident.


Verbal processes: the saying and reporting of things, verbal action example talk, ask, state, whisper,etc..

Examples for students:

I hadn't noticed that picture before. Mr. Bloom said. The police do not know. No one was wearing a seat belt, and alcohol wasn't involved Leeper claimed.


Material Processes involve 'doing words'. In an action oriented narrative, such Processes tend to occur frequently, though they are by no means the only type.

Mental processes Senser and phenomenon:

1) He didn't recognize me

(2) We heard an explosion.
(3) I didn't know your phone number. Mental Process
(4) She doesn't want to study.
(5) They dislike their arrogant manger.

In all these examples the Subject is the one who experiences the Process. For obvious reasons, this Participant
is labeled Senser. What is experienced is given the label Phenomenon. The examples cited all have the same Participant roles in the same order: Senser, Mental Process, Phenomenon,
It happens that in all these examples the Senser is realized as Subject and the Phenomenon as Complement, but this is not always the case. Firstly, even with the same verbs, a change of voice would make the Phenomenon the Subject.


Active Voice

S F/P C
He didn't recognize me
We Heard an explosion
I didn't know your phone number
She wants to study hard for the exam
They dislike their arrogant manager
Senser Mental Process Phenomenon



Verbal Process:


Speaking is certainly a kind of action, and to some extent it would not be unreasonable to treat it as Material Process. Consider the example below :

(1) He said, 'If I'm free, I'll pass by later this evening"
Sayer Verbal process Quoted
In this example, we have the person who produces the utterance, to whom we give the self-explanatory title of Sayer; the Verbal Process itself, realized here as said; and the representation of the words actually spoken, which in this context we label Quoted. The function Quoted is realized as Direct Speech. The wording is identical to that initially uttered by the Sayer , or at least, it is presented as though it were identical. On the other hand, there is a Verbal Process where the words of the Sayer are transposed in line with the perspective of the speaker or writer who is reporting the speech. This involves Indirect (Reported) Speech, as in , such as in :


(2) I said I wanted to relax for a while.

Here I is Sayer and I wanted to relax for a while is Reported. It is worthwhile to retain that the Reported element itself contains clauses and so it could be further analyzed in terms of Process and Participant. There are various ordering possibilities with this type of Process, particularly with the direct speech form. The most neutral or unmarked ordering is Sayer-Process-Quoted,


In modem English, with the sequence Quoted-Process-Sayer, Sayer must be a full Nominal Group with a noun as Head (often a proper noun) and not a pronoun. Only in more old-fashioned or whimsical texts will you find Sayer realized as a pronoun in this sequence.

Verbs: Halliday lists three basic subclasses: lexical, auxiliary and finite. The finites and auxiliaries are closed sets. Lexical verbs are an open set.

1- Lexical: وهو الفعل الأسآسي في أي جملة.. مثل: write, swim, think ..etc
2- Finite: موجودة بجآنب الفعل الأسآسي وتسمى الأفعآال المسآعدة... مثل: was, were, has, is, are
Modal auxiliaries -3: could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, would

Processes

The linguistic representation of the components of the clause: the participants and the processes take place with Nominal and Verbal Groups respectively. The participants are the entities involved in the process, they can be animate or inanimate.
[LIST][*]Material Processes: in an action oriented narrative, material processes involve doing words with actors and goals [*]The actor is explicit performer of the material process and the goal is the recipient of the action [*]In the active voice, the actor is the departing point of the clause: Jerry opened the door (actor – process – goal) [*]In the passive voice the goal is the departing point of the clause: The door was opened by Jerry (Goal – process – actor) [*]Beneficiary: Sometimes a material process has three participants, e.g. He gave some of the bills to Jerry (Actor – process – goal – beneficiary) [*]In the active voice the beneficiary is the Indirect Object Complement, in the passive clause it is often the subject [*]Some material processes are ****phorical. In the example: “The burglar took a bath” If the taking involves a material process, i.e. was part of the theft where the burglar actually took the bath, then the bath is Goal. If, on the other hand, the burglar had a shower, and the statement is ****phorical, then bath is Range.[/LIST]
[LIST][*]Mental Processes: Some processes involve states of mind or psychological events. With such processes the Goal is substituted by phenomenon [*]Senser and Phenomenon: in mental processes, the participant is labeled senser, and the experience felt, phenomenon.[/LIST][LIST][*]Relational Processes: are realized by the verb be or other copular verbs, e.g. seem, become, appear or sometimes by have own, possess. They typically fall into two categories: [/LIST]
-Attributive Relational Processes: in attributive processes we have the carrier of the attributation and the attribute, e.g. She was hungry (carrier of the attributation – process – attribute)

-Identifying Relational Processes: where the function of the relation is to identify the entity involved, e.g. Clint is his name. In such case the elements of the clause are: the identified – the identifying relational process and the identifier.
[LIST][*]Verbal Processes: are of two kinds: the quoted and the reported. The person who produces the utterance is the Sayer. The verbal process is realized by verbs like said. The actual words spoken are labeled quoted or reported depending on their function. [*]Quoted is realized as direct speech, e.g. I said: if there isn’t I’ll go to city mall. [*]Reported is realized as indirect speech, e.g. I said I wanted to go to city mall. [*]The person to whom the verbalization is addressed is the Receiver.[/LIST]
(remember we use ask or say to - we never use ask to)
[LIST][*]Other processes: There are minor processes : Existential and Behavioural processes. [*]Existential Processes have only one participant: the Existent. This type of process has two main grammatical realizations:[/LIST]-With a copular, with there as the empty Subject, e.g. There were ten of us.
-With a copular, and the Existent as the Subject, and a Circumstantial adjunct, e.g. Ten of us were at the party[LIST][*]Behavioural Processes: only one participant is usually required, the Behaver, e.g. the car vanished. [/LIST]هناك 4 انواع للفعل هم:

· Material Processes: ويطلق على الفاعل Actor وعلى المفعول به او النتيجة goal
E.g. "Jerry opened the door"
Actor + material + goal
· Mental Processes:: يطلق على الفاعل اسم senser وعلى المفعول به او النتيجة phenomenon




· Relational Processes: العلاقة بين الفاعل والمفعول به ويطلق على الفاعل carrier والمفعول به attribute

E.g. She was hungry
Carrier + Relational + attribute
وهناك نوعات لها:

1- Attributive: اي وصفية مثل: She was hungry
2- Identifying: اي تعريفيه مثل: Alex is his name

· Verbal Processes: يطلق على الفاعل Quoted وعلى المفعول به Reported[LIST][*][/LIST]
Mental processes Senser and phenomenon:

1) He didn't recognize me
(2) We heard an explosion.
(3) I didn't know your phone number. Mental Process
(4) She doesn't want to study.
(5) They dislike their arrogant manger.

In all these examples the Subject is the one who experiences the Process. For obvious reasons, this Participant
is labeled Senser. What is experienced is given the label Phenomenon. The examples cited all have the same Participant roles in the same order: Senser, Mental Process, Phenomenon,
It happens that in all these examples the Senser is realized as Subject and the Phenomenon as Complement, but this is not always the case. Firstly, even with the same verbs, a change of voice would make the Phenomenon the Subject.

Active Voice

S F/P C
He didn't recognize me
We Heard an explosion
I didn't know your phone number
She wants to study hard for the exam
They dislike their arrogant manager
Senser Mental Process Phenomenon



1) materiel process:
Action type processes and doing words.

Example:
Jerry took the money
Took is the process in the clause, jerry the participant performed the action of taking the money. Money is the goal.

Half an hour later he returned
He is the participant who performed the material action of returning.
there is no goal in the clause, the process returned is not extended from the actor he to any other entity.




Transitive clauses:
Have two participants one is the main participant and the other is the goal:
Presently something hit the door
(something: actor, door: is the goal)

Intransitive clauses:
Have only one participant and no goal:
Half an hour later he returned
( he: actor, there is no goal)

The door was hit by something
(door: goal, hit: action, and something: actor)

He gave Taher some of the bills
( he: participant, actor and direct object complements Cdo)
( taher: indirect object complements Cio)

If the preposition is negative: he gave no money to Taher
He didn’t give Taher any money
It makes no difference.

In an active voice clause the Beneficiary is usually the indirect object complement but in passive clauses the Beneficiary the subject:

- he gave smith some cash
actor process Beneficiary goal

- smith was given some cash
Beneficiary process goal


Range:

the words take/ have are sometimes said to be delexiclized, they have little lexical meaning,because in functional systemic grammar they are said to have lost their lexical content and almost become dummies.

Example:
I dined before I came
Nominalized:
I had dinner before I came, more common in informal conversations

The most clear cut example of range is where the process and the participant are blended together:

In the case of: he took the money we would ask our selves what did he take? The money where the money here is the goal.
In the case of : he took a bath the bath is a personal hygiene and no such questions of what did he take could be asked. Here the bath is the range.

Range:
She sang a song
Fight the good fight
Song and fight are related to the main action so are counted as range and not as goal.

Range:
We crossed an alley
The question: What did we cross? Does not apply here because an alley is not a goal.

2) mental process:
mental process is processes that are based on state of mind or psychological events and not doing events.

Examples of mental process:
Think, know, feel, hear, see, hate, please, enjoy and fear.

He knew what speed was
Knew is a process but not an action because it is a mental process and not a material one.

Sensor and phenomenon in mental processes:

In all the following examples the subject is the one who experiences the process and the participant is labelled senser.

- he didn’t see me.
- I heard the shots.
- I knew the number.
- I dislike your manner.
In the examples above the sensers who are the participants hev been under lined.
And the phenomenon’s are in bold. They are the experiences of the processes heard, didn’t, knew and dislike.

-A change of voice would make the phenomenon the subject (participant).
He didn’t see me takes the passive form where he is the senser, didn’t see is the mental process, and me is the phenomenon.

In the case of:
I wasn’t seen by him.
I becomes the phenomenon, wasn’t seen stays the process and by him becomes the senser.

-If we replace the pronoun him with a name it doesn’t effect the fact that him is the senser.

In an example:
I wasn’t seen
I is the phenomenon and wasn’t seen is the process.

- in instances where the mental process involves ‘knowing’ the phenomenon is realized by a full clause.
(Know, guess, deduce, and calculate)

He knows that Taher came here
He is the senser, knows is the process that Taher came here is the phenomenon.


3) rational process:
relational processes are those which are realized by the verb be copular verbs seem, became, appear and is, was.

- were the participant is the carrier and the object is the attribute.

she was in a word on the third floor
she is the carrier, was is the relational process and in award on the third floor is the attribute.

- identifying process:
Quint is his name
Quint who is the participant is the identifier.
His name is the identified.



4) verbal processes:

Speaking is a kind of action.

I said: if there isn’t ill………
I is the sayer, said is the verbal process and the words actually spoken: if there isn’t ill… is the quoted.
Quoted is only realized as direct speech.

I said I wanted to be dropped…..
I is the sayer and said is the verbal process and I wanted to be dropped.. is the reported.
Reported is the indirect speech that has been made.

Clauses may be switched around:
‘That’s nice’ the grey- moustached on my left said.
In this case the clause is: quoted process sayer
That’s nice is the quoted as it is directly said; the grey moustached on my left is the sayer and said is the process.

There could be a receiver as in:
I asked her if she had heard him
Him is the receiver

Finally it could be a reported question (indirect speech):
Did you hear him I asked her.

5) other processes:

Existential process and Behavioural process

Existential: only one participant the existent.
The existent could be a place holder as in:
I think therefore I am
Or could be a negative existence as in:
Ghosts do not exist
Ghosts are the existent and do not exist is the existential process.

Behaviour process: only one participant is normally required but I has been argued that the labelled behaviour could be simply identified as a material process
[….]The car slid away.
[…] stands for missing part in the sentence.
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