العودة   منتديات طلاب الجامعة العربية المفتوحة > منتدى كليات الجامعة العربية المفتوحة > منتدى قسم الإنجليزي > E300a

إضافة رد
 
أدوات الموضوع انواع عرض الموضوع

قديم 22-12-2011, 12:41 PM   #1
miss_sy miss_sy غير متصل
طــالب
 
الصورة الرمزية miss_sy

 










افتراضي 4&5


لو سمحتوا الفكره العامه من شابتر 4 و5 من الكتاب الثالث بليييز..
miss_sy غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 22-12-2011, 10:30 PM   #2
فراشه المنتدى فراشه المنتدى غير متصل
مشرف سابق
 
الصورة الرمزية فراشه المنتدى
افتراضي رد: 4&5


جابتر 5 مهم حييييييييل السؤال تكرر بالفاينل ؟؟؟؟؟؟ جابتر 4 مافي شيء مهم

What relationships exist between speech acts and grammatical categories?
Begin with a good definition of speech acts, and give illustrative examples throughout.
فراشه المنتدى غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 23-12-2011, 03:11 PM   #3
miss_sy miss_sy غير متصل
طــالب
 
الصورة الرمزية miss_sy

 










افتراضي رد: 4&5


شكرا كتير فراشه بس ممكن الجواب
miss_sy غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 23-12-2011, 06:18 PM   #4
فراشه المنتدى فراشه المنتدى غير متصل
مشرف سابق
 
الصورة الرمزية فراشه المنتدى
افتراضي رد: 4&5



Speech act is the meaning of linguistic expressions, which can be explained in terms of the rules governing their use in performing various speech acts (e.g. asserting, commanding, promising, questioning, requesting, and warning). According to Longman Dictionary, speech acts explain linguistic meaning in terms of the use of words and sentences in the performance of speech acts. Some exponents claim that the meaning of a word is nothing but its contribution to the nature of the speech acts that can be performed by using it.
We use language all the time to make things happen. For example, my parents ask me to pass the exams, or arrange my bed - not, usually at the same time. Speech acts include, for example: asking to write an assignment, promising to get high grades (if it matches the required answer), threatening to cut grades (if I did not submit it in the assigned time, ordering to write around (2000 words) in total, and so on. Some special people (like politicians) can do extraordinary things with words, such as declaring war, awarding a Nobel Prize or sentencing a convict.
The relationship between text and social structures is an indirect and mediated one. "Mediated by the discourse which the text is part of, because the values of textual features only become real and socially operative when they are embedded in social interaction, where texts are produced and interpreted against a background of common-sense assumptions (Members Resources MR)".

Speech Act is central aspect of Pragmatics and related to meanings that participants in discourse give to elements of a text. Pragmatic properties show what producer is doing like making statements, promise, questions, orders etc. According to David Crystal "Pragmatics studies the factors that govern our choice of language in social interaction and the effects of our choice on others.” Sometimes all these occur simultaneously and hence multiple speech act results.

Pragmatics gives us ways into any written text. It generally involves information that is generated by acts of using language (speech acts). This distinction should be kept in mind as we examine the nature of speech acts, and the ways in which what a speaker means can differ from what his words mean. The vast majority of pragmatics studies have been devoted to conversation; where the silent influence of context and the undercurrents are most fascinating. To understand pragmatics let us discuss the following example, which is a headline from the Arab Newspaper (Riyadh) (12/October /2008): Crisis loom as rent houses soar in Riyadh
If we study the semantics of the headline, we may be puzzled about the relation between "Crisis" and "the rent houses". The ****phor "soar” indicates an increase in the average of rent houses in the capital of Saudi Arabia. The headline writer assumes that we share his understanding that the crisis is not in the rent of houses in Riyadh, but in the financial cost to rent houses, and to provide houses (for non-owning homes) by the Saudi government; if we know that only 60 percent of Saudis have their private homes not rented ones.
There is a great relationship between the Acts of speech and the pragmatics, each of them explains the other. They are constrained to the setting, participant, and contents. Whether asking or interrupting, even proposing and apologizing
To interpret any text, we need to know some criteria for interpretation , according to Fairclough in his book Language and Power there are six levels of interpretation, four related to the text and two related to the context of the speeches: as the following points:

Surface utterances are the first level of text interpretation that involves knowledge of the language phonology, grammar and vocabulary. Meaning of utterance is the second level of interpretation that involves assigning meaning to the constituent parts of a text: sentences, semantic propositions. The analyst combines word meanings and grammar information and work to arrive at meanings for the whole proposition. They also draw upon pragmatic conventions which allow them to determine what speech acts an utterance is being used to perform. like any word in English language that have a meaning.

Local coherence is the third level of interpretation establishes meaning connections between utterances, producing coherent local interpretations of pairs and sequences of them. Like speech acts contain actions inside the words, and each one of us has her/ his style of producing the speeches, women usually use soft words and hedgers, while men use macho style. Text structure and point Interpretation of text structure at level form is working out how a whole text hangs together, a text’s overall global coherence. This involves matching the text with one of a repertoire of schemata, or representation of characteristic patterns of organization associated with different types of discourse. Schema direct analyst to particular expected patterns or orders in the discourse, for example, if someone invite me to a party, then she/he will expected two responses, whether I accept and thank her, or I refuse her invitation politely, and to promise to come next time.
Now let us move to the interpretation levels regarding the context, the first one is Situational context, which are features of the physical situation, properties of the participants, representation of the societal and institutional social orders. Thereby we can determine the decisions about which discourse type is the 'appropriate' one. For example:
To apply for job we need certain orders of a speech act, it will starts by:
1- Interview 2-Supplying experiences & certificates- 3-then acceptance or refusal.


Inter-textual context, participants assumptions based on the relation of the present discourse to previous discourses. This aspect determines what can be taken, agreed upon or disagreed with. Convention of speech act shows discourse type representing subjects and their social relationships - sometimes these are asymmetrical.

Our speech acts determine the indicators of actions, such as, expressive, asking, invitation/ refusal and also display encounters of powerful participant 'the dominant' over the less –powerful one. In other words, the subjects usually are not in the same level or position. The theory of speech acts underscores the importance of the distinction between language use and linguistic meaning, as the previous examples.
فراشه المنتدى غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
إضافة رد

مواقع النشر (المفضلة)

أدوات الموضوع
انواع عرض الموضوع

تعليمات المشاركة
لا تستطيع إضافة مواضيع جديدة
لا تستطيع الرد على المواضيع
لا تستطيع إرفاق ملفات
لا تستطيع تعديل مشاركاتك

BB code is متاحة
كود [IMG] متاحة
كود HTML معطلة

الانتقال السريع


الساعة الآن 02:07 AM.


Powered by vBulletin® Version 3.8.1, Copyright ©2000 - 2017, Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd. TranZ By Almuhajir
جميع المواضيع والمشاركات تعبر عن وجهة نظر أصحابها
ولا تعبر باي شكل من الاشكال عن وجهة نظر منتديات AOUA
تصميم وتطوير : التكنولوجيا الماسية