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قديم 16-11-2013, 03:14 AM   #1
Ashwaq S Ashwaq S غير متصل
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هام Mid term assist E303a


Definitions
1)Traditional/ Structural Grammar: is a grammar that divides language on the basis of speech units such as nouns, verbs, and objectives. This is the usual grammar that we associate, where we look at word classes

2) Register: is a variety of language which is distinguished by its context of use. This involves three main aspects: Field, tenor and mode. For example news, fiction, conversation and academic prose (example would be talking about registers in Longman Dictionary which are: Conversation, Fiction, Prose, News)

3) Clause: is a unit of meaning built around a process, a kind of action, feeling, doing, thinking, having, saying etc... Every clause normally involves process, one or more participants, and perhaps also circumstances .for example, Rabbit is a great favourite in Tuscany.

4) Determiner: is a function word that specifies the kind of reference a noun has, it ‘points’ to the entity that the head word is referencing. This can be done by
• Articles, The, I, a, an
• Demonstratives, this, that
• Possessives, my, his
• Genitive Possessives, The driver’s, Geoff’s

5) Mental Process: are the processes that construe processes that go on inside the head, such as thinking and sensing. For example, I saw the accident.

6) Dependent Clause: is a type of clause that cannot stand alone, but is part of another clause, they act to supply supportive, background or modifying information for example, when I arrive, I'll give you a call (Please note that this has to do with linking clauses through subordination where one independent clause is followed by a dependent clause

7) Modality: Linguistic devices that are used to express degrees of certainty such as likely, certainly, permitted. We come across modality when dealing with auxhilary verbs, where some are temporal finite that express tense (did, has, will) and others modal finite that express modality (might, would, must)

8) Modal Adverb: is an adverb used to express modal meaning, either epistemic or demonic. For example, possibly and of course.?????
9) De******ive Grammar: is a grammar that aims to describe the way a language is actually used without making judgments about whether this is good or bad. (Both traditional grammars and functional grammars are largely de******ive grammars, the opposite is pre******ive grammars)


10) Pre******ive Grammar: is a grammar that aims to provide rules on the way a language should be used. If focuses mainly on how grammar should be used not how it’s used

11) Pedagogic Grammar: is a grammar that designed to help people learn English if they are not native speakers of the language, it is based on Standard English and usually have elements of pre******ive and de******ive grammar.

12) Ellipsis: occurs when elements of a clause or phrase are not expressed. These ellipted (elapsed) elements can be reconstructed from the context. For example A: I have to appease you. B: No you don't (have to appease me)

13) Sociocultural Context: is how language is used in context, variation of what we are doing, who we are communicating with, are we face to face or separated from our listener/ reader and so on and how this affects our language variations.

14) Word class/ part of speech: go back to structural grammar

15) Rank Scale: Looks at language hierarchy in order of highest, clause, phrase, word, morpheme.

16) Circumstance: are the elements of a clause that add information a bout the situation surrounding the process. For example, a dog is playing with a ball.

17) Embedding/ Nesting: embedding occurs when a phrase or clause is contained within a higher – level phrase or clause. For example, “Every room ((in the school)) had an air conditioner”

18) Nominalization: it occurs when events and qualities are represented as "thing" using an abstract noun instead of a verb or adjective. For example, using freedom instead of free.

19) Pre-modification: it is the use of elements in a noun phrase witch come before the head word and modify it. For example, in the clause : a natural atmospheric effect, the pre modification is in the phrase : natural atmospheric.

20) Post modification: it is the use of elements in a noun phrase which come after the head word and modify it. For example, in the clause : the lady I bought the dog from, the post modification is in the phrase : I bought the dog from.

21) Qualifier: it is any element in the noun phrase that follows the head word. For example the qualifier in the clause : the man in the moon is the phrase in the moon.

22) Four Process Types: which are material, mental, verbal, relational
• Material processes : are the processes that construe external action, both concrete . for example, catch and abstract action for example, close (meeting ).
• Mental processes : are the processes that construe processes that go on inside the head, such as thinking and sensing. For example, I swathe accident.
• Relational Processes : are the processes that construe the many different ways of being and having and they relate participants to each other. For example she is the biology lecture.
• Verbal processes : are the processes that construe the saying and reporting of things – verbal action . for example, tell and ask.

23) Modal Finite: is the first auxiliary in a verb phrase that expresses degrees of certainty or obligation. For example, can, should, and must.

24) Clause Complex: are the highest or broadest scale rank/level of grammatical constituents, they are formed through the linking of individual clauses e.g. you can finish your essay now while I organise some food for tonight. The reason they are considered two clauses is due to them having two separate processes. There are two ways to link clauses, coordination and subordination.

25) Co-ordination: where two grammatically independent classes are linked generally by conjunctions and can be defined by the following features:
• They are finite, temporal finite or modal finit
• Can stand on its own (try flipping the clause and see if it still makes sense)

26) Subordination: where an independent primary clause is linked with a dependant or secondary clause which could not operate independently
Ashwaq S غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 16-11-2013, 03:15 AM   #2
Ashwaq S Ashwaq S غير متصل
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الصورة الرمزية Ashwaq S

 











هام رد: Mid term assist E303a


Essay Questions:


1) What are the three main constituents of language which represent the world according to functional perspective?

• Functional grammar places emphasis on describing words or group of words according to the function they are fulfilling in a sentence
• Word, Phrase, Clause, they are the basic building blocks of grammar
• We can instantly see that text have two distinct grammatical units, that of word and sentence
• We can split sentences into simple sentence e.g. Rabbit is a great favourite in Tuscanny
• And a longer more dense sentence that joins two clauses
• There is evidence however that there is an unit that can come between those of word and clause and that is the phrase
• Words combine to make phrases, phrases combine to make a clause
• We can continue by also taking a look at how some words may also be broken down to create morphemes, which is the smallest unit of grammar not the sound the system.
• Taking a look at the functional aspects of a clause we can see the constituents functioning as Process, Participant and Circumstance, these are grouped as they serve a similar function
• The Constituent Process: is laughing, is eating, is playing (an action)
• The Constituent Participant: A toddler, a dog, a picnic (an entity)
• The Constituent Circumstance: happily, under a tree, with a ball (a setting)


2) Analyze the given sentences in terms of function and form?

He hit the dog with a large stick




• Remember that we can have more than one participant
• Participant: are the elements of clause that indicate who or what was directly involved in the process.
• Noun phrase: Must have, at the very least , a noun or a pronoun that functions as the head word . This head word identifies the entity represented by the noun phrase.
• Process: is the elements of clause that indicates what is going on the action, event, experience or relations ship which is represented by the verb. For example , he wants a new bike.
• Verb phrase: is the phrase that contains lexical or primary verb as head. Either alone or accompanied by one or more.
• Circumstances: Are the elements of a clause that add information about the situation surrounding the process. For example, a dog is playing with a ball.
• Propositional phrases: is a phrase consisting of a preposition together with its associated noun phrase. For example, the clause in the box.


3) What are the functional groups that act as pre-modifiers?
• The head word, the main entity in a noun phrase, can be modified by elements coming before and after it
• Pre-modification: it is the use of elements in a noun phrase witch come before the head word and modify it. For example, in the clause : a natural atmospheric effect, the pre modification is in the phrase : natural atmospheric.
• Post modification: it is the use of elements in a noun phrase which come after the head word and modify it. For example, in the clause : the lady I bought the dog from, the post modification is in the phrase : I bought the dog from.
• We can classify the element that pre-modify to two according to their function, describers and classifiers
• Describer: It is an element of the noun phrase that describes some attribute or quality of the head word. For example, a blue haziness.
• Classifier: It is an element of the noun phrase that indicates the class or category of the head word. For example, solar energy
Ashwaq S غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 16-11-2013, 03:17 AM   #3
Ashwaq S Ashwaq S غير متصل
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هام رد: Mid term assist E303a


4) Discuss the linguistic features of speech?
• We are usually referring to dialogue as speech usually occurs between two people
• Tran******s of speech look rather muddled and incoherent as people usually talk at the same time
• People have no problem understand speech which means the grammatical choices simply vary from written to speech
• Question tags in speech, which invites responses (did she?)
• Missing personal pronouns, probably went to the market (she is missing) the meaning is inferred from the surrounding text and also adds closeness to the participants
• We see Repetition and Hesitation
• Avoiding elaborations, or specifications in meaning and the use of general nouns and pronouns (something, thing)
• Interactions through questions
• Ellipsis: occurs when elements of a clause or phrase are not expressed. These ellipted (elapsed) elements can be reconstructed from the context. For example A: I have to appease you. B: No you don't (have to appease me)
• Dysfluency: where hesitators are used in spoken language such as erm, umm, pauses, repetitions. This can sometimes reflect the speakers mental planning speed in making conversation, or signalling his unwillingness to be interrupted and that he has more to say. A pause is also seen to happen when there is a change in the direction of the conversation.
• Heads and Tail is another feature of speech, where head is used to signal incoming information (Paul in this job that he’s got now)
• Tails is used to reaffirm or reinforce a particular point (I hate cats I do)
• Filler: words such as you know


5) Discuss the general features of lexical words and functional words, and the difference between them? Note: grammatical words ( another name for functional words)

• Lexical words: They are words that carry the main information content of a text and belong to four grammatical classes : nouns (peter), lexical verbs ( walk), adjectives (hot), and adverbs (slowly). Your basic grammatical categories
• Functional words: A large category of words which provide relationships between the lexical words or larger units such as phrases clauses etc...
• We can identify lexical density when we are able to distinguish between lexical and function words.
• Lexical density = lexical words / total number of words


6) What we mean by finite classes and non-finite classes? What are the types of non-finite classes?

• Clause: is a unit of meaning built around a process, a kind of action, feeling, doing, thinking, having, saying etc... Every clause normally involves process, one or more participants, and perhaps also circumstances .for example, Rabbit is a great favourite in Tuscany.
• Non-finite clause: is a clause that has no tense and does not include a modal finite. For example, we had to run to catch the bus.
• Finite clause: is a clause that has either a present / past tense or a modal finite. For example, he completed all his assignments.
• A clause with a finite verb is phrase is a finite clause and vice versa
• Remember finite verb is a form of a verb that shows agreement with a subject and is marked for tense. Contrast with non-finite verb (or verbal).
• Non-finite clauses are dependant and finite verbs are independent
• Non-finite clauses are found in written more than spoken language
Ashwaq S غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 16-11-2013, 03:18 AM   #4
Ashwaq S Ashwaq S غير متصل
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الصورة الرمزية Ashwaq S

 











هام رد: Mid term assist E303a


7) Discuss briefly the ways in which clauses can be linked to form clause complexes?

• When clauses combine through various techniques we call these clause complexes
• Clause complexes are the highest rank of grammatical constituent and are created through the linking of individual clauses
• Each individual clause will have its own process
• There are two ways of linking clauses, coordination and subordination
• Co-ordination: where two grammatically independent classes are linked generally by conjunctions (and, but, or) and can be defined by the following features:
o They are finite, temporal finite or modal finite
o Can stand on its own (try flipping the clause and see if it still makes sense)
o Quotation / direct speech
• Subordination: where an independent primary clause is linked with a dependant or secondary clause which could not operate independently. This is usually done through conjunctions such as, while, because, although and pronouns such as, who and which
o Circumstantial dependent clauses: which supply circumntantial or background information, may include conjunctions such as when, if, because
o Reporting: is a type of subordination, where the information is reported but not quoted
• Reporting and quoting are also ways in which we can create clause complexities.
• The projecting clause is usually what is being indirectly reported, while the projected is the actual information (It is understood (main projecting clause) Mr Buckland had been in the water for five minutes (dependant projected clause)
• Relative clauses: is a type of dependent clause used to modify or elaborate the main clause by adding detail to it, this usually involves using which, whose, who, that e.g. He was mowing his front lawn which had grown rapidly over the last few weeks
• Elaborating non-restrictive relative clauses that usually start with who, tend to interrupt the main clause
• Embedding: when one phrase is put inside another
• When some clauses are embedded they are reduced to the rank of phrase especially when they are used a post-modifiers e.g. People who are sixty five, must retire before the end of the year
• Interrupting clauses would read (Peter and Joan, who are sixty five, must retire before the end of the year) it is there to add additional information, not to identify them, you can easily remove the extra information
• Embedding by repackaging information from one clause into another increases lexical density (not seen much in spoken language)
Ashwaq S غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 16-11-2013, 10:52 AM   #5
لوليتا لامبيكا لوليتا لامبيكا غير متصل
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الصورة الرمزية لوليتا لامبيكا
افتراضي رد: Mid term assist E303a


يعطيج العافية
GOOD JOB
متابعة


لوليتا لامبيكا غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 16-11-2013, 11:11 AM   #6
Eiroka Eiroka غير متصل
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الصورة الرمزية Eiroka
افتراضي رد: Mid term assist E303a




أشواق الله يعطيكي العافية ^_^

Eiroka غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 14-11-2014, 01:05 PM   #7
ام وحيد ام وحيد غير متصل
طالب فعال
افتراضي رد: Mid term assist E303a


Up up up
ام وحيد غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 15-11-2014, 11:09 PM   #8
Roaa Ms.faith Roaa Ms.faith غير متصل
طالب جديد

 










افتراضي رد: Mid term assist E303a


Thank you very much
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