|10-04-2014, 08:14 PM||#1|
مراجعة قبل الاختبار لمقالات رواية Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry
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مقال Introduction Janet Maybin Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry
مقال A Se arch for Law and Justice in a Racist Society
ومقال Child Agency in Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry
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(قصف الرعد، اسمع صرختي) Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry تساعد الطفل / الطفلة على فهم أوضاع الأمريكيين من أصل أفريقي حين كان التمييز العنصري ظاهرة مألوفة في جنوب الولايات المتحدة.
أيا دوي الرعد اسمع صراخي ...للكاتبة الامريكية ..ميلدريد تايلور.. تسرد الكاتبة سلسلة من تاريخ عائلتها في الجنوب وأيام العبودية ..وفي هذا الكتاب جاء السرد على لسان كيسي وهي ابنة لمزارع اشترى أجدادها هذه الأرض ولا يريدون التفريط فيها أبدا مهما حاول حفيد البائع السابق الذي يريد استرداد الارض ان يفعل ..
فكيسي تروي لنا الحياة الصعبة التي كانت تعيشها هي وابيها وامها وجدتها واخوانها ..ليتل مان الطفل المتأنق الحريص على النظافة ..
سيسي الاخ الاكبر ..وكريستوفر الاخ المتوسط ..
فتنتقل بنا كيسي بحكاياتها عن اصدقائها بالمدرسة والبلدة من السود ..ومعاملة البيض لهم بقسوة واحتقار ..
وما تفعلة امها وابيها لحمايتهم من ان تنالهم ايدي هؤلاء البيض اللذين يبحثون عن زلة يقومون بها لمعاقبتهم واهانتهم
. Introduction Janet Maybin
1-Autobiographical in origin, blending story, history and pedagogy, Taylor's book also contributed significantly to a developing tra-dition of African American children's literature, which blossomed in the 1980s and 1990s.
2-The Brownie Book magazine (1920-1), published by W.E.B. Du Bois and Augustus Dill, which aimed to provide positive, inspirational role models for black children through a mix-ture of fiction, poetry, history and photos and letters from young readers
3-In the period following the Civil Rights and Black Arts Movements in the 1960s and 1970s this situation began to change. A new generation of African American writers began to produce a range of realist fiction, includ-ing books depicting contemporary urban ghetto experience and others, like Taylor's, documenting African American history
4-These authors' and artists' creation of positive images of African American people, for an African American audience, was essentially a literature of protest, written against the established tradition of the all-white world of children's books
5-Taylor's books have promoted black heroes and heroines, celebrated black family life and reclaimed and foregrounded black history and heritage.
6-Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry features strong family ties and love as a primary source of support for the child protagonists, and highlights significant cross-generational relationships and feisty characters struggling against social injustice
7-Taylor was explicit about her pedagogic purposes in the books, arguing that if young readers 'can identify with the Logans, who are representative not only of my family but of many Black families who faced adversity and survived, and understand the principles by which they lived, then perhaps they can better understand and respect themselves and others
8-Taylor's pedagogic intention has been amply realised in that Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry has frequently appeared on school syllabi for 11-14- year-olds in both North America and Britain.
9-It has proved acceptable to educationists because, firstly, the autobiographical stance and historical set-ting allow both empathy and distance, so that racism and other issues of social justice can be safely aired within an educational setting.
10-The essays In line with the perceived political pedagogy of Taylor's books, the critical literature on her work has tended to focus on its realism, whether of its autobiographical elements, or of its representation of 1930s Mississippi and its treatment of family, history and social justice
Child Agency in Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry Kelly McDowell
1- Pa instructs Laura: 'Do as you are told and no harm will come to you' (Wilder, 1971, P. 146). This is an example of the overt didacticism in which most classic children's literature is engaged
2- Classic works function on a didactic trajectory, which serves to instill the proper values of childhood, created by adults, in the errant child characters and, in turn, in the intended child reader
3- Children occupy the object position, dependent on the direction of adult subjects.
4- children's literature depends on a slippage between childhood and adulthood
5- Children's fiction sets up a world in which the adult comes first (author, maker, giver) and the child comes after (reader, product, receiver)
6- The unequal relation and imbalance of power reveals the hierarchical relationship between the adult writer and the child reader
7- Often, child characters, as well as intended child readers, occupy the object position and are directed by adult subjects. In this relation, children are denied subjectivity and agency
8- more recent children's literature offers more diverse representations of children who are allowed greater freedom and agency. This is not to say that these works are entirely undidactic; any children's novel almost always falls into didacticism in one way or another
9- The ideas exist as choices rather than rules; with choices, children are allowed greater opportunity to act with autonomy
10- In Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry, Taylor takes the modern concept of child agency and employs it in relation to the very specific position of cultural fixity and immobility of African-American children in the Depression-era South
11- the novel depicts the necessity of child agency as a form of resistance for oppressed cultures
12- The role of historical understanding One of the ways that this type of child agency is enabled in the novel is through a demystification of history.
13- History, for the Logan children, is not what they read in books at school because, of course, the African-American history found in the books is fabricated by the dominant culture.
14-The Logan children get their knowledge of history from their family, mostly through the oral tradition.
15- As a result, the children are very connected to their history.
16- Cassie exhibits a strong connection to her history. She knows it so well because of the immediacy it has for her. It is because of past events that her father is forced to leave the family. Thus, Cassie can feel history's effects quite poignantly
17- For the Logan children, history is represented through specific events that directly intersect with factors of race and class.
18- ; knowing their history allows the Logan children greater freedom and agency
19- We see this effect when grandmother, Big Ma, tells Cassie the story of her grandfather, Paul
20- . Hearing about her grand-father's strength and self-reliance gives Cassie a sense of pride and allows her to realize that, although she is oppressed, she is not devoid of agency
21- It is also necessary for them to know about racism's past in order to understand the origins of the unfair treatment that they experience in their own lives.
22- Mary teaches the history of slavery in her classroom. she teaches her students the brutal reality of history. The act eventually costs her her job when members of the school board are alerted to the content of her classes
23- She continually attempts to teach her own children the ways in which power works against them.
24- She feels that her children will be empowered through this knowledge and will be able to act more intelligently with a greater awareness of their environment. We see this when she takes the children to see Mr. Berry, who has been burned nearly to death by the 'night men
25- On leaving Mr. Berry, Mary begins to organize her boycott of the Wallaces' store. She talks to the neighbors, sharecropping families who live on the land belonging to Harlan Granger.
26- The Logan children watch their mother as she works as a political organizer. She teaches them that they too can be active agents. She emphasizes the necessity of caution, as she demonstrates by taking the children to see Mr. Berry, but she also stresses the importance of agency. By revealing the ways in which power works, she shows them how agency is possible.
27- . In an almost seditious act, she exerts an agency to resist the racist practice. By doing so, she displays to her students, as well as to her own children, that agency is possible and, in fact, crucial and that there are always ways to resist domination.
28- When the 'night men' come for T.J., David knows that the only way to prevent them from taking him is to create a diversion. Knowing that the men will be called away by Harlan Granger to fight the fire, whose own land could eventually be destroyed by it, David enacts the only means he can to prevent T.J.'s lynching. Although he loses a quarter of his own crops, he manages to save T.J.'s life. David does not tell his children what he has done, but Cassie and her eldest brother, Stacey, know.
29- During the scene, Hammer emphasizes the importance of making intelligent decisions
30- Hammer makes Stacey aware of the realities of their environment.
31- When T.J.'s father brings him to the Logan house to return the coat, Hammer makes Stacey tell him that it now belongs to T.J.. He demonstrates to Stacey the impact of his decisions and, thus, makes him aware that he is an agent in his own future
32- Another moment when the Logan children are allowed to choose their fate occurs when Mr. Morrison finds them at the Wallaces' store after Mary has forbidden them to go.
33- . He also does not reprimand Stacey for fighting with T.J.. Instead, he validates Stacey's need to attempt to solve problems, even, at times, through the use of violence. But he lets the children know that they must make decisions intelligently.
34- Here we see the chance for Mary to shield her daughter from racism's harsh reality. She tell Cassie that she may be forced to call Lillian Jean `Miz,' but she will never be forced to respect her. She encourages her daughter's own subversive agency.
35- One should always exercise caution when determining how to act. But, David lets Cassie know that he believes that some things are worth fighting for. He encourages her to take a stand against Lillian Jean but to be clever about it. He acknowledges her need for subjectivity and validates her anger and hurt pride
36- The didacticism found in Taylor's fiction is meant to enable the minority culture to resist domination.
37- The racial specificity of Taylor's novel necessitates this type of child agency.
38- both in childhood and adulthood, it is cru-cial for them to develop and exert their own subversive agency.
****** for Law and Justice in a Racist Society Hamida Bosmajian
1-Mildred Taylor's rich chronicle about an African American family in rural Mississippi during the years 1933-41 is narrated by the main character, Cassie Logan.
2-The story she tells is not only about the adventures of her childhood and adolescence, not only about the deep bonds she has with her family, but also about the injustices a white, racist, and lawless soci-ety inflicts on the Logans and their neighbors.
3-Although they are citizens in a nation that is framed by one of the most important legal documents in Western civilization, the Constitution of the United States, black Americans find themselves in Taylor's chronicle constituted in an unjust system of local laws and ******s.
4-It is not surprising, therefore, that as a child the intelligent and inquisitive Cassie is already quite aware of the binary injustice/ justice. The first term of the binary is privileged in her life experience; it is the second, justice, that she yearns for.
5- . It becomes quite clear, however, that these years also reveal Cassie's ongoing education in and growing conscious-ness of the liberating power of just laws.
6-We can even say that her three narratives are novels of education in the need for law and justice.
7-the significance of the theme of law and justice in Cassie's development is a theme that is unusual in children's literature.
8-Most 8-often the law, especially in fairy tales, is expressed through irrational or tyrannical rules imposed upon the hero by persons in authority.
9-The mysteries of adult law and legal systems may also befuddle the child hero who, like Alice in Wonderland, finds herself or himself in an absurd world.
10-children's literature tends to depict law in a preconscious, even dreamlike sense.
11-Taylor's chronicle, however, shows us characters who are conscious of the value of American law as a heritage of an age of reason.
12-The relationship between law and literature is profound.
13-The patterns of tragic narratives usually are generated by the violation of a law that must be righted; the patterns of comic narration begin most often with an unjust and irrational law that the comic hero transforms or transcends through liberation
14- Mildred Taylor, a writer in the psycho-logically and socially realistic mode, focuses on justice and law issues by recording the ordinary routines and events of human life, as with Cassie Logan, who grows from a pranksterish tomboy to an aspiring student of the law.
15-In the Mississippi of her childhood and adolescence, ****** and the unjust statutes of segregation have institutionalized racism, and those in power can vent their rage with impunity whenever they feel that 'colored folk' are 'forgetting their place.'
16-The victims of this willful power must constantly be vigilant and self-controlled, even if they are infuriated by the injustices inflicted upon them
17- It is the Logan's landownership, threatened though it is by the difficulty of meeting tax payments, that is essential to their dignity, their life, and the lib-erty they claim. Her family's self-respect is based largely on the fact that they farm their own land
18- Cassie gets angry at anyone who wants to designate her as inferior
19- All segregation statutes are unjust because segregation distorts the soul and damages the personality'
20-Taylor's storytelling skill manages to include all these ambivalences yet lets her young hero continue her struggle. Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry depicts one year during the Great Depression (1933-34) and frames that year with the restrictive horizon of racist Mississippi.
21-In examining Cassie's growth and education in awareness of justice and law, I shall limit the discussion to several key incidents. The first example is the prank as a relatively harmless tactic of revenge against persistent abuse
22-Taylor's characters feel repeatedly the upsurge of anger that could lead them to revenge, but only in The Road to Memphis does that anger lead to violence; usually Taylor depicts the black community as venting its anger only in a prank or an attitude.
23- An organized attempt at community action, such as the boycott of the Strawberry store organized by the Logans and supported by Jamison, is bound to fail as whites react by terrorizing blacks.
24-Taylor does keep within the conventions of literature for young readers by preserving Cassie from witnessing extreme acts of violence, but the threat of it permeates even the most intimate 'at home' moments.
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