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قديم 31-12-2003, 09:38 PM   #1
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افتراضي Identity and Nation


Prepared by Ins. Mona
Typed by Quds
====================================

Identity and Nation

1-Introduction:
"Identity is connected to a particular place by a feeling that you belong to that place." (Rose, 1990, p.89)
• Identity and place are linked.
• Identity and relationships to place, to nation, to religions tradition and to politics define who you are and where you think you come from.
Reading 4.1 and 4.2, we understand that we can read cultures, symbols and signs of identity and place.
If you tell me where you are from, I can define you and your identity. Some have doubt and uncertainties about where they are from. Diversity, uncertainty and fragmentation are there in the UK. Times and identities changed.

Changes that caused uncertainty in Britain and Britishness
• The British Empire evaporated; institutions of Britishness have been transformed.
• Britain joined the European Union: being a European is for some unproblematic, welcomed for others threatening to the British national identity.
• Migration from other places to Britain caused diversity. For some this diversity is welcomed, and for others Britishness is destabilized.
Thus, names, knowledge of and preferences for certain residential patterns, accents and modes of speech are markers of identity.

2- Nations, Nation-states and National Identity:
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2.1- What is a nation?
The idea of a nation is complex contested. There is no easy or automatic fit between nations and nation-states.

What is the relationship between nations and nation-states?
All people living within the fixed boundaries of nation-states and under its uniform rule constitute a single community of fate, bound together in a common destiny by allegiance to a single set of state institutions. e.g.: France (nation-state) / French (nation).
Nation-state is a political and legal entity, nation is a cultural entity.
Nationalism is both psychological and political phenomenon.
Nationalism is a psychological and emotional attachment to a nation, a sense of belonging and identity. It is entangled with a political project- that the nation should govern itself, should acquire a nation-state of its own.

2.2- Social Scientists on Nations:
Gellner, Andrerson and Smith offer distinct accounts of the origins and character of nations.
Gellner: nations have only come into bring with the advent of modernization in general and industrialization in particular. All the memorizing societies require the development of a common culture and a common language if they are not to disintegrate. Any state wants to initiate modernization must create a homogenizing centrally determine mass education system, with a single culture and a single language. Thus nations are a modern invention that fits the functional and cultural requirement of modern societies.
Anderson: locates the origins of nations and nationalism in the processes of modernization. Modern nations spring from the emergence of new communication media like printing and the telegraph system and their combination with free-market capitalism. These new systems of communication allowed people, over much wider geographical areas than before, to image themselves as part of the same community of fate.
Smith: nations are not created out of nothing there has to be some-pre-existing community, bound by language or culture or religion from which a modern nation can be forged. He starts the concept of ethnic community most contemporary European nations find their roots in ethnic communities which began to take shape in the middle ages.
Thus: Gellner focuses on modernization in industrialization and on an imposed mass nation culture.
Anderson focuses on print capitalism of imagined communities from below.
Smith focuses on the ethnic origins of nations and their subsequent acquisition of common histories and cultures.

3- What is Britain?
Identities: a common culture of shared meaning is a necessary precondition for the construction and experience of national identity.
Nations can't be invented out of nothing and nowhere, so common cultures and share meanings can't be understood separately from the political, economic and military affairs of a society. In the 5th century the Britain isles has absorb a large number of different migrant groups and invaders. The political and cultural map of the Britain isles has been shaped and reshaped by successive patterns of migration, invasion, war and alliance amongst ruling aristocratic dynasties and noble houses.
The 1707 act of union linked Scotland to England and Wales and announced there would be "one united kingdom by the name of Great Britain".
There was a Britain nation-state, but no Britain nation. No England, Scottish or welsh nations existed. All three were sharply divided by religion language and dialect.
A sense of British national identity was invented and created around five key pillars:
1. Geography: Being an island dives Britain a clear remarkable boundaries. Yet, it doesn’t give internal unity or common culture.
2. Religion: Protestantism was the central shared characters of Great Britain.
3. War: The external threats helped bind the British elite together. The importance of Protestantism as a shared British identity was entrenched by the experience of war, both international and civil. The financial and human sacrifices of the wars and the global British dominance they helped secure, defined and embedded a distinct idea of Britishness.
4. Empire, Land and Commerce: The success of empire, land and commerce helped to internally unite the British. Success in wars against France, acquisition of the global empire and the early industrialization helped create fabulous economic and political opportunities. The elites of England, Scotland and Wales were bound together in a common project of imperial conquest, administration and trade.
5. Monarchy: National identities need cultural content and symbols through which a community can be imagined and represented to itself. In 18th century a national anthem "God Save the King" was acquired. Royal sponsored institutions like the British Museum were created. The union flag followed later. The key point is that the cultural symbols of the British nation were sponsored by and devised around the monarchy. To be British was to be a male land-owning subject of the crown.
• The British nation-state, created by the 1707 Act union, preceded the
• Britishness was created around the pillars of geography, Protestantism, war, empire and monarchy.
• Britishness was an elite identity dominated by Englishness.
• Britishness becomes a more secure mass national identity with the advent of industrialization and mass literacy.
• Pre-existing ethnic identities and allegiances never completely disappeared.

4- Sustaining Nations: Culture and national Identity:
One has a strong sense of solidarity with people who come from the same place. The common national identity can engender feelings of solidarity amongst its members. The solidarity is based upon the consciousness of forming a group, outsiders are strangers. We cannot be sustained by opposition and difference alone. The cultural construction of national identities also requires more specific content. That content can be provided by nation symbols and national rituals.

4.1- Symbols and National Identity:
Meanings about identity are produced through symbolic systems through images, stories, flags, styles of dress, uniforms, all the different components of a community, culture and its traditions. Flag, for example, is one of the more useful examples a signifier of national identity.

4.2- Rituals and National Identity:
National identities need to be upheld and reaffirmed at regular intervals. Rituals play a crucial role. The common wage of a ritual is associated with religions services and practice.
• Religion embodies and represents the collective values which underpin a society's unity. Religion ceremonies served to reinforce collective values of reaffirm a sense of community among individual.
• Religions rituals took people a way from the routine of daily existence and transported them into a sacred realm.
• In the UK the state, monarchy and Church of England are closely linked: they form the core of most British national rituals.
• Symbols and rituals are key factors of national identity.
• Symbols and rituals strengthen the consciousness of forming a community.

5- Fragmenting Nations: Scottish Nationalism and National Identity:
In 1997 the Scots voted in favor of establishing a very different Scottish Parliament. Scots have been calling for a measure of constitutional reform or home rule or demanding an independent Scottish state. The calls for both constitutional reform and national independence did not disappear. They grew strong and were more widespread across Scotland both socially and geographically.
Begs some questions:
• Why did the Scottish nation appear so disinclined to rule itself?
• What has the changing character of Scottish national identity contributed to tipping the political balance of opinion from the union to either constitutional reform or independence?
• What does all of this mean for British and British national identity?

5.1- A Short History of Scotland:
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5.1.1- The Feudal Wars:
The Scottish nation and natural identity are to a great extent born of struggle against the English invader. They don’t fight for glory, for riches or for honors but for freedom.

5.1.2- Scotland and the Union:
There were two ruling systems in Scotland:
• The union of 1707, which was a political and administrative union of parliament.
• The union of 1714, which was called the union of monarchies. This union was void of independence whether in the court, church, university and education. There was no competition between England and Scotland culturally and politically owing to the distance between them.

5.1.3- The Invention of Tartan:
The tartan has become emblematic of Scottish national distinctiveness. The formal Scottish national dress and codified clan tartans are all invention elaborations and codifications of the 19th century. The embracing of tartan went hand in hand with a romantic evocation of the highlands and its Gaelic culture as the heartland of an unconquered Scotland - Highland Games, dancing and landscape. Gaelic was actively discouraged and highland folk – culture deplored for its barbarity or naïve simplicity.

5.1.4- Industrialization:
What made a popular Scottish nation, and what paradoxically helped keep it party of the British nation-state was the industrial revolution. By the late 19th century Scotland was one of the most industrialized and advanced economies, (Tobacco, iron, steel, engineering, ship-building).
Thus, Scotland was disinclined to rule itself because:
• The union and Britishness delivered prosperity and status.
• Uneven industrialization in Scotland created more significant internal fault lines of politics and identity between regions, classes and cities than the external fault lines between Scotland and England.


5.2- Scottish National Identity and Nationalism at the End of the Twentieth century:
*******



5.2.1- Economic Change: Oil and De-Industrialization:
• Economics was never the factor holding the union together. Yet, it remained important.
• Early heavy industries: coal, steel, ship-built.
• New industries: cars, chemicals, light engineering.
• The discovery of North Sea Oil.
Nationalist made great play of the possibility of Scottish financial independence.

5.2.2- Political Marginalization:
The British government didn’t deprive Scotland from any rights whether political, economic or so. E.g.: there are more Mps in the British parliament than required. The Scottish rejected everything introduced by Thatcher's government such as the community charge (tax) which was imposed on Scotland before England. Scotland witnessed political, economic and social crisis during that period. (Conservative dominance).

5.2.3- The SNP and the Reinvention of Scottish Nationalism:
The Scottish Nationalism party (SNP) was the dominant power between 1928 and 1960. The party gave opportunity for economic and political change especially for the new and young generation. The SNP was a real challenge to the dominant labor party in Scotland.

5.2.4- Cultural Change and National Identity:
The SNP opened the window for geographical and cultural differences in Scotland, which made the situation even worse and more confusing and complex especially with the emergence of new ethnical group such as Blacks and Asians, which aerated what ii called anti-Englishness and racism. In short, a combination of declining economic fortunes and distinct Scottish political cultural has helped open the way for both new form of Scottish National identity and a Scottish Nationalist politics.
• Since the Union there has been support for the Union.
• The balance of power and opinion lay with the Union for most of the last 300 years.
• A combination of declining economic fortunes and distinct Scottish political cultures has helped open the way for both a new form of Scottish national identity and a Scottish nationalist politics.

6- Uncertain Nation, Diverse Nation: What Is England?
The impact of change in Scotland is not separated from changes in Ireland, Wales and Europe. The centrality and certainties of Britishness have been challenged, alternative identities have become stronger and drained Britishness of some its earlier power and coherence.
What remains: England and Englishness?
Uncertainties about Britishness are forcing the English to rediscover and redefine themselves.

6.1- Alternative Englands?
The dominant social and cultural component of the early British nation was the English aristocracy. There are some symbols and representations of Englishness:
Cricket, village greens, homes, rolling country side, power and ceremony, afternoon tea, ascot and Wimbledon.
Some changes caused to finish the English aristocracy:
• The economic and personal costs of the war.
• The rise of the labor movement.
• The precipitous decline in agriculture in the inter-war years.
• The monarchy survived.
There are diverse alternative historical and cultural accounts of England: radical and liberal English tradition, England welcomed foreigners travelled widely and drew generally on other cultures. It is an England of important export, of goods, people and ideas.

6.2- Multi-cultural England?
England is an ethnically mixed, multi-cultural society (table 4.2). Immigration to Britain is not new: French protestant, Africans, Eastern Europeans, Jews and Italians, Irish immigrants settled in England. After the 2nd world war migrations have been larger. There were visible black migrations: ethnic Hindu Indians, Muslims from Bangladesh and Pakistan, Christian African-Caribbeans.
There are considerable differences in the economic experience of different groups and significant stratification within groups. (Black) has been used by and applied to these groups to signal a collective difference from the white European majority and a collective experience of difference that has been consistently marked by exclusion and racism.
Stereotyping and labeling are key cultural processes by which majority and dominant groups can define, demean and disempower minorities and subordinate groups. There was also institutional racism. The subjugation and colonization of non-European societies has been legitimized and explained in terms of the opposition between an advanced civilized Christian white Britain. England and backward barbarian pagan black colonial peoples.

6.3- Civic Nationalism without Civic Institutions:
Englishness is emerging in the realm of popular culture. England after the 60's generations is an urban society, ethnically and regionally diverse with very distinctive, forms and mixes of popular music, poetry and literature and television and film culture. England is a whole host of things.
"In the absence of formal civic institutions the English will have to rely on the England football team to bind racist and ethnic forms of nationalism together." Richard Weight.


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قديم 21-10-2004, 08:14 PM   #2
dossmd0g dossmd0g غير متصل
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افتراضي الرد على : Identity and Nation


Thanks again Bro
dossmd0g غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 23-10-2004, 10:43 AM   #3
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افتراضي الرد على : Identity and Nation


شكرا يعطيك العافيه ابو رغد
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قديم 21-01-2005, 07:27 PM   #4
aljouri aljouri غير متصل
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افتراضي الرد على : Identity and Nation


شكوووووووووووووووووووووووووووووووووووووووووووووووو وووووووووووووووووووووووووووووووووووووور
aljouri غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 22-01-2005, 10:02 PM   #5
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افتراضي الرد على : Identity and Nation


يعطيك ألف عافية أخوي أبو رغد
وجزاك الله خير
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قديم 03-02-2005, 01:35 AM   #6
ya lazez ya raye2 ya lazez ya raye2 غير متصل
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الرد على : Identity and Nation


KoL SaNa WeNtA tAyEb
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قديم 06-02-2005, 10:33 AM   #7
ليان ليان غير متصل
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افتراضي الرد على : Identity and Nation


أبو رغد ..

الله يجزاك الخير
والله يعطيك ألف عافية ...

موفق ..وربي ما يضيع لك تعب ...


مع التحية:
ليان
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قديم 21-04-2005, 03:54 PM   #8
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افتراضي الرد على : Identity and Nation


شكرا لك

thank you about this summry
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قديم 20-10-2008, 03:36 PM   #9
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افتراضي رد: Identity and Nation


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