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قديم 09-12-2011, 12:46 PM   #43
{ DANA } { DANA } غير متصل
طــالب
 
الصورة الرمزية { DANA }

 











افتراضي رد: E300A - TMA 2011\2012 Dicussion


الواجب فقط في شابتر 3 من كتاب language and power !!!!!

ركزووو .. وبليز اي حدا بتمر عليه نقطة مهمة ياريت مايبخل علينا فيها ويقلنا ياها
{ DANA } غير متصل  
قديم 09-12-2011, 12:51 PM   #44
النادرة النادرة غير متصل
طالب فعال

 










افتراضي رد: E300A - TMA 2011\2012 Dicussion


الله يجزاك كل خير اخوي الكريم suun_shine
ومايحرمك الاجر ان شاءالله

بانتظار المزيد من المساعدات

دمت بخير
النادرة غير متصل  
قديم 09-12-2011, 12:52 PM   #45
suun_shine suun_shine غير متصل
طالب جديد

 










غمزة رد: E300A - TMA 2011\2012 Dicussion


هذا ملخص جابتر 3

اخذو المعلومات الباقيه منه سو له اعادة صياغه وغيرو شوي فيه والصقوه بالبحث...مضبوط؟

Chapter 3: Discourse and Power.

In exploring the various dimensions of the relations of language and power we focus on two major aspects:
1- power in discourse, and
2- power behind discourse

Power in discourse is concerned with discourse as a phase where relations of power are exercised and enacted. Examples are Face-to-Face spoken discourse, cross-cultural discourse and the discourse of the mass media exercising hidden power.

Power behind discourse, reflecting dimensions of the social orders of social institutions or societies, are themselves shaped and constrained by relations of power. Examples are the effects of power in the differentiation of dialects into standard and non-standard, the conventions associated with particular discourse types, e.g. classroom discourse.

The final argument underlines the view that power, wherever it be “in” or “behind” discourse is never definitively held by any person or social grouping, because power can be won or exercised through the dynamics of social interaction in which it may also be lost. Fairclough takes a Marxist view in interpreting it all from the perspective of social struggle of classes.

1-Power in Discourse
• Face-to-face discourse where participants are unequal reflect an unequal encounter. Manifestations of this aspect are found in the number of interruptions by the powerful participant directed to constrain and to control the contribution of the non-powerful. Three types of constraints are exercised and enacted:
a- constraints on content : enacted in the discourse
b- constraints on relations: enacted in the discourse
c- constraints on the subject position: that people can occupy in the discourse.

All of these constraints are very closely connected, they overlap and co-occur in practice.

All the directive speech acts (orders and questions) come from the powerful participant. The non-powerful has the obligation to comply and answer, in accordance with the subordinate relation of his role.
The constraints derive from the conventions of the discourse type. It is the prerogative of the powerful participant to determine which discourse type(s) may be legitimately drawn upon. Thus, in addition to directly constraining contributions, powerful participants can further constrain discourse by opting for a particular discourse type. Once a discourse type has been selected, its conventions would constrain and regulate the flow of the interaction/discourse exchanged. However, the more powerful participants may allow or disallow varying degrees of latitude to less powerful participants.

• Cross-cultural encounters: are unequal encounters where possibilities for culturally-based miscommunication are ample. In gate-keeping encounters, e.g. job interview, gate-keepers come from the dominant culture they constrain the discourse types which can be drawn upon to those of the dominant grouping, including all expected conventions of the exchange, linguistically (appropriate turn-taking strategies, phatic communion, sequencing of information, direct/indirect responses etc.) and extra-linguistically (gaze, proxemics, head movement body position, etc. )


• Media discourse is characterized by the use of hidden power for participants who are separated in time and place. The discourse used in television, ratio, film and newspaper involve hidden relations of power. Media discourse is one-sided as opposed to face-to-face interaction, where discourse is exchanged between two participants. In Media discourse, producers exercise power over consumers by determining what is included and excluded and how events are represented. An interesting manifestation of power in mass media is the perspective whose perspective is adopted. In British media, the balance of sources and perspectives and ideology is overwhelmingly in favour of existing power-holders. Media operate as a means for the expression and reproduction of the power of the dominant class and bloc. The mediated power of existing power-holders is also a hidden power, because it is implicit in the practices of the media rather than being explicit. Linguistic strategies reflecting power include Nominalization and causality. A process is expressed as a noun, with the effect of hiding crucial aspects of the process through the grammar form selected.

Media discourse is able to exercise manipulative and powerful influence on social reproduction, but people do negotiate their relationship to the ideal subjects proposed by media discourse. However the exercise of media power by power holders is perceived as professional practices.

Hidden power can sometimes be a characteristic of face-to-face discourse. A close connection between requests and power is identified, as the right to request someone to do something often derives from having power. There are however, many grammatically different forms for making requests. Some are direct and mark the power relationship explicitly, while others are indirect and leave it more implicit.

Direct requests are typically expressed grammatically in imperative sentences. Indirect requests can be expressed grammatically in questions of various degrees of elaborateness and corresponding indirectness, including hints.

The “power behind discourse” is also a hidden power, in that the shaping of orders of discourse by relations of power is not generally apparent to people.

2- Power behind discourse
The social order of discourse (the connections of the exchange) is put together and held together as a hidden effect of power. Example, standardization, whereby a particular social dialect, is elevated into what is called a standard, or even a national, language.

• Standard Language
Standardization is a part of a much wider process of economic, political and cultural unification. We can think of its growth as a long process of colonization, whereby it gradually “took over” the major social institutions of literature, government and administration, law, religion and education.

Standard English emerges as the language of political and cultural power, and as the language of the politically and culturally powerful. Standard English was regarded as correct English, and other social dialects were stigmatized not only in terms of correctness but also in terms which indirectly reflected on the lifestyles, morality and so forth of their speakers.

Standard English moved to pre******ion through codification and was portrayed as the national language, although it remains a social dialect.

• The power behind discourse: a discourse type portray through the discourse conventions particular power relations associated with the discourse of the participants.

• Power and access to discourse.
The constitution of orders of discourse and their component discourse types brings an interest in the study of who has access to them and who has the power to impose and enforce constraints on access.
There is a plethora of constraints on access to various types of speech and writing. Religious rituals, medical examination, lessons, litigation are examples of discourse types that are constrained.
Access to a high level of literacy is a precondition for a variety of socially rewarded goods including well-paid jobs. However, literacy is not equally distributed. There is constraint on access and the exclusion of people from particular types of discourse, who remain unfamiliar with the conventions.

• Constraints on access: formality
Formality is best regarded as a property of social situations which has effects upon the language forms used. It manifests three types of constraints associated with the exercise of power:
a- Constraints on contents: the discourse in formal situations is subject to constraints on topic, relevance and fixed interactive routines.
b- Constraints on subjects: the social identities of those qualified to occupy subject positions in the discourses of formal situations are defined.
c- Constraints on relations: formal situations are characterized by an exceptional orientation to and making of position, status, and “face”. Power and social distance are overt and consequently there is a strong tendency towards politeness. Politeness is based upon recognition of differences of power and degrees of social distance. Moreover, consistency of language forms is also a characteristic of formal situations that influence the vocabulary that has to be selected from a restricted set throughout.

Recently, there has been a shift from the explicit making of power relationship in a discourse towards a system based upon solidarity rather than power (tu/vous) hiding power is a strategy that is sometimes used for manipulative reasons.

Conclusion

Discourse is part of social practice and contributes to the reproduction of social structures. If., therefore, there are systematic constraints on the contents of discourse and on the social relationships enacted in it and the social identities enacting them, these can be expected to have long term effects on the knowledge and beliefs social relationships and social identities of the institutions and societies.

Constraints Structural effects
Contents
Relations
Subjects Knowledge and Beliefs
Social Relationships
Social Identities



suun_shine غير متصل  
قديم 09-12-2011, 01:06 PM   #46
suun_shine suun_shine غير متصل
طالب جديد

 










افتراضي رد: E300A - TMA 2011\2012 Dicussion


يا جماعة الخير هذا مثال وحوار من واجبي السابق بين دكتور وزوجته يشتغلون في مستشفى وشلون لغة الخطاب تختلف بالعمل عن البيت.. ليش لان فيه بور.. فهمتهم... هذا مثال اضافي اللي يبي ياخذه كوبي بست حياه الله بس ارجوكم غيرو فيه شوي او غيرو بالفكره عشان تعطون فرصه لغيركم وماتتشابه الواجبات وتجيبون العيييييييييييد

Dr. Mona: Dr. Yousef, what about the operations appoint…ment for this patient? (Asking)
Dr. Yousef: Ok, let's see our calendar to set the appointment. (Proposing)
Dr. Mona: On Monday…umm ? (Asking question)
Dr. Yousef: No; we've the other one Dr. Mona (interruption)
Dr. Mona: Sorry I forget it (apologizing)
*from: made up authentic conversation at the hospital.


We can infer from the above conversation how the wife and her husband called each other in a formal way 'Dr. Yousef 'and 'Dr. Mona'. Also they did not mention their nicknames. They intended to hide their relationship as 'husband' and 'wife' in front of their patients and the nurses. Such situation is happening in real life due to the whole social hierarchical of discourse that is put together and held together as a hidden effect of power. The medical staff and particularly doctors exercise power over the patient or the nurse. As they are working in the same medical domain, they have power over patients and nurses since they are higher than the others, according to their knowledge, and have prestigious position within their society, so they called each other with prestigious titles, particularly in front of strangers (patients and nurses).
Moreover, the institutional domain constrains their relationship to a large extent. Thus in the power behind the conventions belongs not only to the institution itself, but also to the power holders in the institutions. Regarding the powerful participant in this example, we can understand that the male doctor 'Yousef' is dominating over the female doctor 'Mona'. He refused the suggested day by his wife, and commented on the other patient's operation, that indicates his higher knowledge about their patients.
Actually, Dr. Mona is his assistant doctor, who set the operations' appointments, besides her helping in cases of female examinations, which caused embarrassments for women being examined by male doctors, especially in community like Gulf communities. We can see how the society put the roles for each doctors in my example; such traditions within our community accepted and acknowledged these behaviors in such situation
.
suun_shine غير متصل  
قديم 09-12-2011, 01:12 PM   #47
suun_shine suun_shine غير متصل
طالب جديد

 










افتراضي رد: E300A - TMA 2011\2012 Dicussion


برررررب ياجماعة الخير وراح ارجع ان شاء الله عقب العصر بشوف شنو سويتوو واذا فيه اي استفسار انا حاضررر اهم شي لاتخلون اليأس يدخل قلبكم.. اللي يبي يريح باله يلخص الجابتر 3 بالكامل بس باسلويه يعني يسوي له paraphrasing إعادة صياغه مع امثلة من حياته او من خبرته مثل ماذكرنا مع خاتمه ومقدمه حلوه.. وصفحه مصادر وان شاء الله خيررر

برررررررررب ساعود باذن الله

شدو حيلكم مايجي المغرب الا انتم خالصين مفهووووم ياطلاب
suun_shine غير متصل  
قديم 09-12-2011, 01:18 PM   #48
GueSS.q8 GueSS.q8 غير متصل
طالب مميز
 
الصورة الرمزية GueSS.q8

 











افتراضي رد: E300A - TMA 2011\2012 Dicussion


السلام عليكم..




اقتباس:
الله يسامح فرع السعوديه ضاغطين عليكم حيل.. حنا بالكويت التسليم 15...

اخوي سـان شـاين متـأكد من هالكلام؟؟

التسليم كان امس الساعه 11.55 م ..

منـو قال بتاريخ 15 ..؟؟


تو جفت الـال ام اس سكروا التسليم خلاص..

ودي يكون تأجل عشان ماسلمته ليما الحين
GueSS.q8 غير متصل  
قديم 09-12-2011, 01:45 PM   #49
^lilly^ ^lilly^ غير متصل
طالب فعال
 
الصورة الرمزية ^lilly^

 











افتراضي رد: E300A - TMA 2011\2012 Dicussion


اقتباس:
المشاركة الأصلية كتبت بواسطة suun_shine مشاهدة المشاركة
يا جماعة الخير هذا مثال وحوار من واجبي السابق بين دكتور وزوجته يشتغلون في مستشفى وشلون لغة الخطاب تختلف بالعمل عن البيت.. ليش لان فيه بور.. فهمتهم... هذا مثال اضافي اللي يبي ياخذه كوبي بست حياه الله بس ارجوكم غيرو فيه شوي او غيرو بالفكره عشان تعطون فرصه لغيركم وماتتشابه الواجبات وتجيبون العيييييييييييد

Dr. Mona: Dr. Yousef, what about the operations appoint…ment for this patient? (Asking)
Dr. Yousef: Ok, let's see our calendar to set the appointment. (Proposing)
Dr. Mona: On Monday…umm ? (Asking question)
Dr. Yousef: No; we've the other one Dr. Mona (interruption)
Dr. Mona: Sorry I forget it (apologizing)
*from: made up authentic conversation at the hospital.


We can infer from the above conversation how the wife and her husband called each other in a formal way 'Dr. Yousef 'and 'Dr. Mona'. Also they did not mention their nicknames. They intended to hide their relationship as 'husband' and 'wife' in front of their patients and the nurses. Such situation is happening in real life due to the whole social hierarchical of discourse that is put together and held together as a hidden effect of power. The medical staff and particularly doctors exercise power over the patient or the nurse. As they are working in the same medical domain, they have power over patients and nurses since they are higher than the others, according to their knowledge, and have prestigious position within their society, so they called each other with prestigious titles, particularly in front of strangers (patients and nurses).
Moreover, the institutional domain constrains their relationship to a large extent. Thus in the power behind the conventions belongs not only to the institution itself, but also to the power holders in the institutions. Regarding the powerful participant in this example, we can understand that the male doctor 'Yousef' is dominating over the female doctor 'Mona'. He refused the suggested day by his wife, and commented on the other patient's operation, that indicates his higher knowledge about their patients.
Actually, Dr. Mona is his assistant doctor, who set the operations' appointments, besides her helping in cases of female examinations, which caused embarrassments for women being examined by male doctors, especially in community like Gulf communities. We can see how the society put the roles for each doctors in my example; such traditions within our community accepted and acknowledged these behaviors in such situation
.
sun shine
يو آر سوبر هيرو !! روح إللهي يوفقك و ينجحك و يفتحلك ابواب الخير قول امين
كنا ضايعين !!! بس الحمدلله بديت استوعب الله يجزاك خير

طيب ممكن سؤال؟
المثال هذا عن اي نوع؟ ترى ابدا مو فاهمه شي من الماده هذي

و فعلا لازم نحاول نغير بالامثله عشان ما تصير متطابقه
^lilly^ غير متصل  
قديم 09-12-2011, 02:06 PM   #50
ريم الغزال ريم الغزال غير متصل
طالب فعال
 
الصورة الرمزية ريم الغزال
افتراضي رد: E300A - TMA 2011\2012 Dicussion


Father: Ali, come here time to eat
Son: yes dad
The son about set down>
Father: wait???!!!!!
Son: what?
Father:you wish your hand before eating?
No, but …………….erm
WHY?
Becaussssse > ……….
Father: Stop talking and go wish…… you punished , ready for….
So: yes dad.
This conversation between father and son it eating time father called his son for eat and son does not have power and just say yes dad, after he came father ask him to stop before sitting on food table again son has not have power and just answers what, father ask him you wish your hand before eating??!! Son answerd no but…… and did not complete his sentence this give sense no answer for. Father shouting and angry, ask WHY? Son said becaussssse………… and incomplete sentence again, Father cut his talk, Stop talking and go wish you punishment, ready for….. and (he panished his son) because son under her power. Again son just say yes dad. We see here unequal discourse given unequal encounter. In briefly father uses his power in speech by saying WHY? Stop talking, you punished. 4 sentence for Father content two quistions and two orders, on the other hand Son, has three incomplete answers. In this example seeing the powerful in language that Father has in face to face discourse.

هاد المثال عن الفيس تو فيس يارب يكون صح الله يجزيك الخير اخ سن شاين يارب يكون صح بدو تعديل كمان بس لخلص الواجب بعدلو

التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة ريم الغزال ; 09-12-2011 الساعة 02:09 PM
ريم الغزال غير متصل  
قديم 09-12-2011, 02:25 PM   #51
النادرة النادرة غير متصل
طالب فعال

 










افتراضي رد: E300A - TMA 2011\2012 Dicussion


? Explore the attempts made to define ‘power’ in social re************

ارجوكم ايشش الاجابه؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟

التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة النادرة ; 09-12-2011 الساعة 02:26 PM
النادرة غير متصل  
قديم 09-12-2011, 03:17 PM   #52
suun_shine suun_shine غير متصل
طالب جديد

 










افتراضي رد: E300A - TMA 2011\2012 Dicussion


اقتباس:
المشاركة الأصلية كتبت بواسطة GueSS.q8 مشاهدة المشاركة
السلام عليكم..







اخوي سـان شـاين متـأكد من هالكلام؟؟

التسليم كان امس الساعه 11.55 م ..

منـو قال بتاريخ 15 ..؟؟


تو جفت الـال ام اس سكروا التسليم خلاص..

ودي يكون تأجل عشان ماسلمته ليما الحين
والله أختي أنا طالب متخرج والحمدلله.. وأعرف زميل لي يدرس عند دكتور يوسف أتصلت فيه وسألته يافلان متى تسليم واجبكم؟ قال 15 ..قلت أكيد قال أكيد!!.. والذمة على الرواي أنا مجرد أنقل اللي صار معااي..
suun_shine غير متصل  
قديم 09-12-2011, 03:19 PM   #53
suun_shine suun_shine غير متصل
طالب جديد

 










افتراضي رد: E300A - TMA 2011\2012 Dicussion


اقتباس:
المشاركة الأصلية كتبت بواسطة ريم الغزال مشاهدة المشاركة
Father: Ali, come here time to eat
Son: yes dad
The son about set down>
Father: wait???!!!!!
Son: what?
Father:you wish your hand before eating?
No, but …………….erm
WHY?
Becaussssse > ……….
Father: Stop talking and go wish…… you punished , ready for….
So: yes dad.
This conversation between father and son it eating time father called his son for eat and son does not have power and just say yes dad, after he came father ask him to stop before sitting on food table again son has not have power and just answers what, father ask him you wish your hand before eating??!! Son answerd no but…… and did not complete his sentence this give sense no answer for. Father shouting and angry, ask WHY? Son said becaussssse………… and incomplete sentence again, Father cut his talk, Stop talking and go wish you punishment, ready for….. and (he panished his son) because son under her power. Again son just say yes dad. We see here unequal discourse given unequal encounter. In briefly father uses his power in speech by saying WHY? Stop talking, you punished. 4 sentence for Father content two quistions and two orders, on the other hand Son, has three incomplete answers. In this example seeing the powerful in language that Father has in face to face discourse.

هاد المثال عن الفيس تو فيس يارب يكون صح الله يجزيك الخير اخ سن شاين يارب يكون صح بدو تعديل كمان بس لخلص الواجب بعدلو

أختي المثال حلو بس فيه أخطاء نحويه و لغويّة تبين اعدله لج وأدزه بملف وورد؟؟
suun_shine غير متصل  
قديم 09-12-2011, 03:22 PM   #54
suun_shine suun_shine غير متصل
طالب جديد

 










افتراضي رد: E300A - TMA 2011\2012 Dicussion


اقتباس:
المشاركة الأصلية كتبت بواسطة ^lilly^ مشاهدة المشاركة
sun shine
يو آر سوبر هيرو !! روح إللهي يوفقك و ينجحك و يفتحلك ابواب الخير قول امين
كنا ضايعين !!! بس الحمدلله بديت استوعب الله يجزاك خير

طيب ممكن سؤال؟
المثال هذا عن اي نوع؟ ترى ابدا مو فاهمه شي من الماده هذي

و فعلا لازم نحاول نغير بالامثله عشان ما تصير متطابقه


الله يجزاج خير على الدعاء ولج بالمثل إن شاء الله

المثال واضح جدا انه Face to face discourse يعني خطاب وجه لوجه بين المتحديثن
وهذا من النوع اللي ذكرناه فوق.. ونفس المثال تقريباً اللي بصفحه37 الدكتور اللي بالجامعه ويستخدم قوته الكلاميه ضد الطلااب .. ..!
suun_shine غير متصل  
قديم 09-12-2011, 03:36 PM   #55
suun_shine suun_shine غير متصل
طالب جديد

 










رد: E300A - TMA 2011\2012 Dicussion


إضافات على الواجب..

فيه نقطه بجابتر 3 اللي مو فاهمها بشرحها واللي يبي يكتبها كيفه..موجوده بصفحه 52


Power and access to discourse.

"The question is , who has access to which discourse ,and who has the power to impose and enforce constrains on access?" (Book 3, P 52)

هذا الاقتباس من الكتاب

هذا تبع البور بيهاند ذا دسكورس .. الفكرة أن مو اي واحد يكتب اللي يبي على كيفه.. خصوصا بالاعلام
يعني مو اي شخص يقدر يكتب بحريه ويهاجم وينقد باقلامه او بصوته او الخ.. وهذا لقيته بموقع بصيفه بيدي اف اذا حابون تذكرونه بالبور بيهاند ذا دسكورس اذكروه

One element in thisreproduction process is the structures and strategies of 'access': who controls the preparation, the participants, the goals, the language, the gene, the speech acts, the topics, the schemata (e.g. headlines, quotes), the style, and the rhetoric, among other text features, of communicative events. That is, who can/may/must say what, to whom, how, in what circumstances and with what effects on the recipients?


هذا اقتباس من موقع..



اللي حاب يقرأ وياخذ شي هذا الرابط... اقرو اخر شي ص19 بالملف اللي هي الخاتمه لان زبدة الموضوع فيها بنقطة Power and access to discourse.


هذا الرابط http://www.discourses.org/OldArticle...d%20access.pdf



واضــــــــــــــح؟؟؟؟
suun_shine غير متصل  
قديم 09-12-2011, 03:39 PM   #56
suun_shine suun_shine غير متصل
طالب جديد

 










افتراضي رد: E300A - TMA 2011\2012 Dicussion


اقتباس:
المشاركة الأصلية كتبت بواسطة النادرة مشاهدة المشاركة
? Explore the attempts made to define ‘power’ in social re************

ارجوكم ايشش الاجابه؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟

هذا خليه آخر شي لأن قاعد أدور مو لااقي.. خلصي الاهم بعدين نرجع له
suun_shine غير متصل  
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تصميم وتطوير : التكنولوجيا الماسية