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قديم 21-05-2014, 03:20 PM   #1
فيحاء العسل فيحاء العسل غير متصل
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TMA واجبي E301b



بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم ... اللهم صل وسلم وبارك على حبيب الله على اشرف المرسلين وآله وصحبه اجمعين

حبيت اقدملكم واجبي لمادة E301b ليفيد الأجيال القادمة ان شاءالله .. كان بيتكلم عن Turn-Taking Aspects لهيرمان من شابتر4 >>> علامتي كانت ممتازة فيه الحمدلله

التحميل من هنا
Turn-Taking Aspects
In Conversation Analysis, the dialogue was described as a form of activity. Analysts investigate in the interlocutors' interaction. They were interested in how participants ‘get things done’. They open and close their conversations. They also manage the smooth exchange of speaking turns. The participants make such activities during their dialogue. They give, accept or reject an invitation. "Turn" is the speaker opportunity that he gets during the dialogue and that means his share in the speech occurs when he or she becomes the target of the speech or speak as self-select. According to Herman, there are four aspects of turn-taking. They are turn-grabs’, turn order ’, ‘turn allocation’ and ‘turn size and texture". This essay will discuss the four aspects of turn-taking. It also will apply them in an extract from Osborne's play "Look Back in Anger John.





The term turn was examined by Vimala Herman. When someone of the Interlocutors speaks, the other Interlocutors interact with him making turn at speech. The turns exchange when speech alternates. the process of Turn-taking occurs when the speaker A talks , then stops, speaker B starts , talks , stops, then it will create A-B, A-B conversation between two participants. The overall structure of conversation was explained by the conversation analysts who interested in the cooperation between the interlocutors in the dialogue and its sequential organization. "Drama as dialogue is a multi-input form, and this raises the issue of the distribution of turns and their management". The most frequently type of speech in drama is a dialogue. The speaker during the dialogue can select someone to talk after him. On the other hand, the turn may lapse or some of the speakers can self-select. The turn-taking patterns include something about the characters in a play because they indicate something about speakers. For example, a speaker who can select someone to be the next speaker, he may be seen as the focal point of the speech.




Turn-grabs


It happens sometimes that someone wants to be self-orientated in the dialogue between the other speakers to promote special interests. He imposes himself against of other invited speakers' rights during the conversation. One of the speakers can choose someone to be the next speaker. Turn-grabs here occurs when the uninvited speaker respond to him although he is not target person. On the other hand, the Interrupter speaker responds to the speech, although the speaker didn't address him in his turn. The dialogue reveals about this speaker who Interrupt the other speakers as he is less powerful between the Interlocutors, because he took the turn of the target speaker.



Turn allocation

Sometimes, the interlocutors during their conversation create a kind challenge with their speech. One of the interlocutors draw his turn to all interactants, but he means by his word some of them or just one person. The intended person by the speaker's talk can understand that, when the speaker hint to him in his speech or selects him by gaze. This occurs when the speaker talk and look deliberately to the target person whether the speech turn to another one who is not him. Sometimes, one of the interlocutors narrates general story or saying, while he ****phorically allocates some of the speakers with it. All these can explain turn allocation. Kind of conflict occurs on the speech between the speakers. The intended person may respond to the speaker and if the speaker talks to other one. Here may be occur Turn-grabs by the intended person. Here the speaker can allocate his turn by choosing the next speaker. it may one of the speakers becomes out of the conversation circle and all speech mean one speaker in spite of the multiplicity of interlocutors by turn allocation.



Turn order

When the interlocutors start their dialogue, they insert one of them as a focal point for their talk. All characters' speech in the dialogue will base on speech of this character. The distribution of turns in the dialogue becomes uneven in turn order. The dialogue here highlights one of the interlocutors. On the other hand, it will marginalize one or some of them or may make them outside the circle of dialogue. Character A talk to character B while it mean character C as in Turn allocation. The character C here will reply to the character A's turn making turn-grabs in this way. The character B in this process becomes marginalized one. Its situation when character B takes its turn may becomes stronger than its own replying to character A. in all cases, the character A becomes the focal point for all interlocutors who insert him in their turn. Turn order marginalizes and highlights participants, one at a time, in succession.



Turn size and texture

This type of turn-taking is interested in the size of the speaker turn. It focuses on speaker whose turns are the most length between the interlocutors throughout the interaction. In the dialogue, the interlocutors are often responding to who controls the interaction's topic. The focal person tends to extend his speech to promote and support his argument before directing it to the person who is talking to him. On the other hand, the speaker sometimes answers in one sentence to the other speaker's turn express his feelings toward the speech. All these aspects depend on the speaker's style during his information connecting for the target person. Turn size and texture also may reveal the character's class.



The analysis of turn-talking according to Osborne's Look Back in Anger, 1965 [1957], Act 1, pp. 50





The dialogue which was taken from the extract of Osborne's play occurred between four characters. They are Jimmy, his wife Alison, his friend Cliff and Alison's friend Helena. Some of dialogue choices that were revealed here are the length of each person turn in the dialogue, the target person with the speech, the person who is excluded from the dialogue, pauses and interruptions. It reveals also the four aspects of the dialogue which were analyzed by Vimala Herman. They are turn-grabs’, ‘turn allocation’, turn order and ‘turn size and texture’. Turn-grabs occurred when Cliff in turn2 responded to Jimmy's speech which was directed to Helena. It also appeared when Helena imposed herself Jimmy and Alison in order to challenge Jimmy. In turn 15, Helena replied to Jimmy when he asked Alison instead of her and she told him about the place where Allison want to go. Turn allocation Jimmy allocated Helena with his speech in turn1 by gaze. Alison and Helena were allocated in dialogue by Jimmy. Jimmy thought that they collude against him. Everyone allocate Jimmy in his speech, but on the other hand, no one of the characters allocates Cliff in its turn. Turn order reveal Jimmy as the focal point in the dialogue. All characters address him in their turns. He controls on the topic choice. Everyone talk to him. Cliff took with him initially and then Alison and Helena addressed him in their turns. Cliff, who spoke at the beginning of the dialogue, was excluded outside the circle of dialogue by the other characters. Alison and Helena were targeted by Jimmy's turns. In turn size and texture, Jimmy in Turn 1 in prolonged his speech with Helena mock her. Jimmy in turn 16 length his turn because he magnified his feeling of outrage toward Alison about her going to church with Helena. On the other hand, he limited his turn when he asked Alison 'You're doing what?' expressing his surprise from what he has heard. Helena reflects the upper class in her turns. Cliff when he asked Jimmy about the subject of the poem, he added more information about the poem. In turn size and texture reveal the characters' style.




In conclusion, the strategies which construct the turn-management are predominant mode of organizing speech in drama. Turn takes the forms of turn-lapses, pauses, gaps, interruptions and overlaps. The Most dominance kind of speech in drama is the dialogue. Turn talking aspects were explained by Herman into four kinds. Turn gap expresses the turn which interrupted by one of the speakers who is not the target one. Turn allocation describes one of the interlocutors' allocations with his turn for one of the speakers in many ways. Turn order reflects the unequal distribution of the interlocutors' turns during the dialogue. It explains the dominant person of the interactants. On the other hand, it reveals the less powerful speaker between the interactants. Turn size and texture shows the size of the speakers' turns. It explains the speaker's turns which are occasionally longer throughout the dialogue. This essay addressed three points. It explained the turn talking occurring. It also illustrated the four aspects of turn talking which analyzed by Herman. The last point was application of the four types of turn on a dialogue and which taken from an extract from Osborne play.


Reference


EDELSKY, C. (1993) 'Who's Got the Floor?' in D. TANNEN (ed.) Gender and Conversational Interaction, pp. 189-227, New York and Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Source: HERMAN, V. (1998) `Turn management in drama', in J. CULPEPER, M. SHORT and P. VERDONK (eds) Exploring the Language of Drama, pp. 24-32, London, Routledge
E301b course book, Chapter 4 of the textbook The Art of English: literary creativity
Osborne's Look Back in Anger, 1965 [1957], Act 1, pp. 50



التوقيع

الحمدلله
فيحاء العسل غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 21-05-2014, 04:53 PM   #2
طالب من الجامعة طالب من الجامعة غير متصل
طــالب

 










افتراضي رد: واجبي E301b


مبروووووووووووووووووووووووووووووووووووك تستاهلين الفل مارك


عقبالنا حنا لسااااااا مانزلت
طالب من الجامعة غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 21-05-2014, 07:45 PM   #3
فيحاء العسل فيحاء العسل غير متصل
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افتراضي رد: واجبي E301b


الله يبارك فيــــــــــــــك

واحنا كمان مانزلت درجاتنا لسه بس رجيت الدكتورة رجه عشان اعرف لاني از ماعرفت درجة الواجب ما اقدر اركز في المزاكرة ههههه


يااااااااااارب عقبالكم كلكم ان شاءالله تاخذون احلى الدرجات وفوق توقعكم *_^


تسلمي حبيبتي
فيحاء العسل غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 22-05-2014, 11:06 AM   #4
Eiroka Eiroka غير متصل
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افتراضي رد: واجبي E301b




ماشاءالله مبرووك حبيبتي تستاهلي الفل مارك

جزاكي الله كل خير ع مشاركة واجبك عشان ينفع الدفعات الجايه ^_^




Eiroka غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 22-05-2014, 04:24 PM   #5
نور ااوطن نور ااوطن غير متصل
طــالب
افتراضي رد: واجبي E301b


ماشاءالله لاقوه الابالله واجب اكثر من رائع تمنياتي لك بدوام التفوق والنجاح لكن اريد ان اسالك كيف طورت اسلوب كتابتك حتي وصل الي هذه الدرجه المتميزه ارجو افادتي حتي استفيد واطور من اسلوب كتابتي للواجبات مع الشكر
نور ااوطن غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 22-05-2014, 06:35 PM   #6
فيحاء العسل فيحاء العسل غير متصل
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رد: واجبي E301b


ايروكا الله يبارك فيك ي عمري تسلمي

نور الوطن تسلمي حبيبتي ويوفقك يارب

انا وبكل صراحه الاسسوني بالكتابة من جد دكتورين ما انساهم طول عمري الله يوفقهم وين ماراحو
مخلصين جدا بعملهم رغم حزمهم الشديد

دكتورة مها الي درستني مادة 112 بارك الله فيها وبروفيسور محمد دقاق الي درسني مادة القرمر وكان له الفضل الاكبر بعد الله عز وجل في تفوقي الكتابي

نصحوني بان اكتب جمل قصيرة وابتعد عن اسلوب الجمل المعقده ببداية كتابتي

مهم جدا ان تتعلمي كل انماط القرمر وعندي ملخص روعه من ايام ال112 بيساعدك جدا بهادي النقطه

المجهول والمعلوم والمفرد والجمع واستخدام ادوات الربط

ومن ناحية اخرى اشكر دكتور محسن جداا لانه نبهني لشي كنت دايما اغلط فيه وهو اني افرق بين الاسم والصفه والحال...


ابتعدي عن اسلوب تحويل العربي لانجليزي واكتبي من انجليزي لانجليزي بحيث تكون التراكيب صحيحه

وان شاءالله بعد الفاينل اساعدكم في تعلم الكتابة حتى تصير كتابتكم ممتازة باذن الله


موفقيين جميعا :*
فيحاء العسل غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 22-05-2014, 06:40 PM   #7
Eman_Mohammed Eman_Mohammed غير متصل
طــالب
 
الصورة الرمزية Eman_Mohammed

 










افتراضي رد: واجبي E301b


فيحاء ما شاء الله بس قديش جبتي بالواجب ؟



التوقيع

اللهمـ سددني لدراسة ما ينفعني لديني ودنياي
Eman_Mohammed غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 22-05-2014, 06:42 PM   #8
فيحاء العسل فيحاء العسل غير متصل
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افتراضي رد: واجبي E301b


^_^ جبت 19 الحمدلله

والفضل يرجع لله وحده ...

ان الفضل بيد الله يؤتيه من يشاء والله ذو الفضل العظيم
فيحاء العسل غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 22-05-2014, 06:43 PM   #9
Eman_Mohammed Eman_Mohammed غير متصل
طــالب
 
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افتراضي رد: واجبي E301b


ما شاء الله

انا جبت 18.5

ببقى انزل لكم الواجب تبعي ان شاء الله
Eman_Mohammed غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 22-05-2014, 06:46 PM   #10
Eman_Mohammed Eman_Mohammed غير متصل
طــالب
 
الصورة الرمزية Eman_Mohammed

 










افتراضي رد: واجبي E301b


نزليلنا الملخص اللي حكيتي عنه تبع ال112
انا عندي مشكلة في موضوع ترتيب الازمنة وتنسيق الجمل
Eman_Mohammed غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 22-05-2014, 06:46 PM   #11
فيحاء العسل فيحاء العسل غير متصل
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الصورة الرمزية فيحاء العسل
افتراضي رد: واجبي E301b


ماشاءالله الف مبرووووووووووك وعقبال الفاينل يارب

يب يب اتمنى تنزلو كم واجب ليستفيدو منه الطلاب

يسلمووووو حبيبتي
فيحاء العسل غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 06-06-2014, 06:29 AM   #13
فيحاء العسل فيحاء العسل غير متصل
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الصورة الرمزية فيحاء العسل
افتراضي رد: واجبي E301b


بس انا لين دحين مستغربه

من فين جبت كلمة John الي باخر سطر بالمقدمه هههههههههه




لازم تصير مواقف عجيبه لوول
فيحاء العسل غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
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