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قديم 16-11-2011, 08:53 AM   #1
suun_shine suun_shine غير متصل
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هام مراجعة نهائية للــــ mta


طلاب e00 الظروف وايد صعبة اللي نمر فيها عشان جذي حطيت هالصفحة لمناقشة الأشياء المهمة

الظروف هذي مرينا فيها السنوات السابقة نفسكم بالضبط.. بس الحمدلله عدت الامور على خير

عشان جذي يبت لكم موضوع مهم وجهد رائع من أحد الأخوان في فرع الكويت يزاه الله خير.. من موقع

w w w . e l l - o u . c o m

حل ومناقشة الاسئلة لسنوات سابقة ... يله نبدأ بسم الله

التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة suun_shine ; 16-11-2011 الساعة 09:13 AM
suun_shine غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 16-11-2011, 08:54 AM   #2
suun_shine suun_shine غير متصل
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افتراضي رد: مراجعة نهائية للــــ mta


1- Define and exemplify the following : 1- circumstance 2- embedded clause.



Circumstance : Circumstance: are elements which carry a semantic load but which are neither process nor participants. They are concerned with matters like setting, physical or temporal, manner in which the process is implemented or other entities accompanying the process rather than directly engaged in it. Their realization is typically adverb or prepositional phrase.





2- Embedded clause (also rank shifted clause is embedded clause).
Simply, it is a clause inside another clause. It interrupts the main clause and provide additional information .
Examples:


1- All students are not allowed to enter the class.
2- All students who are late are not allowed to enter the class.

In example 1, we understand that all the students are not allowed to enter the class. So, there are no identification.
But in example 2, we identify the students who are not allowed by saying "who are late", so not all students

are not allowed to enter the class. So, the embedded clause is "who are late".

In the same time, in example 2, the sentence can be grammatically correct when we say it without

the embedded clause.

Anther example:

2- The car I saw yesterday is a beautiful car.




Also, there is multiple embedded clause ;a clause which has two embedded clauses .
E.g. This is Matt [[that lay in house [[that Jack built]] ]].



2- what are the major categories of the cohesive component? list and define.


Cohesive Component:


1- Reference
2- Ellipsis and Substitution
3- Conjunction
4- Lexical Cohesion


Reference:


Reference can be cohesive when two or more expressions in the text refer to the same person, thing or idea.
An essential characteristic of cohesive reference is that, on second and subsequent mention, the person or thing referred to is not named but is indicated by means of a pronoun, demonstrative (this, these) or comparative term. When readers or listeners come across a pronoun or determiner, they are forced to mentally identify the linked nominal in order to make sense of the text. This has a very strong cohesive force.



Substitution:

Substitution is used where a speaker or writer wishes to avoid the repetition of a lexical item and is able to draw on one of the grammatical resources of the language to replace the item.
In the case of referential cohesion, the tie exists between two or more references to the same concept. With substitution we do not have co-referentiality, but rather a substitute for a word or a group of words.

There are three types of substitutions in English: verbal, nominal and clausal substitutions.
In nominal substitutes, one, ones and same can stand in place of Nominal Groups and Head Nouns.

In verbal substitutes, any nonfinite form of the verb do can stand in the place of the Lexical Verb in a Verbal Group.

The third type, clausal substitution, is extremely common both in speech and in written prose. Here, the words so and not stand in place of an entire clause except for the subject, and the reader or listener can only interpret the meaning of the substitution in terms of what has previously been expressed in full.
An interesting point about substitution is the grammatical distinction between the use of the substitute not following a verb like (think, suppose, guess) and the ordinary negative form of the verb, as in I don’t suppose.




Ellipsis is the omission of words, groups of clauses (referred to by Halliday as “substitution by zero”). Ellipsis takes place in similar grammatical environment to substitution. We have nominal, verbal and clausal ellipsis.
The grammar of Nominal ellipsis permits the omission of Head Nouns in a Nominal Group. Verbal ellipsis is common in all short form answers and responses.



Conjunction :

Conjunction is the term used to describe the cohesive tie between clauses or sections of text in such a way as to demonstrate a meaningful relationship between them. This “linking” or “joining” is achieved by the use of Conjunctive Adjuncts, which are sometimes called “cohesive conjunctives”,



Also, there are two types of conjunctions:


1) Coordinator or linking conjunctions ( but, for, and , or)
e.g. She travelled to Kuwait for a business meeting
This means that you can divide the sentence and the meaning will be clear
She travelled to Kuwait for a business meeting




2) Subordinator or binding ( because, whenever, after, although , until, before)


She arrived before the gusts left


You cannot divide the two sentences because the meaning will not complete.
suun_shine غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 16-11-2011, 08:56 AM   #3
suun_shine suun_shine غير متصل
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افتراضي رد: مراجعة نهائية للــــ mta


Q 3: Discuss two theme patterns\thematic progression?

There are constant theme pattern,liner theme pattern,derived theme and multipue theme.



I will try to explain the first pattern "constant theme pattern":


Here, in this pattern the theme is repeated and this theme equates with the given information. This theme is common in short passages and de******ions of factual information focusing on particular thing or concept.

For example:

Yousef is my teacher, he is from Kuwait.

Theme 1 = Yousef
Theme 2 = He

Rheme = Teacher.


The Linear Theme pattern


The Linear pattern is when the Rheme of one clause is taken up as the theme of the subsequent clause.



Derived themes

Derived themes is the term used to describe expressions in theme position which are cohesively linked in meaning, but not necessarily in form, to a topic which has been stated earlier in the text or the overall topic of the paragraph.



Multiple themes:

It is easy but needs concentration.

In Multiple themes, some clauses have more than one theme. They have different multiple thematic structure.

How?


Let us understand this pattern by example.


e.g. Well, children, the story is about to begin.


Textual theme= when the clause begins by for example (Well, Oh, Yes).

Interpersonal theme= using names, addressing listener directly.

Topical theme= what is the clause about, the topic etc.

Rheme = is about to begin.

So, the multiple theme contains of different thematic sturctures such as:
Topical theme,Interpersonal theme and Textual theme.

Hope it helps
suun_shine غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 16-11-2011, 08:57 AM   #4
suun_shine suun_shine غير متصل
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افتراضي رد: مراجعة نهائية للــــ mta


Q 4 : Michael Halliday's word class.

Name the word class and give examples

.................................................. .........

Word classes: a set of categories for classifying words. According to Michal Halliday, there are eight word classes as follows:
Nouns, adjectives, numerals, determiners, verbs .prepositions, adverbs and conjunctions.

• Nouns: common nouns, proper nouns and pronouns.
Common nouns: General nouns such as: girl, book, disk, lion etc. (Open set)1
Proper nouns: names of people, cities, places, and companies such as: Yousef, Mona, Arab Open University etc. (Open set) 1.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1- Open set : this means that nouns accept expansion and changeable
For example, you can say: boy, two boys, three boys etc.


• Pronoun: ( close set)2.

Personal pronoun: I, he, she, it , they, we , you

Possessive pronoun: my, our, mine etc.

Relative pronoun (Wh pronoun):
What, who, whose, whom, which , that.
e.g. The girl whom he married was his classmate.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
2- Close set: this means that pronouns are limited and well-known.





• Verbs: lexical verbs, finite and modal verbs.


Lexical verbs: the main verb in the sentence such as : swim, play, work etc.
Finite: auxiliaries or helping verbs.
Is, was, are, were etc.
Modal verbs: can, could, may, might , shall, should, will, would


• Adjectives:

They are modifiers of nouns OR the head of a group that is complement of a copular verb ( seem, be become)

Modifiers of nouns:
He bought expensive car.

Head of a group complement of a copular verb ( seem, be become)
Your house is big.
She becomes angry.
He becomes a manager in his new work.


• Determiners:

- Articles:


Definte article: the
indefinite article: a, an

- Demonstratives : this, that, these and those.

- Numerals: one, two, first, second and etc.


• Adverbs:
- One of the primary functions of adverbs is as the head word of a group functioning as adjunt at the rank of the clause.
There are many types of adverbs as follows:

- Morphological adverb "ly": slowly, clearly etc.
- Adverb of manner: ' quickly'
- Adverb of time: 'now'
- Adverb of place: 'here"
- Adverb of frequent: 'always ,frequently, often'
- direction adverb: left, right, forward
- sentence adverb: occur in the beginning of the sentence such as:
- Firstly, finally ,honestly etc.



• Prepositions:
One area of potential confusion is with Words like: up , on over , near ,by, in, outside




• Conjunction :

Conjunction is the term used to describe the cohesive tie between clauses or sections of text in such a way as to demonstrate a meaningful relationship between them. This “linking” or “joining” is achieved by the use of Conjunctive Adjuncts, which are sometimes called “cohesive conjunctives”,



Also, there are two types of conjunctions:


1) Coordinator or linking conjunctions ( but, for, and , or)
e.g. She travelled to Kuwait for a business meeting
This means that you can divide the sentence and the meaning will be clear
She travelled to Kuwait for a business meeting




2) Subordinator or binding ( because, whenever, after, although , until, before)


She arrived before the gusts left


You cannot divide the two sentences because the meaning will not complete.
suun_shine غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 16-11-2011, 08:59 AM   #5
suun_shine suun_shine غير متصل
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افتراضي رد: مراجعة نهائية للــــ mta


Q 5 : The notion of rank ( the rank scale)

Explanation of the notion of rank:

The meaning of the text is constructed of its components parts: clauses, phrases words and morphemes. Hallidayan linguists employ the notion rank. A clause consists of one or more groups. A group\phrase consists of one or more words and a word consists of one or more morphemes (the smallest element in the rank scale).

Example

Clause: several children are playing near the river.
Phrase : several children /are playing /near the river.
Word: several /children /are /playing /near /the/river.
Morpheme: several -child-ren –are- play-ing-near –the-river.
suun_shine غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 16-11-2011, 09:00 AM   #6
suun_shine suun_shine غير متصل
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افتراضي رد: مراجعة نهائية للــــ mta


Q 6 : Define the following : Empty subject OR dummy subject,Marked theme,Unmarked theme and Verbal group.


Empty subject OR dummy subject : dummy subjects are sort of ' stand in holding the subject position'. The postponed structure is an embedded clause. We analyze the dummy subject and the embedded clause togater as making up the subject.

e.g. There is no students in the class.


Marked theme: a marked theme is a theme which untypical or unusual.
In declarative clause, a marked theme is anything other than the subject.

Let us take an example.

After the war, the Spartans erected a memorial.

In the previous example, the theme is realized by preposition phrase 'after the war'.

Unmarked theme: In unmarked theme the subject is the starting point.
e.g. The capital of Qatar is Doha.
Yousef played football.
Theme rheme

Verbal group: a group with verb as a head and as a modifier.
e.g. it might have been being written down during that time.
suun_shine غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 16-11-2011, 09:04 AM   #7
suun_shine suun_shine غير متصل
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افتراضي رد: مراجعة نهائية للــــ mta


يله وينكم نبي تفاعل وحمااااس

واللي عندة اي سؤال واي استفسار يكتبه لان الوقت يمشي بسرعة
suun_shine غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 16-11-2011, 09:16 AM   #8
النادرة النادرة غير متصل
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افتراضي رد: مراجعة نهائية للــــ mta


الله يجزاك الفردوس الاعلى يارب وكثر الله امثالك

انا عندي سؤال ايش الوحدات المهمة في الكتاب الثاني , ويا ترى استفدتوا من الاثلة اللي باخر كل وحدة؟؟؟؟
النادرة غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 16-11-2011, 11:29 AM   #9
suun_shine suun_shine غير متصل
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افتراضي رد: مراجعة نهائية للــــ mta


اقتباس:
المشاركة الأصلية كتبت بواسطة النادرة مشاهدة المشاركة
الله يجزاك الفردوس الاعلى يارب وكثر الله امثالك

انا عندي سؤال ايش الوحدات المهمة في الكتاب الثاني , ويا ترى استفدتوا من الاثلة اللي باخر كل وحدة؟؟؟؟

أجمعين يارب ويجزاك خير ويسهل أختباركم...

والله صعب أحدد لج الوحدات المهمة لأن الكمية كبيرة ..

بس عفواً مافهمت قصدج بالامثلة آخر الوحدة.. يمكن قصدج.. exercises اللي بآخر الوحدة..؟

والله إذا فيه وقت كافي.. يُستحب أنج تقرينهم بس اعتقد لطلاب فرع الكويت.. صعب عليهم شوي.. لان أمتحانهم.. حيل مبجر..
suun_shine غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 16-11-2011, 11:33 AM   #10
suun_shine suun_shine غير متصل
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افتراضي رد: مراجعة نهائية للــــ mta


يلــه يا طلآب.. نبي أحد يجيب لنـــا حل لهسؤال...

Halliday's process

مع ذكر أمثلة..؟

أعتقد أنه مهم هالسؤال.. إحساسي يقول أنه مهم لأنه مرّه جانا بالفاااينل

التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة suun_shine ; 16-11-2011 الساعة 11:38 AM
suun_shine غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 21-11-2011, 06:02 AM   #11
love & stability love & stability غير متصل
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الصورة الرمزية love & stability

 











افتراضي رد: مراجعة نهائية للــــ mta


شكرررررراا
love & stability غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 21-11-2011, 05:33 PM   #12
sozan18 sozan18 غير متصل
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الصورة الرمزية sozan18

 










افتراضي رد: مراجعة نهائية للــــ mta


اقتباس:
المشاركة الأصلية كتبت بواسطة suun_shine مشاهدة المشاركة
يلــه يا طلآب.. نبي أحد يجيب لنـــا حل لهسؤال...

Halliday's process

مع ذكر أمثلة..؟

أعتقد أنه مهم هالسؤال.. إحساسي يقول أنه مهم لأنه مرّه جانا بالفاااينل

Process and Participant:

Process let us know that something is going on.
Example:
A toddler is laughing happily.

A family is eating a picnic under a tree.

A dog is playing with a ball.

We can see that each process involves a participating entity, typically by doing it or being affected by it. Participant as toddler.

Circumstance is accompanying the process, they do the job of describing something of the setting. Happily explains how the toddler is smiling. Circumstance add information concerning the process as to how, where, when, by what means, who with, for how long…etc

Examples for students:

A young woman is posing for a photograph.

A young woman is photographing her brother.

My cousin smashed the car.



Par pro circum
Par pro par
Par pro par


Processes can be subdivided into different types: Material Process,Mental Process & Verbal Process.

Material processes: external action, both concrete and abstract action. Abstract for example resign, dissolve (committee). Concrete catch, play, run

Mental processes: processes that go inside the head such as thinking and sensing, intellectual action. They include cognition, I don't believe you, affection I hate injections, I saw the accident.

Verbal processes: the saying and reporting of things, verbal action example talk, ask, state, whisper,etc..

Examples for students:

I hadn't noticed that picture before. Mr. Bloom said. The police do not know. No one was wearing a seat belt, and alcohol wasn't involved Leeper claimed.


Material Processes involve 'doing words'. In an action oriented narrative, such Processes tend to occur frequently, though they are by no means the only type.

Mental processes Senser and phenomenon:

1) He didn't recognize me
(2) We heard an explosion.
(3) I didn't know your phone number. Mental Process
(4) She doesn't want to study.
(5) They dislike their arrogant manger.

In all these examples the Subject is the one who experiences the Process. For obvious reasons, this Participant
is labeled Senser. What is experienced is given the label Phenomenon. The examples cited all have the same Participant roles in the same order: Senser, Mental Process, Phenomenon,
It happens that in all these examples the Senser is realized as Subject and the Phenomenon as Complement, but this is not always the case. Firstly, even with the same verbs, a change of voice would make the Phenomenon the Subject.

Active Voice

S F/P C
He didn't recognize me
We Heard an explosion
I didn't know your phone number
She wants to study hard for the exam
They dislike their arrogant manager
Senser Mental Process Phenomenon


Verbal Process:

Speaking is certainly a kind of action, and to some extent it would not be unreasonable to treat it as Material Process. Consider the example below :

(1) He said, 'If I'm free, I'll pass by later this evening"
Sayer Verbal process Quoted
In this example, we have the person who produces the utterance, to whom we give the self-explanatory title of Sayer; the Verbal Process itself, realized here as said; and the representation of the words actually spoken, which in this context we label Quoted. The function Quoted is realized as Direct Speech. The wording is identical to that initially uttered by the Sayer , or at least, it is presented as though it were identical. On the other hand, there is a Verbal Process where the words of the Sayer are transposed in line with the perspective of the speaker or writer who is reporting the speech. This involves Indirect (Reported) Speech, as in , such as in :


(2) I said I wanted to relax for a while.

Here I is Sayer and I wanted to relax for a while is Reported. It is worthwhile to retain that the Reported element itself contains clauses and so it could be further analyzed in terms of Process and Participant. There are various ordering possibilities with this type of Process, particularly with the direct speech form. The most neutral or unmarked ordering is Sayer-Process-Quoted,

In modem English, with the sequence Quoted-Process-Sayer, Sayer must be a full Nominal Group with a noun as Head (often a proper noun) and not a pronoun. Only in more old-fashioned or whimsical texts will you find Sayer realized as a pronoun in this sequence.



هذا الي لاقيته عن البروسيس
sozan18 غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 29-11-2011, 11:41 AM   #13
love & stability love & stability غير متصل
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الصورة الرمزية love & stability

 











افتراضي رد: مراجعة نهائية للــــ mta


يعطيكم العافيه بنات وفالكم الفل مارك ان شاءالله
love & stability غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 29-11-2011, 04:06 PM   #14
love & stability love & stability غير متصل
طالب نشيط
 
الصورة الرمزية love & stability

 











افتراضي رد: مراجعة نهائية للــــ mta


Dear Students,

This is to remind you that E 300A MTA is on Monday , Dec 5th , 06:00 to 08:00 p.m. and it lasts 2 hours . Therefore, you are strictly urged to be on time and respect the AOU exam regulations below:


1- The exam covers both blocks 1 and 2 , it represents 30% of the total grade. Please write in forma and academic style and try to avoid informal chatty English . Most importantly, review your answers for language errors before you submit your answer booklet; in fact, 6 marks are usually deducted for language errors.
2- Bring your university ID
3- You aren’t allowed to use your cell phone during exam
4- Don’t use red color pen , it’s for proofreading and marking by tutors.
5- The exam is for two hours, if you’re up 10 minutes late , you won’t be allowed to sit for the exam.
6- You aren’t allowed to leave the exam room until you spend 50 % of the exam allocated time , i.e. you can only leave after the first hour
7- There will be no make up for the exam , anyone who is absent will get automatically an F .



All the very best,
Larbi

هذا مسج جاني على ايميل الجامعه من مستر لاربي ... لاحظو الكلام الي تجي عقب الاختبار ب10 دقايق ماتدخل
والي غابت علطول راسبه و6 درجات للاخطاء اللغويه والقرامر

الله يستر
love & stability غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
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