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قديم 06-06-2014, 05:36 PM   #15
فيحاء العسل فيحاء العسل غير متصل
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الصورة الرمزية فيحاء العسل
افتراضي رد: الboxes الازرق من كل شابتر (مهم جدا)


هذا محتوى الملف معلي مانسقته عشان الوقت :\







Jakobson’s language functions

• The referential function is associated with the context of the message, it focuses on conveying information about the world beyond the communicative event itseff.
• The emotive or expressive function is associated with the speaker/ writer. It focuses on their atti^de toward what they are speaking about, which may be expressed through a particular choice of words, grammar, or tone of voice.
• The conative function is associated with the hearer/reader. It is concerned with aspects of language designed to affect or influence the hearer/reader in some way. This fanction may be expressed through features such as requests and commands.

• The phatic function is associated with the contact. It is fulfilled by language which is addressed at initiating, sustaining or closing the channel of communication, e.g. 'Well, here we are chatting away at last’ or by ritualised formulas, e.g. ‘Lend me your ears’.

• The ****lingual function is associated with the language code itself. An utterance performs a ****lingual function when it refers to the code and how the code works. For example, whenever interactants need to check up on their mutual comprehension of die code tliey are using, they focus on this function of language, asking questions such as ‘Do you know what I mean?’ اه• ‘What do you mean by “ritualised formulas”?’

• The poetic function is associated with the message. It focuses on the message for its own sake, emphasising the linguistic qualities of words tlieniselves rather than any other factors in the station.
(Adapted from Jakobson, i960, p. 356)







Grice’s maxims
The English philosopher Paul Gl'ice (1975) argued that all conversation is founded on the ‘co-operative principle’, an unspoken agreement between participants in a conversation. This assumes that speakers are generally following these rules (or maxims):
Don’t give too much information or too little information. (Quantity)
Don’t lie or mislead. (Quality)
Don’t be irrelevant. (Relation)
Don’t be unclear, disorderly, ambiguous and obscure. (Manner)
Comment
Widdowson suggests that when we read ‘non-literary’ 'conventional', ‘normal’ te^s (these are all Widdowson's terms), we use the language as a set of dirertions which points us towards an eternal, verifiable reality. These texts can be re-ordered or reform^ated without chang^g their meaning substantially, since they will still refer indexically. On the other hand, if asperts of textual design get altered in a literary text, s^stantial alterations of meaning result. This is because literary te^s do not refer to an external reality; they create in interaction with the mind of the reader their own imaginary conte^, their own representations. A reader of non-literary te^s ignores those aspects which do not seem to serve a pragmatic p^pose, and the reader’s attention is drawn away from the te^. Conversely, in literary texts our attention is dnawn into the te^ itself - significance is sought in features ofte^al patterning which might only be a distraction in non-literary texts.
In non-literary te^;s, participants are س0ط by the cooperative conditions of conventional communication: we can ask whether the events referred to are true, are being presented according to normal expectations of economy and clanity, ane relevant to the pnevious uttenance on to the conte^. But it simply doesn't make sense to ask these que^ions when faced with a literary text. Widdowson claims that in litenary te^s these maxims are not being followed (and indeed, readers aren’t expecting them to be followed).
[iteratere doesn’t have to be true: it just has to canry conviction; it doesn’t 
have to be relevant, but consistent and coherent in its own terms. As he puts it in the reading, literary te^s are:
of their nature untrue, uninformative, irrelevant and obscure. The maxims of quality, quantity, relation and manner are consistently de^ed, and conse^ently literary texts give rise to complex and irresolvable implicatures on a ص scale. It is this which constitutes their ae^hetic effect.



Chapter2

Saussure: paradigms and syntagms

For Saussure (1915), as speech unfolds in time, there are two ways of meaning being created. The first is where signs create meaning in relation to their place in a syntagm. A syntagm is a rule-governed combination of signs. Ike likes me and I like Ike are different syntagms (they follow the rule of subject-verb-object order). Because the combination of signs is different, we have different syntagmatic meanings for like(s) in these two examples.
The second way of creating meaning is in relation to a paradigm.
A paradigm is a group of words which have something in common, words which potentially can be selected for the same slot in a syntagm. For example, prefer or support could be selected instead of like in the syntagm, I like Ike. Prefer, favour and like can thus be seen as belonging to the same paradigm (see Table 2.1). For Saussure, a sign also gets meaning because of what it is not, i.e. it is not the other signs in the relevant paradigm. So in addition to syntagmatic meaning, like gets paradigmatic meaning in I like Ike because it is not favour, prefer, etc. The ideas of paradigm and syntagm, as well as others in Saussure (1915), laid the foundation for an approach to studying literature (as well as history, anthropology, etc.) known as structuralism, which reached a peak in the 1960s. In structuralism, interest focuses not so much on evaluating literary texts but rather on exploring their structural patterns. Structuralism was influenced by both Russian and Prague School Formalism and so Jakobson’s work provides a kind of bridge between these traditions. 
In order to illustrate why Jakobson regards I like Ike as poetic, let me start with a syntagm which Jakobson would not recognise as poetic, I support General Eisenhower. In this syntagm, there has been a selection of support from a paradigm of semantically related verbs {choose, favour, etc.) and General Eisenhower from a paradigm of possible names for this former presidential candidate CDwight,
Ike, etc.)






The poetic function of language

The [... ] focus on the message for its own sake, is the poetic function of language [... ] Any attempt to reduce the sphere of the poetic function of poetry or to confine poetry to die poetic function would be a delusive oversimplification. [The] poetic function is not the sole function of verbal art but only its dominant, determining function, whereas in all other verbal activities it acts as a subsidiary, accessory constituent [... ]
What is the empirical linguistic criterion of the poetic function? In particular, what is the indispensable feature inherent in any piece of poetry? To answer this question we must recall the two basic modes of arrangement used in verbal behavior, selection and combination.
If ‘child’ is the topic of the message, the speaker selects one among the extant, more or less similar nouns like child, kid, youngster, tot, all of them equivalent in a certain respect, and then to comment on this topic, he may select one of the semantically cognate verbs - sleeps, dozes, nods, naps. Both chosen words combine in the speech chain. The selection is produced on the basis of equivalence, similarity and dissimilarity, synonymy and antonymy, while the combination, the build-up of the sequence, is based on contiguity. The poetic function projects the principle of equivalence from the axis of selection into the axis of combination. Equivalence is promoted to the constitutive device of the sequence.
(Jakobson, I960, pp. 356-9)




Deviation and foregrounding
... for poetry, die standard language is the background against which is reflected the aesthetically intentional distortion of the linguistic components of the work, in other words, die intentional violation of the norm of the standard. Let us, for instance, visualise a work in which this distortion is carried out by the interpenetration of dialect speech with the standard; it is clear then that it is not the standard which is perceived as a distortion of the dialect, but the dialect as a distortion of the standard, even when the dialect is quantitatively preponderant. The violation of the norm of the standard, its systematic violation, is what makes possible the poetic utilisation of the language; without this possibility there would be no poetry. [... ]
The function of poetic language consists in the maximum foregrounding of the utterance. [... ] Foregrounding is, of course, common in the standard language, for instance, in journalistic style, even more in essays. But here it is always subordinate to communication: its purpose is to attract the reader’s (listener’s) attention more closely to the subject matter expressed by the foregrounded means of expression. [... 1 In poetic language foregrounding achieves maximum intensity to the extent of pushing communication into the background as the objective of expression and of being used for its own sake; it is not used in the services of communication, but in order to place in the foreground the act of expression, the act of speech itself.
(Mukafovsky, 1970, pp. 41-4)






Chapter 3


---


Chapter 4


A note on terms: text, production and performance
In this chapter I shall make a conventional distinction between literary text, production (e.g. a particular production of a play) and performance. In the case of drama, a production will offer a certain interpretation of a play, but each performance of that production will also differ from others to some extent. ‘Text’ tends to be found in one of two senses: first, text considered outside of a particular performance.
The object of analysis here is usually a play ******, or any other written text such as a poem, story, and so on. This may have been written to be performed, or it may have developed out of performance. Second, there is the text as uttered as part of the performance itself, whether or not this is pre-******ed. I shall try to make it clear, on any occasion, which type of text I am referring to. To make tilings more complicated, analyses of performance sometimes refer to a ‘performance text’ - performance is seen as a composite text that includes verbal and nonverbal elements.




Conversation analysis

Conversation analysis (CA) is a tradition of enquiry concerned with the empirical study of ‘naturally occurring’ spoken interaction (and not just informal conversation, as the name may imply). CA grew out of ethnomethodology, an area of sociology developed during the 1960s and 1970s, with a primary interest in people’s everyday activity. In CA, speech is viewed as a form of activity, and analysts investigate how participants ‘get tilings done’ interactionally (e.g. how they open and close conversations, manage the smooth exchange of speaking aims and carry out activities such as giving and accepting or rejecting an invitation). Conversation analysts are interested in the overall structure of conversation, its sequential organisation, and how this is cooperatively managed by participants.
(Adapted from Swann et al, 2004)




Look Back in Anger

The play Look Back in Anger, by John Osborne, was first produced by the English Stage Company at the Royal Court Theatre on 8 May 1956 (published 1957). It proved a landmark in the history of the theatre, a focus for reaction against a previous generation and a decisive contribution to the corporate image of the ‘Angry Young Man’.

The action takes place in a Midlands town, in the one-room flat of Jimmy and Alison Porter, and centres on their marital conflicts, which appear to arise largely from Jimmy’s sense of their social incompatibility: he is a jazz-playing ex-student from a ‘white tile’ university, she is a colonel’s daughter. Jimmy is by turns violent, sentimental, maudlin, self-pitying and sadistic, and has a fine line in rhetoric. The first act opens as Alison stands ironing the clothes of Jimmy and their lodger Cliff.
In the second act, Alison’s friend Helena attempts to rescue her from her disastrous marriage; Alison departs with her father, and Helena falls into Jimmy’s arms. The third act opens with Helena at the ironing board; Alison returns, having lost the baby she was expecting, and she and Jimmy find a manner of reconciliation through humiliation and game-playing fantasy.

(Adapted from Drabble and Stringer, 1996)
Comment
Herman’s main point is that turn-taking patterns tell us something about speakers, and therefore about characters in a play - for instance, a speaker who is consistently interrupted and unable to gain the floor may be seen as less powerful than other speakers. Other patterns may indicate ineffectuality, boredom or other attributes.
In Look Back in Anger, Herman focuses on four aspects of turn-taking: ‘turn-grabs’, ‘turn allocation’, ‘turn order’, and ‘turn size and texture'. The points she makes about these - e.g. how Helena's and Cliff’s turn-grabs deflect Jimmy's barbs from their intended victims; how turn allocation, or selecting the next speaker; is used by Jimmy to taunt Alison or Helena; how turn order revolves round Jimmy - seemed to me to be convincing and to provide insights into characterisation and, more generally, how the play text works.

I was also interested in the ambiguities pointed out by Herman - for example, how Alison’s silence may indicate either vulnerability or resistance. Kieran O'Halloran argued in Chapter 3 that such ambiguities may enrich our encounter with a text and lead us to ascribe literary value to it. To what extent do you agree, with regard to Look Back in Anger?

While Herman’s analysis is primarily textual, when discussing Alison’s silence she introduces elements of performance. On the page, Alison’s silence is ambiguous, but this could be portrayed differently in different performances - as relatively passive, allowing others to speak for her; or as withholding a response, which would convey a more powerful position. These possible portrayals still derive from the text, however. For instance Herman notes that a stage direction has Alison carrying out ‘stage business’ rather than responding to Jimmy’s question at Turn 14. This provides a sanction for portraying the silence as a turn lapse (non-compliance), rather than simply not speaking and being protected by Helena’s intervention. Other aspects of characterisation - e.g. Jimmy’s ambivalent relationship to social class, mentioned by Herman - could be pushed in one direction or another in performance by die adoption of a certain speaking style, tone of voice or accent.

In this section I’ve focused on what can be gained from carrying out a stylistic analysis of dramatic texts, on a par with the analysis of other literary genres such as poetiy (Chapter 2) and narrative fiction (Chapter 3)- Such analyses have restricted themselves to textual features but, in die case of dramatic texts, they also give rise to inferences about how die text may be performed. In die next secdon, I look at acuial theatrical performances, and consider approaches to the analysis of texts in performance.





Semiotics and structuralism

In terms of die traditions discussed in Chapters 1 and 2, semiotics has its roots in structuralism, deriving in part from die work of Ferdinand de Saussure. For instance, Saussure’s notion of paradigmatic and syntagmatic structures may also be applied to nonverbal sign systems: a T-shirt, jumper and shirt may be part of the same paradigm, selected to form a syntagm with either jeans, U'ousers or a skirt, together with certain types of footwear. The Prague School structuralists, referred to in Chapter 1, carried out semiotic studies of die theatre, amongst odier art forms. More recent theatre semioticians such as Keir Elam retained a focus on the analysis of formal structures in performance - something which has been critiqued by those who prefer a more holistic or contextualised approach.





Bauman on performance

I understand performance as a mode of communication, a way of speaking, the essence of which resides in the assumption of responsibility to an audience for a display of communicative skill, highlighting the way in which communication is carried out, above and beyond its referential content. From the point of view of the audience, the act of expression on the part of the performer is thus laid open to evaluation for the way it is done, for the relative skill and effectiveness of the performer’s display. It is also offered for the enhancement of experience, through the present appreciation of the intrinsic qualities of the act of expression itself. Performance thus calls forth special attention to and heightened awareness of both the acts of expression and the performer. Viewed in these terms, performance may be understood as the enactment of die poetic function, the essence of spoken artistry. (Bauman, 1986, p. 3)




Chapter 5



Culture and connotative meaning

Culture-specific concepts: a concept that is unknown in the target language. An example of an English abstract concept without an equivalent in some languages is privacy.

Differences in expressive meaning (connotations): words can acquire different cultural connotations and expressive meanings at different times. There is an example of this in the old English poem, ‘Wulf and Eadwacer’: The fenne in Anglo Saxon times was a boggy and dangerous tract of land where outlaws lived - thus it evoked a sense of the forbidden which is absent in the current usage of the term ‘fen’ which now refers to land that has been drained for farming and, more recently, used for leisure activities.

Non-lexicalised concepts: the source language word may express a concept that is known in the target culture but not lexicalised. An example of this is savoury which does not have equivalents in some
other languages. The abstract use of landslide as in landslide victory is also not lexicalised in many languages, although the concept itself of overwhelming majority is easily understood.


Semantic complexity: languages can develop very concise words to describe complex concepts if they are important enough. One word, for example the Brazilian word arruagao, can express a complex set of meanings - in this case, clearing the ground under coffee trees of rubbish and piling it in the middle of the row in order to aid in the recovery of beans dropped during harvesting. Consider the hapless translator of a text in which the poet wishes to invoke this social activity within the succinct lines of a poem.

Differences in form: languages add prefixes (placed at the beginning) and suffixes (added to the end) to root words in different ways to create meaning, and this often means that equivalences cannot be found. English has many couplets such as employer-employee, payer- payee. Speakers use the suffix -ish to create adjectives such as boyish, or the suffix -ese which adds an expressive dimension to certain words such as in journalese. Another suffix used to create new words is -eria as in washeteria, carpeteria. Aside from being succinct, such linguistic resources can be used in verbal play which does not have direct equivalences in other languages. The meanings can be conveyed in other ways (paraphrased) but where form is important - in verbal art for example - expressive and aesthetic meanings and their contribution to the overall meaning of the text can be lost.

Loan words: languages borrow from other languages for various reasons. Sometimes the word form is changed to resemble the target language, sometimes it remains in its source language form and in literary texts can be used in many different ways, giving information about a character’s social background or the narrator’s attitude to a character. Examples of loan words in English are chic (sophisticated/ trendy) and alfresco (outdoors).


Idioms: fixed expressions that sometimes have similar expressions in the target language, using the same interplay of images, but sometimes not. Expressions that violate the truth, like it's raining cats and dogs, or throw caution to the winds, are easily recognisable.


Idioms that play with everyday objects and concepts are easy to understand, even if different images are used in the target language to express the same meaning. Others may be based on long-forgotten events and people, and will have no meaning except to speakers within a culture: for example, Murphy’s law (used in the UK and USA to mean ‘if anything can go wrong, it will’). Idiomatic expressions may exist in the target language but have entirely different meanings. Thus to sing a different tune in English indicates a change in opinion, whereas in Chinese a similar expression has strong political connotations.

****phorical language: this is strongly associated with literary language. ****phors often play a crucial role in the coherence of a poem or novel; if the ****phor carries different connotations or has no equivalent in the target language, this can present a significant challenge to the translator.
(Adapted from Baker, 1992)

Mona Baker is pointing here to the difficulties of equivalence in translation, from a sociocultural perspective. Burton Raffel, despite his insistence in Reading A that a good prose translation should preserve the original syntax as far as possible, also argues that in poetry, the formal aspects of language make equivalence from one language to another extremely hard to achieve:
1 No two languages having the same phonology, it is impossible to recreate the sounds of a work composed in one language in another language.
2 No two languages having the same syntactic structures, it is impossible to re-create the syntax of a work composed in one language in another language.
3 No two languages having the same vocabulary, it is impossible to re-create the vocabulary of a work composed in one language to another language.
4 No two languages having the same literary history, it is impossible to re-create the literary forms of one culture in the language and literary culture of another.
5 No two languages having the same prosody, it is impossible to re-create the prosody of a literary work composed in one language in another language.
(Raffel, 1994, p. i





A note about 'text’

It will already be clear that to accept non-linguistic textual elements - such as layout and shape in ‘The Mouse’s Tale’ - as meaningful and communicative, we will need to work with a definition of ‘text’ which will admit these as a valid focus for analysis. A simple and useful definition of ‘text’ for this purpose is the one provided by August Rubrecht:

A text is ...

• any artifact
• produced or modified
• to communicate meaning.
(Rubrecht, 2001)

This definition allows us to consider how meaning can be conveyed via a range of textual elements, as long as these elements are meaningful.
It is important to differentiate things we perceive or see, from things we take meaning from:

A piece of driftwood on the beach is not an artifact, just a random object shaped and placed by natural forces. If a beachcomber takes it home, paints a face on it, and hangs it on a wall, it turns into a text communicating the beachcomber’s ideas about what is interesting and beautiful. [...] A text is purposeful. A line of footprints taking the left fork at a junction on a snowy trail is not a text. An arrow drawn in the snow and pointing left is.

A beautiful sunset is not a text. A painting or photograph of one is. (Rubrecht, 2001)


Chapter 6

Semiotic domains

By a semiotic domain I mean any set of practices that recruits one or more modalities (e.g. oral or written language, images, equations, symbols, sounds, gestures, graphs, artifacts, etc.) to communicate distinctive types of meanings. Here are some examples of semiotic domains: cellular biology, postmodern literary criticism, first-person- shooter video games, high-fashion advertisements, Roman Catholic theology, modernist painting, midwifery, rap music, wine connoisseurship. [...]

[Take a sentence] about basketball - “The guard dribbled down court, held up two fingers, and passed to the open man” - is a sentence from the semiotic domain of basketball. It might seem odd to call basketball a semiotic domain. However, in basketball, particular words, actions, objects, and images take on distinctive meanings. In basketball, ‘dribble’ does not mean drool; a pick (an action where an offensive player positions him or herself so as to block a defensive player guarding one of his or her teammates) means that some defensive player must quickly switch to guard the now-unguarded offensive player; and the wide circle on each end of the court means that players who shoot from beyond it get three points instead of two if they score a basket.

If you don’t know these meanings - cannot read these signs - then you can’t ‘read’ (understand) basketball.

The matter seems fairly inconsequential when we are talking about basketball. However, it quickly seems more consequential when we are talking about the semiotic domain of some type of science being studied in school. [... ]

In the modern world, print literacy is not enough. People need to be literate in a great variety of different semiotic domains. If these domains involve print, people often need the print bits, of course. However, the vast majority of domains involve semiotic (symbolic, representational) resources besides print and some don’t involve print as a resource at all.
(Gee, 2003, pp. 18-19)





Chapter 7


Modes, media and affordances

It is important to distinguish the terms ‘mode’ and ‘medium’. The texts in Chapter 6 primarily used the semiotic modes of writing and image; some contained additional modes such as colour, or implied other modes such as movement. Chapter 7 looks at literary texts which contain the modes of movement and sound.
The texts in this chapter are also created in different media. The term ‘medium’ is used here to mean the medium of dissemination of the text (Kress and van Leeuwen, 2001; Jewitt, 2004) - book, website, film and so on. We are therefore moving on from the medium of printed books in Chapter 6 into other media such as CD-ROM, film and the internet.

Affordances are properties of the relationship between an organism and the material environment. Objects afford possibilities to humans (and animals: a tree affords shade to a lion and perching to an eagle, for example, as well as climbing to a child). In terms of computer technology, different software and hardware afford different possibilities to readers and writers, whether or not we avail ourselves of all of them.




Halliday’s communicative ****functions

1 Ideational: Every semiotic mode will have resources for constructing representations of (aspects of) the world.
2 Interpersonal: Every semiotic mode will have resources for constructing (a) relations between the communicating parties (between writers and readers, painters and viewers, speakers and listeners); and (b) relations between these communicating parties and what they are representing, in other words, attitudes to the subject they are communicating about.
3 Textual: Every semiotic mode will have resources for combining and integrating ideational and interpersonal meanings into the kinds of wholes we call ‘texts’ or ‘communicative events’ and recognize as news articles, paintings, jokes, conversations, lectures, and so on.
(Goodman, 1996, p. 53)





Hypertext readers or hypertext authors?

The reader of hypertext can be seen, for example:
• as active: as the embodiment of poststructuralist notions of the ‘death of the author’, an influential idea put forward by Roland Barthes in 1977 (Landow, 1997).
• as a writer: ‘In the electronic medium readers cannot avoid writing the text itself, since every choice they make is an act of writing’ (Bolter, 1991, p. 144).
• as an author (perhaps), but not a writer: Montfort (2003) says that in much interactive fiction, the reader at most types a couple of commands, or simply clicks on the mouse. This is not writing, although it might be authoring.
• as an interactor, rather than an author: Murray (1997, p. 152-3) sees the (originating) author of hypertext as a kind of
choreographer, supplying the possibilities for a performance, which are then enacted by the reader/interactor:
‘There is a distinction between playing a creative role within an authored environment and having authorship of the environment itself [...] The interactor is not the author of the digital narrative, although the interactor can experience one of the most exciting aspects of artistic creation - the thrill of exerting power over enticing and plastic materials. This is not authorship but agency.’




Hyperfiction

The author can create a fictional space of great flexibility. Readers may be allowed to examine a story in chronological order, in reverse chronology, or in a complicated sequence of flashbacks and returns. They may follow one character through the story, and then return to follow another. A reader might play the role of the detective trying to solve a murder, a role familiar from the computerized adventure games. A reader might be asked to influence events in a novel by choosing episodes that promise to bring two characters together or to punish an evil character for his or her deeds: each choice would define a new course for the story. Such multiple plots, however, are only one possibility for interactive fiction. The electronic writing space can accommodate many other literary strategies. It could offer the reader several different perspectives on a fixed set of events. In this case the reader would not be able to affect the course of the story, but the reader could switch back and forth among narrators, each with his or her own point of view.
(Bolter, 1991, p. 122)



Ch 8


----



Chapter9


Addressivity and meaning making

An essential (constitutive) marker of the utterance is its quality of being directed to someone, its addressivity. As distinct from the signifying units of a language - words and sentences - that are impersonal, belonging to nobody and addressed to nobody, the utterance has both an author [...] and an addressee. This addressee can be an immediate participant- interlocutor in an everyday dialogue, a differentiated collective of specialists in some particular area of cultural communication, a more or less differentiated public, ethnic group, contemporaries, like-minded
people, opponents and enemies, a subordinate, a superior, someone who is lower, higher, familiar, foreign, and so forth. And it can also he an indefinite, unconcretized other ... Ail these varieties and ' of
the addressee are determined by that area of human activity and everyday life to which the given utterance is related. Both the composition and, particularly, the style of the utterance depend on those to whom the utterance is addressed, how the speaker (or writer) senses and imagines his addressees, and the force of their effect on the utterance.
(Bakhtin, 1986, p. 95)




Bakhtin’s emphasis on the powerfully interactive relationship between writers, readers and te^s has increasingly been taken up in recent times in approaches to literature and literary activity. I briefly considered in Section 9.3 the way in which Simmonds was using some notions from Bakhtin. Rob Pope, a UK-based academic, has set out a Bakhtinian-inspired ‘manifesto’ which challenges any presumed dichotomies be^een writing and reading.


Pop's manifesto for re-writing
1 In reading texts we re-write them.
2 Interpretation of texts always entails interaction with texts.
3 Interaction texts always entails intervention in text.
4 One text leads to another and another and another - so we had better grasp texts intertextually, through comparison and contrast.
5 One’s own words and worlds are necessarily implicated in those of others - so we had better grasp our selves interpersonally, through dialogue, voicing conflict as well as consensus.
6 De-construction is best realized through re-construction - taking apart to put back together differently. Just as critique is always, in a radical sense, about re-creation.
7 For interpretation can be done through acts of creative performance no less than of critical commentary. And we are all in various ways both performers and commentators, critics and creators.
8 In sum, textual changes always involve social exchanges. ٧٥٧ can’t have the one without ... the other ... and one another ...
(Pope, 2003, p.8) 
Pope argues that this manifesto should he at the centre of English literature education. Such education should encourage students, the ‘ordinary readers and writers’, in this context, to explore the complexity, tensions and dynamism evident in the creative and diverse practices of ‘expert writers’ and ‘expert readers’: they should not be passive consumers of traditional or dominant conceptions of what counts as literature, literariness and creativity. Rather they should be allowed and encouraged to ‘intervene’, that is, actively engage in a range of activities which allow them to ‘play’ with texts at the same time as critically explore them. Through such activity, they become more aware of the tensions surrounding what counts as the study of English literature itself.



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