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قديم 23-04-2012, 05:03 AM   #1
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Question: 1
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اهتموا به

With respect to the teaching of literacy, several re******ers, such as Street, Sola and Bennett, Heath, Gee, Graff and others suggest that, in order to highlight the importance of acknowledging learners’ cultural practices as a major role in their educational success and social affluence, we should adopt an ‘ideological model of literacy’ instead of using the ‘dominant model’. Elaborate more on this issue basing your argument on at least two re******ers.

1. Introduction:
a. Several re******ers have criticized the teaching of literacy in schools in the West for being a mere reflection of the dominant culture’s home practices. This dominant model of literacy, they argue, presents literacy as a set of abstract skills to be acquired by learners whose success in school is mainly based on the successful acquisition of these skills regardless of their background and cultural differences. They, therefore, have suggested using an ‘ideological model of literacy’ to refute the false, common assumption that literacy teaching in school aims at equipping the children with the necessary skills they need to prosper and develop.
2. Sola and Bennett
b. Using an ideological approach, Sola and Bennett conducted classroom re****** that focused on the teaching of writing to argue that the written texts taught in US schools are not only used to teach the writing skills, but are also a means to construct certain kinds of cultural knowledge. That is, the official schools use writing instruction not only to instill certain skills, but to shape their students into particular kinds of social beings. Moreover, the school discourse marginalizes the students’ own discourse and home community. As a result, the students are torn apart between the school’s centralizing (centripetal) forces and the diversifying (centrifugal) forces of their own communities. To conclude their argument, S&B stated that while the official schools claim that they give everyone an equal chance, they in practice encourage only the ways in which certain kinds of social and cultural position or class position are privileged. Literacy is one of the dominant ways of doing that.

3. Brian Street
a. Street suggests that we should recognize and use the term “dominant literacy”. He argues that there is a dominant model of literacy in the West characterizing literacy as a set of abstract skills. It involves detached, analytical and individualized activity. This model of literacy is seen as enabling the development of the higher-order reasoning skills believed necessary for logical and rational thought, and particular kinds of texts are highly valued, e.g., the essay. For Street, this is an autonomous model that treats literacy as some kind of neutral technology, and it ignores all the historical, cultural and social factors influencing the practices and effects of reading and writing, and how they’re valued. In order to acknowledge the social and ideological embeddedness of literacy, he suggests that we need to adopt an ‘ideological model’ to examine its meaning and uses in particular contexts.
b. Street’s argument tries to locate literacy in the context of power and ideology rather than as a neutral, technical skill. For him, literacy practices are constitutive of identity and of personhood. Therefore, the forms of reading and writing we learn and use are usually associated with certain social identities, expectations about behavior and role models. Thus, Street argues that the acquisition of literacy involves more than simply learning technical skills; learning school practices means taking on, or resisting, the identities associated with those practices. Street also argues that the public discourse of neutrality and technology presents the dominant literacy as the only literacy. This, for him, disguises the fact that one cultural form is dominant while the other literacy practices are marginalized. If other literacies are recognized (e.g., those associated with the minority ethnic groups), they are presented as inadequate or failed attempts to match the proper literacy of the dominant culture. Street concludes by stating that, instead of asking how standards of functional literacy can be established in diverse contexts, we should ask how the needs of non-dominant literacies can be served by national and international providers. To answer that, he emphasizes that the concept of literacy needs to be clarified and refined, and we need to study literacy practices in diverse cultural and ideological contexts. He also adds that we need to start where people stand, to understand the cultural meanings and uses of literacy practices, and to build programs and campaigns on these rather than on our own cultural assumptions about literacy.

4. Harvey Graff
c. Graff argues that there is a myth that literacy can contribute to the economic and individual well-being. He further argues that viewing literacy in the abstract as a foundation in skills that can be developed or lost is meaningless without connection to the individuals who own these skills. Thus, understanding literacy requires realizing its use in and application to precise, historically specific cultural contexts. Data strongly suggest that a simple, linear, modernization model of literacy as a prerequisite for development, and development as a stimulant to increased levels of schooling, will not suffice. Like Street, he argues that literacy, in itself, has no generalized effect on individuals’ lives and social development.

5. James Paul Gee
d. Gee argues that literacy is necessarily plural, and that different societies and social groups have different literacy practices. Accordingly, literacy has different social and mental effects in different social and cultural contexts. For him, literacy is a set of discourse practices: ways of using language and making sense both in speech and writing. These discourse practices are tied to the particular world views of particular social or cultural groups. Such discourse practices are integrally connected with the identity of the people who practice them: Thus, a change of discourse practice is a change of identity. Therefore, Graff argues that the discourse practices in school represent the world view of mainstream and powerful institutions in society. The English teacher is not teaching literacy or grammar, but rather he/she teaches these mainstream discourse practices and hence world views. These practices could be different from or contradictory to the discourse practices and identity of non-mainstream students. To conclude, Graff reiterates that teachers of English are not in fact teaching English and certainly not English grammar or even language. Rather, they are teaching a set of discourse practices, oral and written, connected with the standard dialect of English. Therefore, language and literacy acquisition are forms of socialization into mainstream ways of using language in speech and printing, of taking meaning, of making sense of experience. By acquiring a new set of discourse practices, students may acquire a new identity.

6. S. B. Heath:
e. Studying children in three communities (Maintown, Roadville and Trackton), Heath managed to shift the dominant theoretical paradigm within the literacy field from a focus on skills to the recognition that these are always embedded in social practice; that is, being literate implies developing certain social practices rather than simply acquiring certain technical skills. She further managed to raise awareness of the social and cultural dimensions of all reading and writing practices. Heath suggests that the literacy practices in the Roadville and Trackton communities are very different from each other and from the Maintown practices that their children will encounter in mainstream schooling. Consequently, these children will experience more difficulties in the classroom and will be faced with unfamiliar kinds of questions about texts. She suggested that schools should change to respond to these children’s needs, rather than changing the children to meet school’s standards which are the standards of the mainstream community. She discusses ways in which schools might change: she proposes conducting ethnographic investigations by some teachers within pupils' communities to make changes in classroom practice, so that they could build more effectively on community language uses. Accordingly, she believes, these children can have a better chance of succeeding.

7. Conclusion
a. Several re******ers have studied literacy in community settings using an ideological model to explain why some children from the non-mainstream culture may fail in classroom literacy practice. Street, for example, argues for adopting literacy ‘practices’ rather than literacy ‘skills’ to indicate the social and ideological nature of reading and writing. Becoming literate does not merely mean developing the skills of decoding words and phrases, but more importantly implies taking on certain meanings, values, and views. The recognition of this is seen by some re******ers as the panacea for success in mainstream schools provided that learners adapt to it. Other re******ers, however, believe that because the dominant culture’s worldview is disguised by the way literacy is introduced in schools, some minority children are more likely to fail. Therefore, re******ers, like Street, argue that the minority communities’ cultural practices should be acknowledged rather than marginalized as inferior to the dominant model of literacy presented solely in the formal schools. Acknowledging other cultural practices can help those minority children do well in school and prosper socially.
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قديم 23-04-2012, 05:09 AM   #2
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Question: 2
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اهتموا به


Discuss and compare how Hymes and Malinowski approach the issue of ‘context’ with respect to language meaning.

1. Bronislaw Malinowski
a. Malinowski argues that in order to understand the meaning of a word one has to look at its context within a particular utterance, and the context of that utterance within a particular situation. He describes the importance of the ‘context of situation’ to understanding of the meaning of any piece of language in use. To further explain the importance of context, he introduces the idea of ‘language as action’ to describe how language can make things happen. Language in primitive societies, he argues, is not so much an instrument for individual reflection, but rather a means of social action where it can only be appropriately understood in the given context. Studying what he calls a primitive culture, he argues that language is essentially rooted in the reality of the culture, the tribal life and ******s of a people. Language, thus, cannot be explained without constant reference to these broader contexts of verbal utterance. Therefore, he argues that studying a language from a different culture must be carried out in conjunction with the study of the culture and environment of the speakers of this language. The meaning of a word must always be gathered not from a passive contemplation of this word, but from an analysis of its functions, with reference to the relevant culture. Language and culture, thus, are inseparable. Each utterance is essentially dependent on the context of situation and the course of the activity in which the utterance is embedded. Thus, language in its primitive forms ought to be regarded and studied against the background of human activities and as a mode of human behavior in practical matters. In short, words or phrases of a given language from a given culture become meaningless if deprived from their authentic context and the social practices associated with them.

2. Dell Hymes
a. Hymes developed Malinowski’s notion of ‘context of situation’ by noting that a new theory, besides linguistics, is needed to account for the cultural and contextual aspects of language not just in so-called ‘primitive’ cultures but just as much in modern developed societies. That is, this new theory should be able to study the language in relation to culture which traditional linguistics failed to do. The new theory, according to him, should study the community’s own conventions concerning ‘ways of speaking’ in particular contexts. This theory should characterize the competent speaker as the one who knows these conventions, as well as the grammar of the language he or she is using. This theory presents context as consisting of different layers all of which contribute to the meaning of a speech act, e.g., a joke in a party.
i. These layers are
1. speech act: a joke
2. speech event: a conversation
3. speech situation: a party
4. speech community: shared understanding about what counts as a joke.
b. Like Malinowski, Hymes argues that the meaning of language comes from its context of use, that is, analyzing speech within its social context. He is particularly interested in how to analyze the social conventions governing the language practices, as well as, recognizing how these serve human purposes and needs. He further argues that if languages are divorced from the contexts and functions they serve, they become meaningless and useless. He emphasizes that there are ‘fundamental notions’ that any new language theory must deal with in order to appropriately account for context. These fundamental notions are:
i. Ways of speaking: conventions of speaking in a community.
ii. Fluent Speaker: one who has the grammatical as well as the knowledge of the community’s speaking conventions.
iii. Speech community: a community sharing knowledge of rules for the conduct and interpretation of speech, that is knowledge of both the form and its patterns of use (rules of grammar and rules of use).
iv. Speech situation: situations associated with speech, e.g., party, fights, hunts, meals, ceremonies, etc.
v. speech event: activities governed by the rules or norms for the use of speech:
1. Conversation, lecture, etc.
2. a speech event may consist of a single speech act (a joke) or several ones.
3. the same type of speech act may recur in different speech events, and the same type of speech event may recur in different contexts of situation.
a. Thus, a joke may be embedded in a private conversation, a lecture, etc.
b. A private conversation may occur in the context of a party, memorial service, etc.

3. Conclusion
a. Both Malinowski and Hymes argue that to understand a language, one must understand the context where that language is used and appropriated by its community. Focus on the form divorced from its original context is not enough to understand the language. Both emphasized that a language can only be understood if related to its context and studied according to the speaking conventions agreed upon by its original speakers.

Candidates who sustain a coherent and logical line of argument throughout should be given extra credit. More credit should be given to answers in which academic language and specialized terminology are used.
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قديم 23-04-2012, 05:11 AM   #3
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افتراضي رد: اللي نزلوا اسئلة المهمة لامرؤالقيس


Question:3



وهذا سؤال اختبار جيد



Discuss the following 3 approaches to literacy with reference to the E300 course material: literacy as power, literacy as communicative form and practice, and literacy as gendered.

Literacy as power
• The assumption which dominates most discourses about literacy is that literacy is power, with the power of literacy framed primarily in terms of economic development, equality of opportunity and the possibilities of liberty and democracy.
• Before, the conception of literacy was pluralistic with a multiplicity of literacies associated with specific skills.
• During the processes of state formation, industrialization and the movement toward mass schooling in 19th century North America, literacy began to take on symbolic and ideological dimensions that went far beyond being able to read and write.
• This makes literacy a good example of the individualizing and totalizing power of the modern state described by Foucault. This shift from literacies to literacy as ideology is integral to its use as a means of governance; whereas the state used to fear the development of literacy among the working class, by the mid 19th century, literacy was being mandated as a means of social and moral regulation in industrialized countries. Literacy was used to regulate people.
• Literacy was thus redefined in terms of the ‘functional’ tasks that must be performed in order to effectively function in life; from a pragmatic perspective, this meant measuring performance on a range of documentary-related tasks that involve complex reading skills.
• As ‘functional’ literacy definitions become more mixed with the questionable ideological uses of social science to justify forms of governance, they feed into the moralistic and jingoist (loyalist) politics which underlie claims about the high rate of illiteracy in the US.
• Based on this, there is moral panic about literacy; Bennett’s (Education Secretary) drive to establish ‘moral literacy’ as fundamental teaching of schools and colleges.
• This also makes literacy become a prerequisite to equality, to individual success; this makes it a commodity, an object to be acquired. Provision of opportunities to overcome illiteracy is seen as central to the liberty of the individual, as well as the nation. Such theories of inequality split apart the learner from context and from what is to be learned treating literacy as though it is outside the social and political relations, ideological practices, and symbolic meaning and structures in which it is embedded. In the process of establishing literacy as a universalistic formula through which equality can be realized, literacy is treated as though it occurs in a vacuum with all learners being treated the same but dichotomized as literate or illiterate, learners or non-learners and literacy as a commodity or object.
• Concealed through liberty and equality are the ethnocentrism, racism and sexism inherent in literary policies.
• More radical conceptions of literacy as power argue that literacy can empower. Those who argue for functional literacy in terms of empowerment do not challenge the dominant ideology which constructs vast numbers of people as illiterate, thereby rendering them powerless. Illiteracy is seen as the characteristic which keeps people powerless.
• Empowerment arguments are mostly directed at participation in the public spheres of national, economic, political and to some extent cultural activities without considering empowerment in the so-called private sphere of the home, including religious, family, and male/female relations. Theories of resistance have romanticized the ‘culture of the poor’ without considering how it, too, is pervaded by dominant ideology as well as differences and contradictions; power is connected to structure and conceptualized as out there, not lived in our subjectivities and the concrete relations of everyday life.
Literacy as communicative form and practice
• This approach views literacy as socially constructed in the practices of everyday interaction; literacy in this view is seen in terms of cultural and communicative practices and patterns which take place in face-to-face interactions and are situated in different types of communicative settings.
• The significance of this approach is that it recognizes a multiplicity of literacies where literacy involves different forms of communication.
• This is important because it makes it possible to ask questions about the nature of power relationships among the multiple literacies. Inquiry into relations of power thus far has been limited to showing that the literacy requirements of schooling and mainstream culture differ from and are invested with more power than those of life in the community and home.
Literacy as gendered
• Discourses about literacy whether about power, skills or social relations are strangely silent on the questions of gender or of women.
• Literacy is highly problematic for women who speak little English because the two ways of learning a second language:
1. through informal interactions in mixed language settings
2. through formal study in school situations
are both restricted to them.
• A developing feminist critique raises questions about the traditional occupations and roles for which women are being prepared through functionally-defined literacy programs since literacy is much more than a set of reading and writing skills; it cannot be separated from the content or the linguistic form of the texts read, or the social and pedagogic politics of their production and reading.
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قديم 23-04-2012, 05:14 AM   #4
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افتراضي رد: اللي نزلوا اسئلة المهمة لامرؤالقيس



Question: 4
وهذا سؤال اختبار مهم


Discuss the ethical problems concerning the relationship between the re******er and the re******ed that arise in linguistic re****** and the different ways in which re******ers have tried to mitigate these. How do ‘advocacy’ and ‘empowerment’ approaches go further in attempting to address these issues?

Ethics
• In ethical re******, there is a concern with minimizing damage and offsetting inconvenience to the re******ed as well as acknowledging their contribution. Social scientists have long recognized the potentially exploitative and damaging effects of being re******ed especially:
1. thinking about the uses of findings which might be acceptable or the effects they might have contrary to the interests of the subjects.
2. concern over the re******ers exploiting subjects for their own purposes during the re****** process;
3. controversy over the acceptability of covert re****** in which subjects cannot give full informed consent because the re******er is deliberately misleading them as to the nature and purpose of the re******.
Advocacy
• While positivism is strongly committed to the idea that observations procured in a scientific manner have the status of value-free facts, it is also open to positivistically inclined re******ers to go beyond this idea of ethics and move to an advocacy position by making themselves more accountable to the re******ed.
• Advocacy is characterized by a commitment on the part of the re******er not just to do re****** on subjects but to do re****** on and for subjects. It is a way of making formal something that commonly develops in field situations when the re******er is asked to use his or her skills and authority as expert to defend subjects’ interests and get involved in campaigns such as those for healthcare and education.

One example of an advocacy position is ‘the debt incurred’ principle suggested by Labov. According to this principle, when a community has enabled linguists to gain important knowledge, the linguist incurs a debt which must be repaid by using the said knowledge on the community’s behalf when they need it. The advocate serves the community, and that political direction is the community’s responsibility. It should be noted that while being radical, Labov’s position is still within a positivist framework whereby positivism limits Labov’s advocacy. Labov’s positivism is clear in his juxtaposition of ‘objectivity’ and ‘commitment’ in which he is worried that a re******er’s advocacy might undermine the validity of his or her findings (problem of bias). He works this out by claiming that the one reinforced or enhanced the other.
Empowering re******
• By maintaining an advocacy position, re******ers are under an obligation to defend the powerless. They could also be under further obligation to empower them to defend themselves.
• It should be noted that empowerment is not an absolute requirement on all re****** projects; there are instances where one would not wish to empower re****** subjects (e.g. while there is political value in re******ing on powerful groups, such an instance might be one where ‘re****** on’ would be a more appropriate model).



• ‘Ethical re******’ is re****** on. ‘Advocacy re******’ is re****** on and for. ‘Empowering re******’ is re****** on, for and with. The addition of ‘with’ implies the use of interactive or dialogic re****** methods ‘with’ the re******ed as opposed to the distancing or objectifying strategies positivists are constrained to use.
• Standards and constraints of positivist re****** on such as objectivity, disinterestedness, and non-interaction are not appropriate in empowering re******. As a result, alternative standards need to be proposed in that respect:
1. The use of interactive methods: persons are not objects and should not be treated as objects. If empowering re****** is re****** done with subjects as well as on them, it must seek their active cooperation which requires disclosure of the re******er’s goals, assumptions and procedures. This openness in interaction enhances the re******er’s understanding of what is observed with claims made for non-interaction as a guarantee of objectivity and validity considered philosophically naïve.
2. The importance of subjects’ own agendas: subjects have their own agendas and re****** should try to address them. Re******ed persons may have agendas of their own or things they would like the re******er to address. This might involve only fairly minor adjustments to re****** procedures.
3. The question of feedback and sharing knowledge: if knowledge is worth having, it is worth sharing. The question is whether it is or should be part of the re******er’s brief to empower people in an educational sense by giving them access to expert knowledge. There are 2 empowering strategies involved: a). intervention- empowering subjects by intervening with them. b). giving voice- a form of nonintervention whereby subjects’ own words are reproduced on a page, unmediated by authorial comment, in order to give the subject a voice and validate his/her opinions.
فراشه المنتدى غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 23-04-2012, 05:20 AM   #5
eternity eternity غير متصل
مشرف سابق
 
الصورة الرمزية eternity
افتراضي رد: اللي نزلوا اسئلة المهمة لامرؤالقيس


مشكورة فراشة ربي يجزاك الخير ويوفقك
eternity غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 23-04-2012, 05:22 AM   #6
GueSS.q8 GueSS.q8 غير متصل
طالب مميز
 
الصورة الرمزية GueSS.q8

 











افتراضي رد: اللي نزلوا اسئلة المهمة لامرؤالقيس


^^


يعطيج العافيه فراشه
GueSS.q8 غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 23-04-2012, 05:30 AM   #7
eternity eternity غير متصل
مشرف سابق
 
الصورة الرمزية eternity
افتراضي رد: اللي نزلوا اسئلة المهمة لامرؤالقيس


خلصوا الاسئلة..؟؟

بس كانه الاسئلة نمط اسئلة فاينال ...معقول هيك تكون بالميدترم
eternity غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 23-04-2012, 05:37 AM   #8
فراشه المنتدى فراشه المنتدى غير متصل
مشرف سابق
 
الصورة الرمزية فراشه المنتدى
افتراضي رد: اللي نزلوا اسئلة المهمة لامرؤالقيس


اقتباس:
المشاركة الأصلية كتبت بواسطة eternity مشاهدة المشاركة
خلصوا الاسئلة..؟؟

بس كانه الاسئلة نمط اسئلة فاينال ...معقول هيك تكون بالميدترم
الاسئله تتكرر ونصحيتي لكم ذاكري الملف اسئله الميدتيرمات
الاجابه فيه قصيرررر
فراشه المنتدى غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 23-04-2012, 09:11 AM   #9
توف أتري توف أتري غير متصل
طالب نشيط
 
الصورة الرمزية توف أتري

 










افتراضي رد: اللي نزلوا اسئلة المهمة لامرؤالقيس


يعطيكم العافيه,, لكن الاسئله هذه على نمط اسئله الفاينل وليس الميدتيرم ابدا


وفعلا الدكتوره قالتلنا ان الاسئله دايما تتكرر وكل سنه يتكرر سؤالين ولا تلاته من اللي قبلها


الله يوفقنا جمييعا
توف أتري غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 23-04-2012, 11:01 PM   #10
love & stability love & stability غير متصل
طالب نشيط
 
الصورة الرمزية love & stability

 











افتراضي رد: اللي نزلوا اسئلة المهمة لامرؤالقيس


بس حبيت انوه انه امرؤ القيس فعلا ملخصاته مفيده بس ياليت الطالبات حطو اسالته قبل بوقت مو في الوقت البدل ضائع


باي ذا واي شكرا امروؤ القيس
love & stability غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
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