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قديم 04-01-2012, 03:16 AM   #43
ساره عبدالعزيز ساره عبدالعزيز غير متصل
طــالب

 











افتراضي رد: E300A, Discussion of final exams 2011/2012


ياريت لو احديشرح الفرق بين طريقة هولدي وفراكلوف
ساره عبدالعزيز غير متصل  
قديم 04-01-2012, 09:51 AM   #44
النادرة النادرة غير متصل
طالب فعال

 










افتراضي رد: E300A, Discussion of final exams 2011/2012


اقتباس:
المشاركة الأصلية كتبت بواسطة فراشه المنتدى مشاهدة المشاركة
نموذج فانيل السمستر اللي فات 2010-2011

q1. Define with examples: Standard lang. ,lingua franca, creole, and pidgin
q2. 3 sentences that we should identify which of them is produced by a newspaper reader(educated) british person commenting on political issue in radio 1; in appose to a sentence produced by pop music listener in radio2. (not sure about the form of the question, hope its clear). H
q3. Identify the differences between the systemic functional approach and the critical discourse approach
q4. Write about mental processes in systemic functional grammar, with examples
q.5 explain the experiential values in grammatical features according to cda, and give illustrative examples
q6. About consumerism and its built in discourse
لو سمحتو نبي اجابة هذه الاسئلة بالضبط ( يعني اي كتاب و اي وحده وكم رقم الصفحة
النادرة غير متصل  
قديم 04-01-2012, 02:38 PM   #45
^lilly^ ^lilly^ غير متصل
طالب فعال
 
الصورة الرمزية ^lilly^

 











افتراضي رد: E300A, Discussion of final exams 2011/2012


اقتباس:
المشاركة الأصلية كتبت بواسطة النادرة مشاهدة المشاركة
لو سمحتو نبي اجابة هذه الاسئلة بالضبط ( يعني اي كتاب و اي وحده وكم رقم الصفحة
Standard Variety
- A variety which is written
- Undergone some degree of regularization or codification
- a prestigious variety
- Serves a High variety functions

Pidgin:
- A language with no native speakers.
- Develops as a means of communication between people who do not have a common language.

Creole:
A pidgin which has acquired native speakers.

Lingua franca:
o Serves as a regular means of communication between different groups in a multilingual speech community.
Used for communication between people whose first languages differ.

و هذي كمان تعاريف مهمه و جت في اختبارات

Language shift:
o Refers to language transfer or language replacement.
o the progressive process whereby a speech community of a language shifts to speaking another language.

Language Death:
o When a speech community ceases to use their original language

Language Loss:
o A process that affects speech communities where the level of linguistic competence that speakers possess of a given language is decreased.

Semantic:
This can usually be identified by the relatively simple means of the text’s nouns and verbs (and sometimes adjectives and adverbs)


What is Sociolinguistics?
- The study of language in relation to society.
- Sociolinguistics is a branch of linguistics which studies all aspects of the relationship b/w language and society.
- The study of the linguistic variables which require social factors in their explanation.

Isogloss:
a line drawn on the dialect map to separate the areas

Diglossia:
o a situation where two very different varieties of a language co-occur throughout a speech community.
o Each variety has a distinct range of social functions.

Or
two varieties of the same language is called Diglossia.

Speech community:
o Any group within a society that has anything significant in common (religion, ethnicity, race, age, deafness, sexual orientation, etc.)


Code-Switching and Code-Mixing
Code
o any system of communication involving language.
o A code may be a language or a variety / style of a language

Code-switching
o Alternation b/w 2 or more languages, dialects, or language registers in the course of discourse b/w people who have more than one language in common. Sometimes the switch lasts only for a few sentences, or even for a single phrase.
o Speech that draws to differing extents on at least two languages combined in different ways.

Code-Mixing
o Involves the transfer of linguistic elements from one language into another
o Code-mixing emphasizes hybridization, & the term codeswitching emphasizes movement from one language to another

- hybridization is a term to describe the process of one language variety blending with another variety.
- A hybrid word is a word which etymologically has one part derived from one language and another part derived from a different language.

(e.g. A WORD whose elements come from more than one language: television (from Greek tele-, Latin vision)

Types of Code switching
- situational code switching
- affective code switching
- ****phorical code switching
- Lexical borrowing

باقي الاسئله ما عندي فكره و انا كمان محتاجه اجوبتهم
فـ اللي يعرف اتمنى يساعدنا
^lilly^ غير متصل  
قديم 09-01-2012, 10:08 AM   #46
النادرة النادرة غير متصل
طالب فعال

 










افتراضي رد: E300A, Discussion of final exams 2011/2012


مشكووووووورة

وينكم ليه اختفى التعاون فجأة؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟

ايش اجابة هذا السؤال:

Write an essay describing and discussing the orientation and the relationships of the elements in the boxes of this figure noting especially discourse as text, interaction and context and how they are related to Fairclough’s Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA)

ماني فاهمة ايش المطلوب اصلا
النادرة غير متصل  
قديم 09-01-2012, 03:44 PM   #47
جلنـــار جلنـــار غير متصل
طــالب
 
الصورة الرمزية جلنـــار

 










افتراضي رد: E300A, Discussion of final exams 2011/2012


^^^^^^^^

هاد السؤال بيكون في رسمة أو مخطط واشرحيها
جلنـــار غير متصل  
قديم 09-01-2012, 03:48 PM   #48
الوفاء عنواني الوفاء عنواني غير متصل
طــالب
 
الصورة الرمزية الوفاء عنواني

 










افتراضي رد: E300A, Discussion of final exams 2011/2012


lilly مو مقصره
اي شي تحطينه يساعد والله
و انا وحده مو حابه الماده كثير
بس ان شاء الله نعديها كلنا
الوفاء عنواني غير متصل  
قديم 09-01-2012, 05:17 PM   #49
النادرة النادرة غير متصل
طالب فعال

 










افتراضي رد: E300A, Discussion of final exams 2011/2012


طيب ممكن اجابة هذا السؤال

How does Fairclough analyze the role of formality as a constraint on access to discourse? How is this compared to access to informal discourse and does power play a role in such types of discourse?
النادرة غير متصل  
قديم 10-01-2012, 10:45 PM   #50
miss_sy miss_sy غير متصل
طــالب
 
الصورة الرمزية miss_sy

 










افتراضي رد: E300A, Discussion of final exams 2011/2012


بليييييز يا جماعه حدا يجاوب على نموذج الفاينال 2010-2011
miss_sy غير متصل  
قديم 10-01-2012, 10:59 PM   #51
miss_sy miss_sy غير متصل
طــالب
 
الصورة الرمزية miss_sy

 










افتراضي رد: E300A, Discussion of final exams 2011/2012


[quote=ساره عبدالعزيز;4590349]ياريت لو احديشرح الفرق بين طريقة هولدي وفراكلوف[/QUO

هاد الجواب نسختو من المنتدى...يمكن فراشة المنتدى اللي حطتو

What differences are there between Fairclough's study of language and Halliday's approach?

Briefly, both Halliday and Fairclough belong to two different groups of language scholars.
- Halliday belongs to the group of linguists discussed earlier which was called Model 2 (the social model of language study) in which linguists do not focus on text only but on the social context in which it is used as well, i.e. on the communicative function of language in its socio-cultural contexts too. For Halliday a language consists of a set of systems, from which speakers or writers express meanings or functions in various life situations by making the right choice of style and register/genre for the right speech situation. Language users have rationality and have communicative competence which enables them to communicate effectively.

- Fairclough on the other hand belongs to the third model of language study: postmodernism. He makes use of sociolinguistic notions such as (social context) but he says that it is not enough to have linguistic and communicative skills, but language users need critical awareness about oppression and domination since awareness is the first step in emancipation. One way of achieving such critical awareness is using Critical Language Study to learn the de******ion (or analysis) of text interpretation (through applying experiential, relational, and expressive values), and adequate knowledge of how discourse, power relations and ideology are inter-related and interact in determining the nature and direction of power struggle whether domination will be imposed by coercion , accepted through naturalization and consent, or rejection and struggle against domination will continue .

دعواتكم صديقاتي وبالتوفيق للجميع..
miss_sy غير متصل  
قديم 11-01-2012, 05:20 PM   #52
النادرة النادرة غير متصل
طالب فعال

 










افتراضي رد: E300A, Discussion of final exams 2011/2012


اقتباس:
المشاركة الأصلية كتبت بواسطة النادرة مشاهدة المشاركة
طيب ممكن اجابة هذا السؤال

How does Fairclough analyze the role of formality as a constraint on access to discourse? How is this compared to access to informal discourse and does power play a role in such types of discourse?

؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟

الحين هاليدي مهم بالكتاب الثاني وفيركلو بالكتاب الثالث والكتاب الاول مين المهم؟؟؟
وفيه احد غيرهم ؟؟؟؟؟

الله يجزاكم خير جاوبوني
النادرة غير متصل  
قديم 11-01-2012, 07:34 PM   #53
طالبه مسجله طالبه مسجله غير متصل
طالب جديد

 










افتراضي رد: E300A, Discussion of final exams 2011/2012


every things in three book very imprtant especially book 2and3
طالبه مسجله غير متصل  
قديم 12-01-2012, 03:27 AM   #54
Hebatalla Hebatalla غير متصل
طالب فعال
 
الصورة الرمزية Hebatalla

 











افتراضي رد: E300A, Discussion of final exams 2011/2012


يا بنات ياريت تكون الاجابة اكيده وموثوق منها

لان سمعت من فرع الكويت انو معنا الميديا تكست والكتاب الاصفر

هل هذا صحيح في كتب ثانيه غير الثلاث الكتب
Hebatalla غير متصل  
قديم 12-01-2012, 11:12 AM   #55
noooor777 noooor777 غير متصل
طــالب
 
الصورة الرمزية noooor777

 











رد: E300A, Discussion of final exams 2011/2012


اقتباس:
المشاركة الأصلية كتبت بواسطة love & stability مشاهدة المشاركة
هذا حل السوال الاول
Answer Notes 1
The most immediate source of reference for this question is Chapter 2 in Janet Holmes's An Introduction to Sociolinguistics, especially pp. 27-45. However, the material on sociolinguistic dimensions in Chapter 1 is also significant.

Part One of the Study Guide, too, has useful information and so has Audiocassette 1 band 2: 'Multilingual Identity and Code Switching.' Some parts of article 13 of Media Texts "Encoding/Decoding" can be relevant.

In answering the second part of this question, candidates may recourse to some ideas from chapters 8, 12, and 13 of the Holmes book and from David Graddol's article "Three Models of Language De******ion" in Media Texts.

Candidates are expected to begin by defining diglossia and code switching in relation to the concept of language repertoire and code choice. They should also be able to write about polyglossia as they discuss diglossia. Better candidates would refer to the question of identifying the boundaries of the concept of diglossia raised by Holmes who maintains that all speech communities use different codes in various contexts.

In answering the second part of the question on people's freedom of code switching, average candidates are expected to describe the liberal-humanist assumption of people's freedom of choosing codes. Some may consider the limits to such freedom of choice dictated by different sociolinguistic constraints and factors. Good candidates will discuss when and why code switching occurs, and give relevant examples from the course material. Excellent candidates would give examples from their own experience of code-switching. They would also write about what Holmes calls '****phorical switching,' about the difference between ****phorical switching and 'code mixing,' and about the difference between code-switching and 'lexical borrowing.'

Better candidates may refer to the later chapters in Holmes where she points out that the individual has little personal control of what to choose in constructing his/her own identity.

Additional credit should be given to candidates who manage to sustain a logical line of presentation and analysis.



وهذا حل السوال الثالث

The chief reference for the Hallidayan approach is Halliday's article "Language as Social Semiotic" in Language and Literacy in Social Practice. There is an introduction to Halliday's systemic-functional grammar in Chapter 1 of Bloor & Bloor's The Functional Analysis of English. Aspects of Halliday's model are also described in the Study Guide (pp. 30-32) where this model's functional and systemic aspects are introduced. The Bloor & Bloor set book The Functional Analysis of English, chapter 12, describes this approach from a historical perspective.

Sources to the characteristics of Fairclough's discourse analysis are in the early parts of his Language and Power, particularly Chapters 1 and 2. The Study Guide also presents accounts of Fairclough's approach in Part Three (pp. 53-77). The two models are illustrated in Graddol's "Three Models of Language De******ion" in Media Texts pp. 1-17.



This is a partially open question which may be approached from a variety of angles. Candidates are asked to concentrate on the salient differences between the two models. More credit should be given to those who show good understanding of these differences.

The two models are clearly different: while Halliday's main emphasis is on context of situation and the role of language in social practice, Fairclough concentrates on "how language functions in maintaining and changing power relations in contemporary society." (Language and Power, p. viii).

Candidates may also refer to Halliday's teaching background and its influence on the pedagogical applications of his model. In the Fairclough model, pedagogy receives attention in chapter 9 of Language and Power where he looks at from his own model’s point of view which calls for attention to be paid to text, interaction and context.

While the two models are concerned with language and society, Fairclough's model goes further to consider the ideological consequences of the role of language and how it empowers certain social groups, and affects people's identity and their lives through their interaction with texts.


وهذا حل السوال الثاني

The major sources for this question are:

- for Halliday's model:
· His article "Language as Social Semiotic" in Language and Literacy in Social Practice.
· Chapter 1 of Bloor & Bloor's The Functional Analysis of English.
· The Study Guide, especially Part 2.

- for the structuralist model
· Study Guide (pp. 10-12)
· David Graddol's article "Three Models of Language De******ion" in Media Texts (pp. 1-17)

- for the two models

· The Bloor & Bloor set book The Functional Analysis of English, chapter 12.

Candidates are expected to demonstrate understanding of the major characteristics of the two models and underline the chief differences between them.

Some may choose to begin by writing a short introduction which highlights the historical progression from structuralism (Model 1) to Halliday in order to put their discussion in the right perspective.

Other candidates may choose to dip immediately into the major differences between the two models. Either approach should be acceptable, provided that the candidate outlines the salient distinctive marks of the two approaches.

A good answer should point out that while structuralists see language as an autonomous system, the Hallidayans stress that language study ought to take into account the close link between language and society. To them, language cannot be isolated from its social context of situation.

Candidates may also refer to Saussure's contention that the object of linguistic re****** should be 'langue' (as opposed to 'parole'), and form rather than meaning. Halliday, however, considers that language taken out of its social context deprives it of its richest characteristics. To him the social aspect of language brings it to life. Meaning (or meanings) of a text, according to Halliday is inseparable from linguistic functions, and speech is more revealing than writing when the various social contexts and functions are taken into account.

Credit should be given to candidates who go further to point out the importance of Halliday's ideational, interpersonal and textual '****functions' of language communication as well as the three parameters of 'field', 'tenor' and 'mode'.

Better students would trace the Hallidayan theory to its origins in Malinowski's anthropological studies and Firth's theory of context of situation. They would also describe structuralist movements in Europe and the US.

Extra credit should be given to candidates who manage to sustain a logical line of argument and who use academic/specialized terminology.

دعواتج حبيبتي




طيب لو سمحتو هل يوجد اجابة نموذجية نحفظها بدل ما ارجع للكتب ادور الحل انا موو ملحقة ابدا وحابة احفظ اهم الاسئلة واجوبتها
noooor777 غير متصل  
قديم 14-01-2012, 09:25 PM   #56
love & stability love & stability غير متصل
طالب نشيط
 
الصورة الرمزية love & stability

 











افتراضي رد: E300A, Discussion of final exams 2011/2012


اقتباس:
المشاركة الأصلية كتبت بواسطة النادرة مشاهدة المشاركة
مشكووووووورة

وينكم ليه اختفى التعاون فجأة؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟

ايش اجابة هذا السؤال:

Write an essay describing and discussing the orientation and the relationships of the elements in the boxes of this figure noting especially discourse as text, interaction and context and how they are related to Fairclough’s Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA)

ماني فاهمة ايش المطلوب اصلا

اقتباس:
المشاركة الأصلية كتبت بواسطة جلنـــار مشاهدة المشاركة
^^^^^^^^

هاد السؤال بيكون في رسمة أو مخطط واشرحيها
شقصدكم رسمه ومخطط ؟؟ خوفتوني
love & stability غير متصل  
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