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قديم 22-11-2011, 12:23 AM   #43
^lilly^ ^lilly^ غير متصل
طالب فعال
 
الصورة الرمزية ^lilly^

 











افتراضي رد: Group 2011/2012 ...•|| حَيَـاٰگُم


اقتباس:
المشاركة الأصلية كتبت بواسطة ^lilly^ مشاهدة المشاركة
السلام عليكم

انا جمعت اسأله الأختبارات السابقه و حاولت ألخص الأجابات بطريقه مرتبه
سويت ملف يحتوي على الاشياء اللي تتكرر كل سنه (فقط من اسأله اختبارات السنوات السابقه)
و تقريبا هي المهمه

المنهج مره دسم و يبيله دراااااااسه
ع العموم باقي عندي اسأله من الفاينلات السابقه ما دققت فيها بس ان شاء الله اذا قدرت انزل اجوبتهم

وركزوا على الاشياء اللي بالملخص هذا ترى اغلبها اتكرر

الله يوفقنا اجمعين و شكرا

لتحميل الملف من هنـــــا
و نسيت اقول ان في كم سؤال ما عرفت اجاوب عليهم
فـ اللي يعرف بليز لا يبخل علينا لأنهم مهمين جداً

what is the baisc unit in function grammar? and what does the baisc unit serve ?

Define Rank scale with example

What are the differences between speech and writing

Identify the SFPCA to a sentence

article 4 (media text)

what is a participant

اللي تعرف حتى لو سؤال واحد فيهم لا تتردد بإفادتنا
شدوا الهمه و شكراً
^lilly^ غير متصل  
قديم 22-11-2011, 12:49 PM   #44
ريم الغزال ريم الغزال غير متصل
طالب فعال
 
الصورة الرمزية ريم الغزال
افتراضي رد: Group 2011/2012 ...•|| حَيَـاٰگُم


السلام عليكم اخواتي العزيزات اريد اسال عن ماذا تتكلم الوحدة الثانية في الكتاب الثاني
ريم الغزال غير متصل  
قديم 22-11-2011, 06:46 PM   #45
فراشه المنتدى فراشه المنتدى غير متصل
مشرف سابق
 
الصورة الرمزية فراشه المنتدى
افتراضي رد: Group 2011/2012 ...•|| حَيَـاٰگُم


اقتباس:
المشاركة الأصلية كتبت بواسطة ريم الغزال مشاهدة المشاركة
السلام عليكم اخواتي العزيزات اريد اسال عن ماذا تتكلم الوحدة الثانية في الكتاب الثاني
Chapter 2

- Parts of speech: is the old term. These are: nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, articles and/or interjections.
Word classes: a set of categories for classifying words, Hallidayan grammar also features eight word classes: nouns, adjectives, numerals, determiners, verbs, prepositions, adverbs and conjunctions.

- Nouns: Common nouns, proper nouns and pronouns.
- Pronouns: are said to be a closed set of items: no additions or transformations.
Personal pronouns: I, me
Possessive pronouns: my, mine
Wh-pronouns: who, whom, which, what, whose.
• Nouns ولهآا 3 أنوآع:

1- common noun: الأسمآء العآمة .. مثل cat, girl, disk …etc.
2- proper noun: أسمآء الأشخآص، الأمكآن، مدن، شركآات .. وتكتب بالآحرف الكبيرة، مثل Noura, Arab Open University
3- pronoun:
- الضمآئر .. معروفة he, she, it, they, we, you, I,
- وضمآئر الملكية Possessive pronouns .. my, mine
- Wh-pronouns: that, who, whom, which, what, whose مثآل : the book that you gave me
:Nouns هناك نوعان او مسميان ل
- Open set: وهو النوعين الاولين فوق اي التي تقبل الزيادة والحداثة والتغيير فعندما يظهر اسم جديد وغريب تقبل به وتضيفه
- Close set: وهو النوع الاخير فالضمائر محدودة ومعروفة وتعد على الاصابع من القدم وان اضيف شي جديد لهما يحتاج لسنوات للتغيير
وهناك طبعا بالانجلش جملة اسمية كما بالعربية ويطلق عليها اسم nominal group فكلما كثرت الاسماء او الهد ناون تصبح الجملة complex
- Verbs: Halliday lists three basic subclasses: lexical, auxiliary and finite. The finites and auxiliaries are closed sets. Lexical verbs are an open set.
• Verbs لها 3 انواع:

1- Lexical: وهو الفعل الأسآسي في أي جملة.. مثل: write, swim, think ..etc
2- Finite: موجودة بجآنب الفعل الأسآسي وتسمى الأفعآال المسآعدة... مثل: was, were, has, is, are
Modal auxiliaries -3: could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, would

- The finites and auxiliaries هذان النوعان closed sets اي لاتقبل الزيادة او التغيير اما Lexical فهي open set اي تقبل الزيادة والتغيير
- وهناك طبعا بالانجلش جملة فعلية كما بالعربية ويطلق عليها اسم verbal group فكلما كثرت الافعال تصبح الجملة complex


- Adjectives: are modifiers of nouns or the head of a group that is complement of a
copular verb (be, seem, become), i.e after copular.
• adjectives لهآا وظيفتآان:

1- Modifiers of nouns > تصف الأسم (head word) <<< E.g. expensive care
2- Head of a group complement of a copular verb > تأتي كـ مفعول به object عندمآا يكون الفعل copular verb = be, seem, become مثآل: The book is big
- وهناك ايضا بالانجلش جملة وصفية كما بالعربية ويطلق عليها اسم adjectives group فكلما كثرت الصفات تصبح الجملة complex

- Determiners: a more comprehensive category than article.
- Numerals:
• Determiners ولها نوعان:

1. Articles: definite article (the) & indefinite articles (a, an) مثآال: The book is big
2. اسماء الاشارة: this, that, these and those
3. Numerals: one, two…., first, second….etc.
- Adverbs: are characterized by the morphological feature- ly, e.g. clearly, sadly etc.
• :Adverbs

وهو الذي يشير بالجملة للمكان والزمان اي شبه الجملة باللغة العربية مثل: (here, now) والذي يضاف لاخره ly وتسمى الظروف ب adjunct اي مايتبع الهد ناون ويضيف معلومة اليها
- وهناك بالانجلش جملة ظرفية كما بالعربية ويطلق عليها اسم adverbial group فكلما كثرت الظروف تصبح الجملة complex

اذا اردت ان تتوسع بمعرفة الظروف فلتقرا هذا

- Prepositions:
وهي حروف الجر مثل: of, on, in etc…
وحرف الجر يجب تمييزه عن الظرف وهذا نقرره بناءا على موقعه من الجملة
فان جاء حرف الجر بعد فعل يكون ظرف مثل:
Go in room
وان جاء بعد اسم يكون حرف جر مثل:
He at home

- Conjunctions:

- (1) linking conjunctions or coordinators (and, but, for, or)

- Such as: he traveled to Syria for a business meeting
تكون الجملة مستقلة فلو فصلنا الجزء الاول عن الاخر لايختل المعنى

- (2) Binding conjunctions or subordination (because, whenever, until, before, after, whether, although).

Such as: he is arrived before guests leaved
لا نستطيع فصل الجزئين عن بعضهما لانه سيختل المعنى
فراشه المنتدى غير متصل  
قديم 22-11-2011, 10:31 PM   #46
ريم الغزال ريم الغزال غير متصل
طالب فعال
 
الصورة الرمزية ريم الغزال
افتراضي رد: Group 2011/2012 ...•|| حَيَـاٰگُم


اقتباس:
المشاركة الأصلية كتبت بواسطة فراشه المنتدى مشاهدة المشاركة


Chapter 2

- Parts of speech: is the old term. These are: nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, articles and/or interjections.
Word classes: a set of categories for classifying words, Hallidayan grammar also features eight word classes: nouns, adjectives, numerals, determiners, verbs, prepositions, adverbs and conjunctions.

- Nouns: Common nouns, proper nouns and pronouns.
- Pronouns: are said to be a closed set of items: no additions or transformations.
Personal pronouns: I, me
Possessive pronouns: my, mine
Wh-pronouns: who, whom, which, what, whose.
• Nouns ولهآا 3 أنوآع:

1- common noun: الأسمآء العآمة .. مثل cat, girl, disk …etc.
2- proper noun: أسمآء الأشخآص، الأمكآن، مدن، شركآات .. وتكتب بالآحرف الكبيرة، مثل Noura, Arab Open University
3- pronoun:
- الضمآئر .. معروفة he, she, it, they, we, you, I,
- وضمآئر الملكية Possessive pronouns .. my, mine
- Wh-pronouns: that, who, whom, which, what, whose مثآل : the book that you gave me
:Nouns هناك نوعان او مسميان ل
- Open set: وهو النوعين الاولين فوق اي التي تقبل الزيادة والحداثة والتغيير فعندما يظهر اسم جديد وغريب تقبل به وتضيفه
- Close set: وهو النوع الاخير فالضمائر محدودة ومعروفة وتعد على الاصابع من القدم وان اضيف شي جديد لهما يحتاج لسنوات للتغيير
وهناك طبعا بالانجلش جملة اسمية كما بالعربية ويطلق عليها اسم nominal group فكلما كثرت الاسماء او الهد ناون تصبح الجملة complex
- Verbs: Halliday lists three basic subclasses: lexical, auxiliary and finite. The finites and auxiliaries are closed sets. Lexical verbs are an open set.
• Verbs لها 3 انواع:

1- Lexical: وهو الفعل الأسآسي في أي جملة.. مثل: write, swim, think ..etc
2- Finite: موجودة بجآنب الفعل الأسآسي وتسمى الأفعآال المسآعدة... مثل: was, were, has, is, are
Modal auxiliaries -3: could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, would

- The finites and auxiliaries هذان النوعان closed sets اي لاتقبل الزيادة او التغيير اما Lexical فهي open set اي تقبل الزيادة والتغيير
- وهناك طبعا بالانجلش جملة فعلية كما بالعربية ويطلق عليها اسم verbal group فكلما كثرت الافعال تصبح الجملة complex


- Adjectives: are modifiers of nouns or the head of a group that is complement of a
copular verb (be, seem, become), i.e after copular.
• adjectives لهآا وظيفتآان:

1- Modifiers of nouns > تصف الأسم (head word) <<< E.g. expensive care
2- Head of a group complement of a copular verb > تأتي كـ مفعول به object عندمآا يكون الفعل copular verb = be, seem, become مثآل: The book is big
- وهناك ايضا بالانجلش جملة وصفية كما بالعربية ويطلق عليها اسم adjectives group فكلما كثرت الصفات تصبح الجملة complex

- Determiners: a more comprehensive category than article.
- Numerals:
• Determiners ولها نوعان:

1. Articles: definite article (the) & indefinite articles (a, an) مثآال: The book is big
2. اسماء الاشارة: this, that, these and those
3. Numerals: one, two…., first, second….etc.
- Adverbs: are characterized by the morphological feature- ly, e.g. clearly, sadly etc.
• :Adverbs

وهو الذي يشير بالجملة للمكان والزمان اي شبه الجملة باللغة العربية مثل: (here, now) والذي يضاف لاخره ly وتسمى الظروف ب adjunct اي مايتبع الهد ناون ويضيف معلومة اليها
- وهناك بالانجلش جملة ظرفية كما بالعربية ويطلق عليها اسم adverbial group فكلما كثرت الظروف تصبح الجملة complex

اذا اردت ان تتوسع بمعرفة الظروف فلتقرا هذا

- Prepositions:
وهي حروف الجر مثل: of, on, in etc…
وحرف الجر يجب تمييزه عن الظرف وهذا نقرره بناءا على موقعه من الجملة
فان جاء حرف الجر بعد فعل يكون ظرف مثل:
Go in room
وان جاء بعد اسم يكون حرف جر مثل:
He at home

- Conjunctions:

- (1) linking conjunctions or coordinators (and, but, for, or)

- Such as: he traveled to Syria for a business meeting
تكون الجملة مستقلة فلو فصلنا الجزء الاول عن الاخر لايختل المعنى

- (2) Binding conjunctions or subordination (because, whenever, until, before, after, whether, although).

Such as: he is arrived before guests leaved
لا نستطيع فصل الجزئين عن بعضهما لانه سيختل المعنى
سلمت يداك اختي و لكن هل يوجد ملخصات لكل الكتاب و جزاك الله الف خير
ريم الغزال غير متصل  
قديم 23-11-2011, 03:58 PM   #47
فراشه المنتدى فراشه المنتدى غير متصل
مشرف سابق
 
الصورة الرمزية فراشه المنتدى
افتراضي رد: Group 2011/2012 ...•|| حَيَـاٰگُم


فيه ملخصات الاخت قطه على نفس الرابط هذا ارجعي للصفحات الاولي تلقين ملخص الكتاب الثاني
فراشه المنتدى غير متصل  
قديم 23-11-2011, 11:42 PM   #48
mhussein mhussein غير متصل
طالب جديد

 











افتراضي رد: Group 2011/2012 ...•|| حَيَـاٰگُم


نموذج اختبارات

1-Clause group

2- Halliday. pronoun, noun and verb ]

3- Lingua Franka

4 Ranke sckale

5 Language Shift, death and Loss

6 two main function of adjective

7 isoglosses .

8 semantics

9 Code- switch
mhussein غير متصل  
قديم 24-11-2011, 12:13 AM   #49
فراشه المنتدى فراشه المنتدى غير متصل
مشرف سابق
 
الصورة الرمزية فراشه المنتدى
افتراضي رد: Group 2011/2012 ...•|| حَيَـاٰگُم


mhussein يسلمووووووووووو يعطيك العافيه
فراشه المنتدى غير متصل  
قديم 24-11-2011, 01:15 AM   #50
GueSS.q8 GueSS.q8 غير متصل
طالب مميز
 
الصورة الرمزية GueSS.q8

 











افتراضي رد: Group 2011/2012 ...•|| حَيَـاٰگُم


اقتباس:
المشاركة الأصلية كتبت بواسطة ^lilly^ مشاهدة المشاركة
و نسيت اقول ان في كم سؤال ما عرفت اجاوب عليهم
فـ اللي يعرف بليز لا يبخل علينا لأنهم مهمين جداً



Define Rank scale with example
اذا ماخاب ظنـي جذي الجواب


- The notion of rank:
The meaning of the text is constructed out of its component parts: sentences, clauses and words. Hallidayan linguists employ the notion of rank. A sentence consists of one or more groups, a group/phrase consists of one or more words and a word consists of one or more morphemes. Each of these ranks refer to a unit of meaning. The clause and its constituents allow us to express ideas.


بس اتمنى يكون في تأكيد لها مو متأكده وايد : )
GueSS.q8 غير متصل  
قديم 29-11-2011, 02:53 PM   #51
love & stability love & stability غير متصل
طالب نشيط
 
الصورة الرمزية love & stability

 











افتراضي رد: Group 2011/2012 ...•|| حَيَـاٰگُم


بنات الاختبار ب 5 ديسمبر اكيد ؟؟
لانه قبل بالمودل كاني شفته ب 3 ديسمبر
love & stability غير متصل  
قديم 29-11-2011, 04:04 PM   #52
love & stability love & stability غير متصل
طالب نشيط
 
الصورة الرمزية love & stability

 











افتراضي رد: Group 2011/2012 ...•|| حَيَـاٰگُم





Dear Students,

This is to remind you that E 300A MTA is on Monday , Dec 5th , 06:00 to 08:00 p.m. and it lasts 2 hours . Therefore, you are strictly urged to be on time and respect the AOU exam regulations below:

1- The exam covers both blocks 1 and 2 , it represents 30% of the total grade. Please write in forma and academic style and try to avoid informal chatty English . Most importantly, review your answers for language errors before you submit your answer booklet; in fact, 6 marks are usually deducted for language errors.
2- Bring your university ID
3- You aren’t allowed to use your cell phone during exam
4- Don’t use red color pen , it’s for proofreading and marking by tutors.
5- The exam is for two hours, if you’re up 10 minutes late , you won’t be allowed to sit for the exam.
6- You aren’t allowed to leave the exam room until you spend 50 % of the exam allocated time , i.e. you can only leave after the first hour
7- There will be no make up for the exam , anyone who is absent will get automatically an F .



All the very best,
Larbi

هذا مسج جاني على ايميل الجامعه من مستر لاربي ... لاحظو الكلام الي تجي عقب الاختبار ب10 دقايق ماتدخل
والي غابت علطول راسبه و6 درجات للاخطاء اللغويه والقرامر

الله يستر
love & stability غير متصل  
قديم 29-11-2011, 05:43 PM   #53
فراشه المنتدى فراشه المنتدى غير متصل
مشرف سابق
 
الصورة الرمزية فراشه المنتدى
افتراضي رد: Group 2011/2012 ...•|| حَيَـاٰگُم


حل اسئله ميدتيرم الكويت



Our MTA was today from 3 : 5


There ware 1 section , with 6 questions,,the student sould answer any 3 question of them,,


* What are the two main function of adjectives- Adjectives: are modifiers of nouns or the head of a group that is complement of a
copular verb (be, seem, become), i.e after copular.
• [color="Green"]adjectives لهآا وظيفتآان:

1- Modifiers of nouns > تصف الأسم (head word) <<< E.g. expensive care
2- Head of a group complement of a copular verb > تأتي كـ مفعول به object عندمآا يكون الفعل copular verb = be, seem, become مثآل: The book is big
- وهناك ايضا بالانجلش جملة وصفية كما بالعربية ويطلق عليها اسم adjectives group فكلما كثرت الصفات تصبح الجملة complex[/COLOR]*Define pronouns ,,their types with examples- Pronouns: are said to be a closed set of items: no additions or transformations.
Personal pronouns: I, me
Possessive pronouns: my, mine
Wh-pronouns: who, whom, which, what, whose.
1- pronoun:
- الضمآئر .. معروفة he, she, it, they, we, you, I,
- وضمآئر الملكية Possessive pronouns .. my, mine
- Wh-pronouns: that, who, whom, which, what, whose مثآل : the book that you gave me


*Define adverbes,,their types with examples-
Adverbs: are characterized by the morphological feature- ly, e.g. clearly, sadly etc.
• :Adverbs

وهو الذي يشير بالجملة للمكان والزمان اي شبه الجملة باللغة العربية مثل: (here, now) والذي يضاف لاخره ly وتسمى الظروف ب adjunct اي مايتبع الهد ناون ويضيف معلومة اليها
- وهناك بالانجلش جملة ظرفية كما بالعربية ويطلق عليها اسم adverbial group فكلما كثرت الظروف تصبح الجملة complex



*Define the rank scale and expline it with examples
The notion of rank:
The meaning of the text is constructed out of its component parts: clauses, group, words and morphemes. Hallidayan linguists employ the notion of rank. A clause consists of one or more groups, a group/phrase consists of one or more words and a word consists of one or more morphemes (small element in rank, e.g.: Books: book/s 2 morphemes). Each of these ranks refers to a unit of meaning.

هذآا تقسيم/تحليل الجُمّل وترتيب مكونآاتهآا اللغوية .. Clause أكبر وحدة في الجملة... Morpheme أصغر وحدة في الجملة...

Clause several children are playing near the river
Phrase several children/ are playing/ near the river
Word several/ children/ are/ playing/ near/ the/ river
Morpheme Several-child-ren-are-play-ing-near-the-river




*How can the bilingual education affect people's liguistics behaviores and useg,,expline and give examples
فراشه المنتدى غير متصل  
قديم 30-11-2011, 06:57 PM   #54
love & stability love & stability غير متصل
طالب نشيط
 
الصورة الرمزية love & stability

 











افتراضي رد: Group 2011/2012 ...•|| حَيَـاٰگُم


فراشه في لك مشاركه قديمه عن اساله لهذه الماده تقريبا 55 سوال وكمان الجواب معاهم؟؟
بس مدري انتي متاكده لهذي الماده وهل اني اذاكرهم للميدتيرم والا ايش؟
love & stability غير متصل  
قديم 30-11-2011, 07:00 PM   #55
فراشه المنتدى فراشه المنتدى غير متصل
مشرف سابق
 
الصورة الرمزية فراشه المنتدى
افتراضي رد: Group 2011/2012 ...•|| حَيَـاٰگُم


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افتراضي رد: Group 2011/2012 ...•|| حَيَـاٰگُم


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-10-2011, 01:35 AM

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مشرفة مادة A210+E300
مجموع الأوسمة: 2




رد: Group 2011/2012 ...•|| حَيَـاٰگُم




Q1: What is the sociolinguistic?


Sociolinguistic is the field that studies the relation between language and society, between the uses of language and social structures in which the users of language live (P. 3)



Q2: What is the primary task of sociolinguistic?



Sociolinguist takes as its primary task to map linguistic variation on to social condition. This mapping helps understand not just synchronic variation (variation at a single point of time) but also diachronic variation (variation over time) or language change. (P. 4)



Q3: What is synchronic variation?



Synchronic Variation is "a variation at single point of time. (P. 4)



Q4: What is Diachronic Variation?



Diachronic Variation is "a variation over time or language change. (P4)



Q5: What is an Idiolect?



Idiolect is the unique characteristics of the language of an individual speaker are referred to as



the speaker idiolect. (P14)



Q6: What is a dialect ? Are dialects mutually intelligible ?



• Dialects are mutually intelligible forms of a language that differ in systematic ways. Every group, whether rich or poor, regardless of region or racial origin, speaks a dialect. (P. 4) (P14)



• When there are systematic differences in the way different groups speaker a language , we say that each group speaks a dialect . (P14)



Q7: When dialects become different language?



Dialects become mutually unintelligible, when the speakers of one dialect group can no longer understand the speakers of another dialect group; then these dialects become different language. (P.5)



Q8: What is dialect leveling?



Dialect leveling is movement toward greater uniformity and less variation among dialect. (P16)



Q9: What is meant by regional dialect?



Regional dialect is language spoken has its own "character" and the version of the language is referred to as regional dialect. (P. 16)



Q10: What is an Accent?



Accent refers to the characteristics of speech that convey information about the speaker's dialect also used to refer to the speech of someone who speaks a language non-natively. (P16)





Q11: What is communicative isolation ?



…………………………………………………………



Q12: Give some examples of phonological, lexical, and syntactic differences among English dialects?



PHONOLOGICALLY:



1- In the southern area of the country, Creek is pronounced with tense /i/ as /krik/ and in the north Midlands it is pronounced with a lax / I/ as /krik/.



2- Many speakers of American English pronounce pin and pen identically, whereas others pronounce the first /pin/ and the second /pεn/



3- In some English dialects the /h/ is regularly dropped from most the words in which it s pronounced in American, such as house pronounced /aws/ and hero pronounced /iro/.



4- See more examples in page (P.19)



LEXICALLY:



1- In England they call it lift, while in American they call it elevator.



2- In Britain "Public School" is Private (you have to pay)



3- In Los Angeles ( freeway) , but in New York (thruway) and(motorway) in England



4- Please check page (20) for more examples



SYNTACTICALLY:



1- Speaker of some American dialect say Have them come early! While others say Have theme to come early! (22)



2- See more example in Page (22)



Q13: What is an isogloss?



Isogloss is a line drawn on the dialect map to separate the areas (P. 20)



Q14: Mention some examples of banned language?



1- Cajun English and French were banned in southern Louisiana by practice if not by law until about twenty years ago.



2- American Indian languages were banned in federal and state schools on reservations.



3- Speaking Faroese was formerly forbidden in the Faroe Islands. (P.13)



Q15: What is "Franglais?"



Franglais is words of English origin like le parking, l weekend and le hotdog, (P.13)



Q16:what is singlish ?



Many who do not learn English as their native language speak singlish a form of English with elements of Malay ,Tamil ,mandarin Chinese and other Chinese dialects .( p.13 )



Q17: Mention an example of the revival of a dormant language?



• Gaelic or Irish is being taught in Ireland



• The academy of the Hebrew Language in Israel undertook a task that had never been done in the history of humanity – to resuscitate an ancient written language to serve the daily colloquial needs of the people.(P.15)










Q18: Mention two phonological and syntactical features of African American English (AAE)?



Phonological: (16--17)



• R-deletion



• L-deletion



• Consonant cluster simplification



• Neutralization of [ Ι ] and [ε] before nasals



• Diphthong reduction



• Loss of Interdental fricatives



Syntactical:



• Double negatives



• Deletion of verb “be”



• Habitual “be”



Q19: What is a lingua franca? Give an example.



Lingua Franca is one language often used by common agreement.



1- English has been called "the lingua franca of the whole world"



2- French, at one time was "the lingua franca of diplomacy"



3- Latin was a lingua franca of the Roman Empire and of western Christendom for a millennium. (P.24)



Q20: What is a pidgin? Give an example.



Pidgin is two (or possibly more) groups use their native languages as a basis for rudimentary language of few lexical items and less complex grammatical rules. (p25 or 124)



For example:



Tok Pisin :it is English based pidgin and it has its own writing system, its own literature, and its own newspapers and radio programs; it has even been used to address a united Nation meeting. (P25-----26)



Q21: What is a Creole? Give example.



Creole is when pidgin comes to be adopted by a community as its native tongue, and children learn it as a first language the pidgin becomes creolized. (p28)



Example:



1- Louisiana Creole, related to Haitian Creole, is spoken by blacks and whites in Louisiana.



2- Krio is spoken by million Sierra Leoneans. (P. 28)



Q22: What is Code-switching?



Code-switching is when bilingual persons switch from one language to another.



Example: When speaking English, may insert a Spanish word or phrase into a single sentence or move back and forth between Spanish and English.



Q23: What is a register?



Register or Styles is situation dialects. (P. 49)



Q24: Are informal styles rule-governed? Give an example.



Yes ( ch 4 ,p 31 )



Example 1- Questions are often shortened with the subject you and the auxiliary verb deleted. One can ask Running the marathon? Or you running the marathon? Instead of the more formal Are you running the marathon? But you can not shorten the question to * Are running the marathon?



Q25: What is the jargon or argot?



Jargon or an argot is refer to the unique vocabulary used by professional or trade groups to shortening the existing words such as perp for perpetrator, ped for pedestrian, wit for witness. And it consists of terms such as phoneme, morpheme, case, lexicon, phrase structure rule and so on. (P.31)



Q26: What meant by "taboo"?



Taboo is referring to act or words that are forbidden or to be avoided. (P 34)



Q27: What is euphemism? Give an example.



Euphemism is a word or phrase that replaces a taboo word or serves to avoid frightening or unpleasant subjects. (P. 35)



Example



1- People are less apt to die and more apt to pass on or pass away.



Q28: What is folk etymology?



Folk Etymology is the process, normally unconscious, whereby words or their origins are changed through nonscientific speculations or false analogies with other word. (P. 35)



Q29: Why do people invent secret languages and language games? Give an example for each.



For fun or to prevent others from knowing what is being said. (P. 43)



Example:



1- Immigrant parent sometimes use their native language when they do not want their children to understand what they are saying.



2- Games languages are used by children and adults



3- A suffix is added to each word in other a syllable is inserter after each vowel



Chapter 05



Q30: What is baby talk?



The register that used to speak to babies. (P.44, ch 5)



Q31: What do children need to acquire to be socialized? (P. 44)



1- Knowing when to speak and when to be silent.



2- How to enter a conversation.



3- When to speak quietly and when clearly.



Q32: Who is the bilingual person?



Bilingual person who has some functional ability in a second language. (P. 91)



Q33: What is needed to describe the nature of an individual's bilingualism? (P. 45)



1. To identify each of the language. We will often need to clarify which variety is involved: to distinguish between Cantonese and Putonghua, or between Egyptian and Moroccan Arabic, or between High German and Swiss German.



2. The way each language was acquired. It is useful to distinguish between mother or native tongue learning, second or informal language learning, and foreign or additional language learning



Q34: What is mean by "domain"?



Domain is an empirically determined cluster consisting of a location, aset of role-relationship, and set topic. (P. 46)



Q35: What is difference between compounds bilingual and coordinate bilingual? (P. 48)



Compounds Bilingual: whose two languages were assumed to be closely connected, because one language had been learned after the other.



Coordinate Bilingual: who had learned each language in separate contexts, and so kept them distinct.



Q36: What is ****phorical switching?



A powerful mechanism for signaling social attitudes or claiming group membership or solidarity. (P. 50)



Chapter 07



Q37: What is language Planning?



Language planning is any effort modifies language form or use. (P. 66)



Q38: What is status planning? Give an example



Status planning is any attempt to set up norms or rules for when to use each is language or to be another from use in school. (P. 66)



Example



1- Decision of make one language official



2- Or to ban another language from use in the school.



Q39: What is corpus planning? Give an example.



Corpus planning is any effort to fix or modify its structure. (P. 66 ,67)



Example:



1- Turk policy to remove Arabic words from Turkish



2- Dutch decisions to change spelling.



Q40: What is meant by normativism?



Normatveism is consists of attempting to standardized grammar and pronunciation towards some norm that is discovered or self-proclaimed group of language guardians, this process called normativism or pre******ivism by linguists who study it, or "keeping the language pure" by those who carry it out. (P. 67)



Q41: What is language acquisition planning?



Language acquisition planning is process of language education policy is involved when a government decides which foreign languages are to be taught in school or through other mean. (P.67)




Q42: What is language diffusion Policy?



A country or other social group may wish to encourage other people to learn their language. (P. 67)



Chapter 2



The ethnography of speaking and the structure of conversation .



Q 43 : What is meant by speech event ?



The act of communication.( P .14)



Q 44 : What dose the ethnography of speaking mean ?



Which is an approach to de******ion of speech events that calls for and analysis of each of the relevant factors .each of them may bye studies independently but all are closely interrelated in forming the structure of the whole event .for each genre or kind of speech event the factors are realized and related in appropriate ways. ( P.15 )



Q 45 :What do we mean by conversational interchange?



Is the basic unit of the spoken language . ( p .16 )



Q 46 : Are telephone conversations ruled –governed? give an example .



No,



Ex : see chapter 2 page 16



Q 47 : A formal structure to conversations is determined by two things .what are they ?



One quick way is to Imaging what is likely to happen if someone doesn't follow one of the rules we propose .( p .17 )



……………………………………………….



Q 48 : What is meant by service encounter ?



The rules for turn-taking and interruption the organization of invitations ,and the normal patterns of social intercourse in casual conversation .( p17.18)



Q 49 : What do we mean by turn –taking and turn –holders?



The question of who speaks is one of the most intriguing aspects of conversational interchange (p .18)



Q 50 : What is politeness ?



Consists of the recognitions of the listener and his of her fights in the situation (p.19)



Q 51 : What do terms of address refer to?



A related phenomenon in languages that do not have the T/V distinction is the use of address terms . ( p.21)



Chapter 3



Q 52 : Locating variation in speech community ?



Is all the people who speak a single language ( like English or French or Amharic ) (p .24)



Q 53 : What is meant by a repertoires of language ?



The speech community is a complex interlocking network of communication whose members share knowledge about the attitudes towards the language use patterns of others as well as themselves .(p .25 )



Q 54 : What is meant by networks ?



Groups of people who communicate with each other regularly –also contain consistent patterns . ( p .26)



Q 55 : What is dialectology ?



Is the ****** for spatially and geographically determined differences in various of language . (p .28 )
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