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قديم 15-01-2012, 09:34 PM   #1
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افتراضي نماذج فاينال E300a


هنا تجميع لنماذج الفاينال السابقة لانه قد تتكرر مثل اغلب مواد اللنغوستيك

وكمان ادرسوا شابتر 3 ..الي منه سؤال الواجب..عندي احساس انه في سؤال منه

هذه النماذج جدا مهمة...لانها معاها طريقة الحل

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قديم 15-01-2012, 09:35 PM   #2
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افتراضي رد: نماذج فاينال E300a


E300 (English Language and Literacy)


End of First Semester Exam, Monday Jan 22, 2007 (6-9 pm)



Answer Notes



Q1
Choose any TWO of the following topics from the course’s Part 1, Sociolinguistics, and write a SHORT essay of about 200 words on each one.
[LIST][*]Language death, loss and shift[*]African American Vernacular English[*]National and official languages [*]Features of women’s language[/LIST]
Answer notes
Language death, loss and shift[LIST][*]When all speakers of a language die, their language is classified as ‘dead’ or ‘obsolete’.[*]Examples: most red-Indian languages in the US and many Aboriginal languages in Australia, Manx (in the Isle of Man) and Cornish in Cornwall, both in UK .[*]Causes of language death:[/LIST]- massacring of speakers (e.g. aborigines).[LIST][*]Shifting to another language leads to language loss, not death, e.g. Turkish community in England.[*]Such shifts are usually brought about by economic reasons, though there are other reasons which underlie language shifts.[*]These are social and political.[*]There are also some demographic factors which affect how fast a language changes and what these changes are (e.g. shifts are slower in rural areas).[*]Good students should understand that the term language loss refers to the experience of the individual who loses fluency and competence in his/her language as he/she uses it in fewer and fewer contexts (or domains), whereas the term language shift refers to the process by which a speech community changes its language use domain by domain, usually in favour of the language dominant in the wider community.[/LIST](See Holmes pp. 56-8)

Students who provide appropriate examples should be given extra credit.

They may give examples of language death, loss and/or shift from their own cultural background or indeed from other situations. If appropriate, these examples should be accredited.


African American Vernacular English (AAVE)
[LIST][*]Speakers of AAVE have lost their original African languages a long time back.[*]Yet, AAVE is visibly different from American Standard English (ASE).[*]The AAVE dialect has features which differentiate it from ASE. Some of these features do not exist in ASE and occur less frequently in the mainstream variety.[*]The northern cities of the US are home to the majority of AAVE speakers.[*]AAVE linguistic differences from the standard act as a symbol of social (ethnic) identity.[*]Students are expected to give some examples of AAVE:[/LIST]- Absence of lexical ‘BE’: “she a student”, “that my box”.
- Lexical ‘BE’ used instead of another ‘BE’ form: “she be at school”, “I run when I bees on my way”.
- Use of negative ‘ain’t’: “she ain’t comin”.
- Use of the 3rd person singular ‘s’ with wrong pronoun: “I says”.
- Use of multiple negatives: “I ain’t gonna go nowhere (none)”.[LIST][*]Studies have attested that the dialect of African Americans who do not belong to gangs has less AAVE features. Being overwhelmingly male, those who do belong to gangs have the most extreme distinctive features of AAVE.[*]There are also differences between AAVE and ASE in other linguistic aspects especially pronunciation and vocabulary. Students who give details of such differences should be given added credit.[*]The above topics are discussed in An Introduction to Linguistics (IL), especially Chapter 8. Examples are in exercises 1 & 2 and their answers (p. 192). [/LIST]National and official languages
[LIST][*]Let us start with the following quoted definitions of national language and official language:[/LIST]- “A national language is the language of a political, cultural and social unit. It is generally developed and used as a symbol of national unity. Its functions are to identify the nation and unite its people” (IS, p.97).
- An official language, by contrast, is simply a language which may be used for government business. Its function is primarily utilitarian rather than symbolic. It is possible, of course for one language to serve both functions” (IS, p.97).
[LIST][*]The distinction between the two language types, as in the case of Paraguay (between Spanish and Guarani), may be motivated by political/cultural considerations along the ‘ideological-instrumental’ dimension. [/LIST][LIST][*] In a newly independent state, the naming of a national language can be seen as the culmination of its people’s yearning for national salvation embodied in independence.[/LIST][LIST][*]Sometimes, there is a different situation: Spanish and Guarani have been named ‘national’ languages in Paraguay, while Spanish was also named ‘official’, most probably for politico-ethnic considerations.[/LIST][LIST][*]Such considerations, also perhaps with trade benefits in mind, have given national status to the French language in its former colonies such as Zaire, the Ivory Coast and Chad.[/LIST][LIST][*]Surprisingly, English has not been legally decreed the official language of England, New Zealand, or the USA. This was thought unnecessary. In New Zealand ,however, Maori has been legally decreed national although English has not![/LIST][LIST][*]English has been made official in some of the ‘commonwealth’ states such as: Pakistan, Fiji, Jamaica, the Bahamas, the Philippines, Tanzania and Vanuatu, in addition to Australia.[/LIST][LIST][*]Similarly, English has been given ‘official’ status in India, alongside Hindi and fourteen native languages which are also earmarked ‘official’. Unsuccessful attempts have been made to make Hindi the ‘national’ language of India. [/LIST]Students may wish to give other relevant examples, concepts, or classifications. These should count as added asset, as do coherence, use of academic terminology and logical argumentation.

Features of Women’s language [LIST][*]In one of her major works, “Language and Woman’s Place” (1975), Robin Lakoff extended the centre of attention of academic re****** into such major areas of linguistic scholarship as syntax, semantics and stylistics, in a quest aimed at tracking down the typical characteristics of female language in these areas.[*]She claimed to have found that women’s typical language mirrored uncertainty and lack of confidence.[*]Lakoff’s more detailed findings noted that women’s speech had the following features (IS, p. 286): [/LIST](a) Lexical hedges or fillers, e.g. you know, sort of, well, you see.
(b) Tag questions, e.g. she’s very nice, isn’t she?
(c) Rising intonation on declaratives, e.g. it’s really good?
(d) ‘Empty’ adjectives, e.g. divine, charming, cute.
(e) Precise colour terms, e.g. magenta, aquamarine.
(f) Intensifiers such as just and so, e.g. I like him so much.
(g) ‘Hypercorrect’ grammar, e.g. consistent use of standard verb forms.
(h) ‘Superpolite’ forms, e.g. indirect requests, euphemisms.
(i) Avoidance of strong swear words, e.g. fudge, my goodness.
(j) Emphatic stress, e.g. it was a BRILLIANT performance.
[LIST][*]Lakoff’s article attracted the attention of many re******ers (including several ‘novice’ ones) and brought about a flood of re******es on the same topic. But many of them lacked validity and some produced contradicting results (e.g. with respect to men and women’s use of question tags).[*]Lakoff, however, divided the features reflected in the above examples into two categories: ‘hedging devices’ and ‘boosting devices’. hedging devices, she claimed, are used by women to express uncertainty. Boosting devices, on the other hand, are used “to persuade their addressee to take them seriously” (IS, p.287). Thus, she maintained, both mirror women’s lack of confidence.[*]In another vein, Holmes (1984a) noted that women’s use of tag-questions reflected their concern to be “facilitative” or polite. Her statistics indicated that 59% of women’s question tags were facilitative, whereas only 35% expressed uncertainty.[/LIST]Students may wish to give other evidence, especially with reference to women’s use of language in the local Arab cultural background. So long as their arguments and their examples are academically sound, this should be considered as an asset.

Your evaluation should take into account the coherence and logical argumentation elements of students’ answers.



Q2
Compare and contrast expansion and projection of clause complexes in Halliday’s grammar. Give examples throughout.

Answer notes:
Clause complexes may involve expansion or projection.


(I). Expansion

· Expansion relates to expanding on the proposition in the dominant clause, indicating some contingency related to that proposition: of time, purpose, means or manner.
· There are 2 ways in which clause complexes may be formed: parataxis and hypotaxis.

‘Equal’ clauses
· Parataxis involves linking two clauses together on equal footing.
· Semantic distinctions between ‘and, but, or, and so’
1. ‘and’ is additive
2. ‘but’ is adversative
3. ‘or’ is disjunctive, signaling alteration
4. ‘so’ is sequential, indicating cause-effect.
Dependent clauses
· Hypotaxis involves combining two clauses in such a way that one is dependent on the other. The dependent clause is the clause which is bound to the other in a hypotactic relationship.
· The dominant clause is the clause to which its bound.
· Binding conjunctions (traditionally subordinating conjunctions) include ‘as, when, while, until, before, after, if, unless, etc.)
· Hypotactic clauses differ from paratactic clauses in that the sequence can vary. In paratactic clauses, each clause is given a number, and the sequence (1,2,3) cannot be altered. If we change the sequence of the clauses, then the numbers will reflect this new sequence. However the labels (α, β) are used to label hypotactic clauses in a hypotactic relationship of dependency. They say nothing about the sequence but comment on the hierarchal relationship whereby one clause depends on the other. Even if the order of the clauses changes, the labels are retained.
· Dependent clauses are frequently non-finite. Non-finite clauses in a clause complex with a finite clause are always dependent.
· Non-defining relative clauses (also known as non-restrictive relative clauses) are not as intimately bound up with the item they relate to as with defining relative clauses. They are not analyzed as rankshifted clauses but as dependent clauses.

(II). Projection
[LIST][*]In projection, the functions of Sayer, Quoted, and Reported in Verbal Processes are viewed in terms of their logical organization: the paratactic and hypotactic combination of projecting and projected clauses.[/LIST]Paratactic projection clauses
[LIST][*]In direct speech, the actual words of a speaker are presented verbatim.[*]As a representation, the clause includes Sayer and Quoted.[*]In terms of clause complex structure, the relation between these clauses is defined as paratactic.[*]If the order of Sayer and Quoted is reversed, the first clause would still be numbered 1 and the second 2. [*]Representation of thought takes the same form as direct speech.[*]If the clause that contains the Sayer interrupts the clause that realizes the Quoted, the Quoted is numbered 1 because it starts first. [/LIST]Hypotactic projection clauses
[LIST][*]In indirect speech, there are the 2 functions of Sayer and Reported.[*]In terms of clause complex structure, the relation between the 2 is hypotactic or one of dependency.[*]The clause containing the Sayer is the dominant clause while the clause containing the Reported is the dependent clause. [*]Representation of thought can also be projected in hypotactic or reported form.[*]In hypotactic projections, projecting (dominant) clauses typically precede projected (dependent) clauses.[*]The most frequent signal of hypotactic projection is the presence of the word ‘that’.[/LIST]Non-finite projection
[LIST][*]Like expansion clauses, projection clauses may be finite or non-finite.[*]Hypotactic clauses may be realized by non-finite clauses. This occurs as indirect questions or commands when the projecting process is realized by verbs such as ‘tell, order, ask, wonder’. [/LIST]Dependent versus embedded projections
[LIST][*]When the projecting process is realized as a noun, the clause which realizes the projection is embedded as Postmodifier of that noun; that is, as rankshifted clause within the Nominal group. As such, it does not count as clause in a clause complex.[*]When the projecting process is realized by a verb, the clause which realizes the projection is a dependent clause. [/LIST]Extra credit should be given to students who give correct illustrative examples. Credit should also be given to those who maintain a logical chain of argument and who use specialized terminology.

Q3
In Hallidayan grammar, there are two types of structure in the analysis of a clause: information structure and thematic structure. Discuss the two structures providing examples that illustrate your understanding of the various parts that make up both structures.
Answer notes:

Information structure[LIST][*]An information unit is made up of:[LIST][*]Given information-shared or mutual information usually found at the beginning of a clause. (example: ‘The kettle’ in ‘The kettle is boiling’)[*]New information- information that is the focus of a speaker’s message (example: ‘is boiling’ in ‘The kettle is boiling’).[/LIST][*]The Given is optional while the New is obligatory.[*]Both types are found in both dependent and independent clauses. [*]In written English, New information is usually presented in the 2nd part of the clause. There are two exceptions to this:[/LIST][LIST][LIST][*]at the beginning of a new topic of conversation or section of written text where all the information is new (example: ‘it’ in ‘It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of a good fortune must be in want of a wife’) ‘It’ carries no information here; it is an empty subject.[*]when ellipses are used to leave out Given information and only present the New. (example: ‘organizes information in and out of the computer’ in ‘It controls how the parts of a computer interact and organizes information in and out of the computer’.) The information here is all New where the subject of ‘organizes’ is omitted, and it refers to a previous subject ‘operating system’ [/LIST][*]In real life (spoken English), the social context provides the source of Given information. The words that appear most frequently as Given are pronouns (I, we, you) as well as proper nouns.[*]An unmarked clause is a clause where the Given information is presented first followed by the New information. In an unmarked declarative clause, the New information is considered to have the most communicative dynamism and is signaled by a falling intonation.[/LIST]Thematic structure[LIST][*]With the exception of some phrases like ‘Hi’ and ‘Good morning’, all clauses have a thematic structure.[*]Although there are many parallels between information and thematic structure, Halliday shows that they are separate structures.[*]Thematic structure consists of:[LIST][*]Theme- the idea represented by the constituent at the starting point of a clause; ‘the point of departure of a message’ (example: ‘Kuala Lumpur’ in ‘Kuala Lumpur is the capital of Malaysia’.)[*]Rheme- the rest of the message (example: ‘is the capital of Malaysia’ in: ‘Kuala Lumpur is the capital of Malaysia’.)[/LIST][/LIST][LIST][*]There are many types of themes, but all clauses in English include a topical theme. The topical theme represents a participant, circumstance, or process (examples: ‘for example’, ‘in this country’, ‘in my opinion’). The topical theme is always realized by one of the following elements: subject, predicator, complement, or circumstantial adjunct. [*]An unmarked theme is a theme which is typical (i.e. when a subject is in Theme position in a declarative clause) (example: ‘Kuala Lumpur’ as theme and subject ‘is the capital of Malaysia’ as Rheme and finite complement) while a marked theme is untypical. It occurs where other elements are found in Theme position of English clauses (examples of circumstantial adjunct in the form of a prepositional phrase as theme: ‘After the war’ in: ‘After the war, the Spartans erected a memorial on the battlefield.’ and ‘For a long time’ in: ‘For a long time, the Spartans proved themselves invincible on land). (example of complement as theme: ‘Nature I loved.’[*]Each mood in a clause has a typical unmarked thematic pattern:[/LIST]MOOD
THEME realized by
Declarative (Ziggy played guitar)
Subject (Ziggy)
Interrogative (Had he written down something of the greatest importance?)
Finite +Subject (Had he)
Imperative (Write it down)
Predicator (Write) OR implied (you)
Exclamative (How sweetly she sings!)
Wh-word complement OR Wh-word Adjunct (How sweetly)



· Some clauses have more than one theme, a multiple thematic structure. Such themes relate to the three ****functions:
1.Topical theme-serves the ideational ****function; the theme that represents what the clause is about; found in every clause.
2.Textual theme- commenting on the previous speaker’s text.
3.Interpersonal theme- addressing the listener directly by using a name or term of affection.
Extra credit should be given to students who give precise illustrative examples. Credit should also be given to candidates who maintain a logical chain of argument and who use specialized terminology.

Q4
What does the figure below from Fairclough’s Language and Power (Chapter 2) sum up?

Write an essay describing and discussing the orientation and the relationships of the elements in the boxes of this figure noting especially discourse as text, interaction and context and how they are related to Fairclough’s Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA).


























Answer Notes


[LIST][*]Perhaps this is the most revealing representation of how Fairclough views discourse. The three boxes sum up: [/LIST]1. how texts (spoken, written or other) are related to each other;
2. what processes exist in the each boxed level; and
3. what conditions there are for both producing and interpreting a text.
[LIST][*]In simple terms, this representation of discourse tells us that each text goes through a process of production (by the speaker/writer) and a process of interpretation by the listener(s)/viewer(s).[/LIST][LIST][*]In both processes, there are social conditions which determine/govern the production and the interpretation stages of the discourse in question.[/LIST][LIST][*]Fairclough uses this illustrative representation of discourse not only to explain how he understands/views discourse as a social phenomenon, but also, and perhaps more importantly, to explain and advocate his concept of CDA.[/LIST][LIST][*]According to him, the three elements of texts, interactions and contexts correspond to the CDA levels of de******ion, interpretation and explanation. [/LIST][LIST][*]Thus, on CDA’s first level of de******ion, the “formal properties” of a text are looked at and described.[/LIST][LIST][*]On the next and wider level of interpretation, the relationship between text and interaction is examined.[/LIST][LIST][*]Finally, on the third level of explanation, the relationship between interaction and (social) context is explored.[/LIST][LIST][*]Since a great deal of what Fairclough proposes depends on a proper understanding of his CDA, one can clearly see the significance of figure 2.1 for paving the way to his later propositions, concepts and representations of how language, as an instrument of power, is characterized in his theory reflected by the title of his book Language and Power.[/LIST]Students may wish to sail further into other related areas of Fairclough’s theory. This is alright, provided they do not lose track of the topic of this question.

Students who maintain a logically-sequenced chain of ideas and who use specialized terminology should be rewarded for their distinctive effort.







Q5
Fairclough distinguishes between power in discourse and power behind discourse. Explore these two types of power and comment on how Fairclough characterizes them.


Answer Notes

A. Power in discourse[LIST][*]On a number of occasions, Fairclough describes what he means by power. On page 3 of Language and Power (L& P), Fairclough distinguishes between the exercise of physical power through coercion and physical violence and through “the exercise of power to manufacture consent” (L & P, p.3).[*]Later, in Chapter 3, Fairclough discusses the issues subsumed under “power in cross-cultural discourse and the hidden power of the mass media.[*]Speaking about the first category, power in face-to-face spoken discourse, Fairclough gives an example of a doctor-student encounter during which the student is repeatedly and abruptly interrupted by the doctor who exerts no effort to hide his desire to exercise power over the student. Other examples of such oral encounters are found in the book, e.g. a case showing a witness helping the police with their investigations. [*]Subsequently, Fairclough discusses power in cross-cultural encounters where he introduces the concept of gate-keeping in job interviews. The gate-keeper, he maintains, is usually a white middle-class person who constrains the discourse. He adds: “people may thus be denied jobs … through misconceptions based upon cultural insensitivity and dominance.” (L & P, p.40)[*]A third type of power in discourse suggested by Fairclough is ‘hidden power.’ In discussing this type, he refers to the “hidden power of the written language, especially the power of the mass media.[*]As expected, he dwells heavily on the tremendous force wielded by the mass media and how this power is exploited. “Producers exercise power over consumers in that they … can therefore determine what is included and excluded” (L & P, p.42).[/LIST]B. Power behind discourse
§ The section on power behind discourse pays attention to how ‘orders’ of discourse are themselves shaped by relations of power.
§ He lays stress particularly on standardization where one social dialect claims power by seeking to be the ‘standard’ variety.
§ As expected, the example that Fairclough gives is standard English. This denomination, he continued, provides gains for this dialect whose speakers are both privileged and better paid that speakers of less-fortunate dialects
§ Students may wish to provide both novel concepts and novel examples. If relevant, they must be accepted. Credit should be given to students who manage to maintain a logical line of argumentation, good coherence and use of technical language.


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قديم 15-01-2012, 09:37 PM   #3
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افتراضي رد: نماذج فاينال E300a





Faculty of Language Studies



E300: English Language and Literacy


Specimen Answer Key for Semester I Exam


Prepared by Prof. Najib Al-Shehabi


Course Chair







Answer Notes




Please note that students are required to answer one question from A, one from B and one from C






A
Question 1
How do sociolinguists account for diglossia and code choice? To what extent are people free to choose the variety they wish to use?

Answer Notes 1
The most immediate source of reference for this question is Chapter 2 in Janet Holmes's An Introduction to Sociolinguistics, especially pp. 27-45. However, the material on sociolinguistic dimensions in Chapter 1 is also significant.

Part One of the Study Guide, too, has useful information and so has Audiocassette 1 band 2: 'Multilingual Identity and Code Switching.' Some parts of article 13 of Media Texts "Encoding/Decoding" can be relevant.

In answering the second part of this question, candidates may recourse to some ideas from chapters 8, 12, and 13 of the Holmes book and from David Graddol's article "Three Models of Language De******ion" in Media Texts.

Candidates are expected to begin by defining diglossia and code switching in relation to the concept of language repertoire and code choice. They should also be able to write about polyglossia as they discuss diglossia. Better candidates would refer to the question of identifying the boundaries of the concept of diglossia raised by Holmes who maintains that all speech communities use different codes in various contexts.

In answering the second part of the question on people's freedom of code switching, average candidates are expected to describe the liberal-humanist assumption of people's freedom of choosing codes. Some may consider the limits to such freedom of choice dictated by different sociolinguistic constraints and factors. Good candidates will discuss when and why code switching occurs, and give relevant examples from the course material. Excellent candidates would give examples from their own experience of code-switching. They would also write about what Holmes calls '****phorical switching,' about the difference between ****phorical switching and 'code mixing,' and about the difference between code-switching and 'lexical borrowing.'

Better candidates may refer to the later chapters in Holmes where she points out that the individual has little personal control of what to choose in constructing his/her own identity.

Additional credit should be given to candidates who manage to sustain a logical line of presentation and analysis.






Question 2
How does Fairclough analyze the role of formality as a constraint on access to discourse? How is this compared to access to informal discourse and does power play a role in such types of discourse?

Answer Notes 2
The most immediate reference to this question is Chapter 3 in N. Fairclough's Language and Power, especially pp. 54-7. Another important reference is Part Three: Discourse Analysis in the Study Guide, particularly 2, ‘Analysing power in language’. In audio cassette 1, Band 6, Norman Fairclough talks about the differences between his discourse analysis approach and the sociolinguistics approach. Sociolinguists, he maintains, do not pay enough attention to the ideological forces which impose constraints on people's freedom of linguistic choices.

Candidates are expected to start their answer by providing an outline of Fairclough's discourse analysis model. Better candidates will consider how this model departs from, or relates to, sociolinguists who, as Fairclough maintains, have not given sufficient attention to the social forces which narrow down their powers of choice, including linguistic choices.

Placed within this particular theoretical framework, candidates' answers would be expected to move further to explain what power means as a constraint on discourse, especially constraints on contents, subjects and relations. Within this framework, good candidates should examine the effect of formality on discourse, particularly access to formal language in many communities, including Britain, where such access carries high social prestige. Candidates may provide examples from English or from Arabic showing how such constraints affect the life of speakers of these (or even other) languages. They may refer to what Fairclough describes as "consistency of language forms" (Language and Power, p. 55) by which he means such constraints as 'correct' grammar and a special set of vocabulary used exclusively by speakers empowered by the ability to use formal language.

Credit should be given to candidates who expand their answer to include the disadvantages of limited access to formal language, e.g. speakers who use informal language exclusively.

The issue of 'social struggle in discourse' discussed by Fairclough in the same chapter (3) may be highlighted in some answers as another extension and this should also be credited.

One development, particularly in the use of English especially after the Second World War, points to the spread of Standard English usage and tolerance of non-standard forms by such institutions as the BBC which previously precluded all usage of accents other than Received Pronunciation (RP). A candidate, thus, may end his answer on a happy note claiming that the power of formal language is shrinking to accommodate less formal speech and literacy practices in English.

Candidates who sustain a coherent and logical line of argument throughout should be given extra credit. More credit should be given to answers in which academic language and specialized terminology are used.




B
Question 3
In what ways does Halliday’s systemic-functional approach to language differ from Fairclough’s discourse analysis? Answer with special reference to how each approach relates to the role of language in society.


Answer Notes 3
The chief reference for the Hallidayan approach is Halliday's article "Language as Social Semiotic" in Language and Literacy in Social Practice. There is an introduction to Halliday's systemic-functional grammar in Chapter 1 of Bloor & Bloor's The Functional Analysis of English. Aspects of Halliday's model are also described in the Study Guide (pp. 30-32) where this model's functional and systemic aspects are introduced. The Bloor & Bloor set book The Functional Analysis of English, chapter 12, describes this approach from a historical perspective.

Sources to the characteristics of Fairclough's discourse analysis are in the early parts of his Language and Power, particularly Chapters 1 and 2. The Study Guide also presents accounts of Fairclough's approach in Part Three (pp. 53-77). The two models are illustrated in Graddol's "Three Models of Language De******ion" in Media Texts pp. 1-17.



This is a partially open question which may be approached from a variety of angles. Candidates are asked to concentrate on the salient differences between the two models. More credit should be given to those who show good understanding of these differences.

The two models are clearly different: while Halliday's main emphasis is on context of situation and the role of language in social practice, Fairclough concentrates on "how language functions in maintaining and changing power relations in contemporary society." (Language and Power, p. viii).

Candidates may also refer to Halliday's teaching background and its influence on the pedagogical applications of his model. In the Fairclough model, pedagogy receives attention in chapter 9 of Language and Power where he looks at from his own model’s point of view which calls for attention to be paid to text, interaction and context.

While the two models are concerned with language and society, Fairclough's model goes further to consider the ideological consequences of the role of language and how it empowers certain social groups, and affects people's identity and their lives through their interaction with texts.

Candidates may also concentrate on other aspects of the differences between the two approaches. Give credit to those who present a valid and well-organized discussion of the two approaches, while sustaining a clear line of argument.

Extra credit should be given to candidates who are able to use specialized terminology in a scholarly fashion.








Question 4
How is Halliday’s functional model compared to the structuralist model? How different are they?


Answer Notes 4
The major sources for this question are:

- for Halliday's model:
· His article "Language as Social Semiotic" in Language and Literacy in Social Practice.
· Chapter 1 of Bloor & Bloor's The Functional Analysis of English.
· The Study Guide, especially Part 2.

- for the structuralist model
· Study Guide (pp. 10-12)
· David Graddol's article "Three Models of Language De******ion" in Media Texts (pp. 1-17)

- for the two models

· The Bloor & Bloor set book The Functional Analysis of English, chapter 12.

Candidates are expected to demonstrate understanding of the major characteristics of the two models and underline the chief differences between them.

Some may choose to begin by writing a short introduction which highlights the historical progression from structuralism (Model 1) to Halliday in order to put their discussion in the right perspective.

Other candidates may choose to dip immediately into the major differences between the two models. Either approach should be acceptable, provided that the candidate outlines the salient distinctive marks of the two approaches.

A good answer should point out that while structuralists see language as an autonomous system, the Hallidayans stress that language study ought to take into account the close link between language and society. To them, language cannot be isolated from its social context of situation.

Candidates may also refer to Saussure's contention that the object of linguistic re****** should be 'langue' (as opposed to 'parole'), and form rather than meaning. Halliday, however, considers that language taken out of its social context deprives it of its richest characteristics. To him the social aspect of language brings it to life. Meaning (or meanings) of a text, according to Halliday is inseparable from linguistic functions, and speech is more revealing than writing when the various social contexts and functions are taken into account.

Credit should be given to candidates who go further to point out the importance of Halliday's ideational, interpersonal and textual '****functions' of language communication as well as the three parameters of 'field', 'tenor' and 'mode'.

Better students would trace the Hallidayan theory to its origins in Malinowski's anthropological studies and Firth's theory of context of situation. They would also describe structuralist movements in Europe and the US.

Extra credit should be given to candidates who manage to sustain a logical line of argument and who use academic/specialized terminology.



C
Question 5
Read the following text and answer the questions that follow.


The text:



Once upon a time, there lived a rich merchant who had three beautiful daughters. The youngest was the prettiest of the three and she was also good and kind to everyone. Her elder sisters were also quite attractive but they were neither good nor kind. They were greedy and extremely selfish, but their father was not.



The Questions:

[LIST][*]Identify the derived themes and say where they are derived from.[*]Find two examples from the text of nominal groups without nouns as head.[*]Write a structured argument (essay type) paying special attention to thematic progression, ellipsis and lexical chains in the same text.[/LIST]
Answer Notes 5

i. The derived themes are:
[LIST][*]‘the youngest’[*]‘Her elder sisters’[/LIST]They are both derived from ‘three beautiful daughters’

ii. The nominal groups without nouns as head are: (students are asked to identify only TWO)
[LIST][*]The youngest[*]the prettiest[*]the three[/LIST]iii. There are different thematic progression patterns: the second clause theme ’the youngest’ is derived from the rheme of the first clause ‘three beautiful daughters’. In the clause beginning with ‘her elder sisters’, this theme is also derived from the theme of the previous clause ‘the youngest’. It is repeated in the pre-final clause ‘They’ and the one preceding it ‘they’ which have anaphoric pronominal reference to ‘her elder sisters’.
Thus, while we have examples of derived themes earlier in the text, the two just described represent a constant theme pattern.

Ellipsis is seen in ‘the youngest’, ‘the prettiest’ and ‘the three’ where ‘daughter(s)’ is ellipted as a type of nominal ellipsis. In the final clause ‘was not’ is an further example of ellipsis of the adjective ‘selfish’.

There are two lexical chains found in the given text. They are:

a. beautiful – prettiest – quite attractive
b. good – kind – greedy – selfish

They play a vital role in strengthening the lexical cohesion of this text and make it an attractive tell-tale story.



Question 6
Comment on the following interview between a police officer (p) and a witness (w) who had just witnessed a robbery, with special reference to power elements in this discourse:

(1) p: Did you get a look at the one in the car?
(2) w: I saw his face, yeah.
(3) p: What sort of age was he?
(4) w: About 45. He was wearing a …
(5) p: And how tall?
(6) w: Six foot one.
(7) p: Six foot one. Hair?
(8) w: Dark and curly. Is this going to take long? I’ve got to collect the kids from school.
(9) p: Not much long, no. What about his clothes?

(10) w: He was a bit scruffy-looking, blue trousers, black…


(11) p: Jeans?


(12) w: Yeah.



(Fairclough, 2001 Language and Power, 2nd ed, p. 15)



Answer Notes 6

The immediate source of this question is Fairclouph’s ideas in chapter 2 of his set book Language and Power. Fairclough gives his own analysis of the text on p. 15 and returns to the same topic on p. 25 and on p. 34, as he discusses types of discourse and orders of discourse at the institutional level. The Study Guide, pp. 48-51 and 54-5, elucidates some related theoretical concepts.

Students are expected to begin by describing the relationship between the two persons involved in the discourse. Clearly, this relationship is unequal: the police officer/interviewer displays control of the whole situation and consequently of the discourse itself. He is using his prerogative to choose the type of discourse, as he uses his position of power. This is clear from the policeman’s single-word question ‘Hair?’ and the reaction to it by the witness who decides to ask how long it (the interview) was going to take. The same type of one-word question is repeated in (11) “Jeans?” Moreover, the question ‘How tall?’ in (5) is short and abrupt.

Candidates are also expected to note that the witness is worried because interviewing may lead to interrogation and to the laying of charges. Her answers are short and perhaps reserved because of this likelihood.

Good candidates should also note that the witness had just been shaken by witnessing a violent crime, yet the policeman’ does not attempt to mitigate his questions with expressions to tone down her fear and alleviate her worry. They would also recognize that the interviewer says nothing to show that he is satisfied with the information the witness is supplying, perhaps because he is preoccupied by the task of filling in a witness statement form.

Credit should also be given to students who make further power-related observations such as the way p answers w’s query about the length of the interview; “Not much long, no.”, and immediately poses a further question.

In discussing the general situation of this discourse, most candidates would be expected to note that the discourse of the two participants is constrained by institutional and societal expectations and assumptions. They should note the subject positions that the participants are required to occupy within the discourse type and the ideological dimension of ‘common sense’ that lies behind this.

More credit should be given to answers which follow a logical line of argument that is both relevant and convincing.









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قديم 15-01-2012, 09:39 PM   #4
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افتراضي رد: نماذج فاينال E300a


Part A

Question 1

(Part 1, Sociolinguistics)

‘The linguistic features which differ in the speech of women and men in Western communities are usually features which also distinguish the speech of people from different social classes.’

(An Introduction to Sociolinguistics, Holmes, 1992, p. 154)

Discuss the interaction of gender and social class in speech.


Question 2

(Part 3, Discourse analysis)

What are the main features of ‘Critical Language Study’? What do you see as the main strengths and limitations of this approach?




PART B

Answer ONE question from this part. Aim to spend about one hour on it; it carries one third of the total marks.

(Your answer should be based primarily on one part of the course.)

Question 3

Following the annual parades to commemorate the dead on Anzac Day, an Australian newspaper published the written reactions of two school pupils. The first extract (a) was written by an eight-year-old. The second (b) was written by a sixteen-year-old.

Discuss the differences between the two texts using ideas from Halliday’s functional approach to analysis.
(a) Today I watched the Anzac parade and I saw lots of brave men and women. Most of them had medals and wore uniforms. Some drove in cars because they were too sick to walk. There were lots of countries marching apart from Australia. There were bands and thousands of people watching and clapping.
(b) The atmosphere at the dawn service was one of solemnity, as those who had first-hand experience of the devastation of war reflected on the past and remembered their friends and relatives who had lost their lives in battle. The gloomy atmosphere was emphasised by the dreary drizzle, drab attire and the long silence.

(Adelaide Advertiser , 26 April 1986, quoted in M.A.K. Halliday and J.R. Martin, 1993, Writing Science: literacy and discursive power , Falmer Press, London, p. 211)



Question 5

In what ways is power exercised and resisted within the dialogue below, between a youth (Y) suspected of involvement in a crime and his headmaster (H)? How might social conditions in the immediate situation, the institutional setting and the wider societal context affect the production and interpretation of this oral text?
1. H: Why didn’t you go straight down Queen Street?
2. Y: I’m not walking down there with a load of coons from St Hilda’s coming out of school.
3. H: Why’s that?
4. Y: Well that’s obvious, isn’t it? I don’t want to get belted.
5. H: Well there isn’t usually any bother in Queen Street, is there?
6. Y: No. None of us white kids usually go down there, do we?
What about that bust-up in the Odeon carpark at Christmas?
7. H: That was nearly a year ago, and I’m not convinced you lot were as innocent as you made out. So when you got to the square, why did you wait around for quarter of an hour instead of going straight home?
8. Y: I thought my mate might come down that way after work. Anyway, we always go down the square after school.

(Language and Power, Fairclough, 2001, p. 57)


PART C

Answer ONE question from this part. Aim to spend about one hour on it; it carries one third of the total marks.

(For questions in Part C, you should relate your answer to at least two parts of the course.)







Question 6

Give a critical account of how the relationship between language and context is explained in at least two of the four approaches covered by the course (sociolinguistics, functional grammar, critical language study and ethnography).


Question 7

Both Fairclough and Halliday see their own approaches as addressing issues which are not adequately covered within sociolinguistics. In relation to two or three issues or topics, discuss their work and consider how far it does provide more productive insights.



[END OF QUESTION PAPER]


Part A: part-based questions

Each of the questions in Part A is related to a specific part of E300 (Parts 1–5), and your answer should be mainly based on that part of the course. The questions are designed to test your knowledge and understanding of the various approaches to theorising and re******ing language which are introduced in the course, and your answers should demonstrate familiarity with relevant contents from the Study Guide, readers, set books and audio-cassettes. Good answers will demonstrate your own critical engagement with key ideas and issues in the approach, so that rather than simply reproducing the course content, you use it to support your own points. Questions may be based on a quotation illustrating a central feature of an approach, or a criticism levelled against it. A useful part of course revision would be to identify key quotations for each approach which encapsulate its distinguishing features, and plan how you could draw on course materials to discuss each quotation in an examination answer. It would also be useful to list the main criticisms of each approach, and plan how you would discuss and evaluate these in an answer.


Part B: data-based questions

The questions in Part B each consist of a data extract, which you are asked to analyse and discuss, using one of the approaches introduced by the course. Some questions may also ask you to discuss some related issues in more general terms (for example, the second part of Question 5 in the Specimen Paper ‘How may writing practices in school differ from those in children’s home communities?’). In these cases, you should aim to divide your time equally between each part of the question, using the data as a central reference point wherever possible.

This part of the paper aims to test your ability to apply one of the approaches introduced in the course to an actual piece of data. You may have had practice doing this in your tutor marked assignments. In revising the course, you should make sure that you are prepared to apply at least two approaches to various kinds of data. Exercises in the set books provide useful practice in this, and data extracts from the course materials may be used as the basis for questions in this part of the examination (for example, Question 6 in the Specimen Paper).

Questions in this part of the examination will be graded according to how well you have demonstrated the application of ideas from the course to the analysis of the data, and how you can draw on appropriate approaches to achieve analytic insights. Questions will be orientated mainly towards a particular approach to re****** and analysis, but you may also draw on other parts of the course where this can be justified.


Part C: questions drawing on more than one part of the course

In this part of the paper, the questions are designed to test your ability to argue and evaluate particular ideas and issues in the course, using material from at least two parts. There will always be one question asking you to use your project work as a way of critically discussing issues in the course (Question 7 in the Specimen Paper), and other questions may include discussion of a theme appearing across the course (for example, Question 8 in the Specimen Paper), or a comparison of different approaches (Question 9 in the Specimen Paper). An alternative question could include a quotation or question about language which you are asked to evaluate in relation to different approaches in the course. Remember that whichever question you choose to answer, including the project question, you must relate your answer to at least two parts of the course. Your answer will be graded according to how well you can integrate material from across the course in a well reasoned argument or evaluation. A useful part of revision work would be to carry out Activity 16 on page 126 of the Study Guide, noting how course themes are treated in each of Parts 1–5 of the course, and reviewing the key questions for each Part. Activity 16 also suggests you note the terms introduced in each approach, and how these illustrate different theoretical positions.


Notes on Part A questions

Question 1

There is relevant material throughout Holmes’s book on sociolinguistics, particularly Chapters 6, 7, 8 and 12. Readings 13 and 14 also comment on different patterns in conversations between men and women.

You could begin your answer by identifying some of the linguistic features that have been linked to gender or social class. You could discuss aspects of pronunciation, variations between standard grammar and more vernacular forms, and women’s and men’s conversational strategies. How true is it to say that gender and social class variations are similar? Are there features that differ independently? Your answer should show that you are aware of the various features that have been described and examples of studies examining these variations would be useful. Alternative explanations such as age and ethnicity could also be mentioned briefly. In the final chapters of her book, Holmes moves the discussion towards the issues of gender, social class and power or status. The explanations of the different conversational strategies applied by men and women as demonstrated in Readings 13 and 14 are also relevant. The commentary on these readings in your Study Guide may also be useful.

Question 2

This question is in two parts, and you should divide your answer equally between them, first explaining the main features of Critical Language Study (CLS), and then discussing its strengths and limitations as an approach to theorising and re******ing language.

The main features of CLS are introduced in Chapter 1 of the set book by Norman Fairclough and also discussed throughout pages 53–69 in the Study Guide. CLS focuses centrally on the relationship between language and power, and on the working of power through ideology. On page 5 of the set book Fairclough explains why it is ‘critical’, and you should also explain how Fairclough uses concepts like ‘discourse’ (drawing on Foucault), ‘positioning’ and ‘members’ resources’ to develop a theory of language as an ideological social process. You may find it useful, as Fairclough does, to clarify the main features of CLS through contrasting it with other approaches, for example, sociolinguistics or conversation analysis. A particularly distinguishing feature Fairclough claims for CLS is its aim to contribute to struggles for social emancipation.

In the second part of the answer, you should discuss what you see as the main strengths of CLS, drawing on your own assessments of Fairclough’s arguments, and your own experience of other approaches introduced in the course. Critiques of CLS are discussed in the Study Guide pages 69–71, and in the article by Michael Stubbs reprinted as Appendix 1 to the Study Guide. You should review these, and give your own assessment of their validity.




Notes on Part B questions

Question 3

Reading 16 by Halliday is a good starting point for this question. In addition, the de******ion of elements of systemic functional linguistic analysis given in the Study Guide is also very useful. Chapters 4 and 6 in Bloor and Bloor, ‘Information Structure and Thematic Structure’ and ‘Process and Participant’, together with Chapter 11 on the ‘Applications of Functional Analysis’ are also relevant.

This question asks you to apply your knowledge of language analysis based on functional grammar to two texts. You need to show that you understand the systemic functional approach to language and that you can apply it to illustrate the differences between extracts (a) and (b).

In Reading 16, Halliday identified differences between texts that are typically spoken and those that are typically written. Both the texts you are asked to analyse here are written. However, they display different features some of which are more often associated with written or spoken texts. To analyse these features you might use the notions of grammatical intricacy and lexical density. You would need to explain the differences between the notions in general and then discuss what they can tell us about these two texts. The concept of grammatical ****phor is also useful in talking about the types of language chosen in each (e.g. the use of nominalisations such as solemnity, experience, and battle in extract (b)). In addition, you could contrast the types of themes used by each pupil. The use of people in theme position in extract (a) creates a different perspective from that of the setting which is the focus of the themes in extract (b).



Question 4

In your answer to Question 6, you should first analyse the tran****** to explain how power is exercised and resisted, and then discuss how the various layers of context influence the ways in which language is used and interpreted.

Fairclough discusses this tran****** on pages 57–8 of the set book Language and Power, identifying some of the ways in which the headmaster exercises power through, for instance, asking most of the questions and controlling the main area of discussion. Questions 1, 3 and 7, where the head asks the student to account for his behaviour, are premised on the unequal discoursal rights within the encounter. Fairclough analyses in detail on pages 57–8 how the youth exercises more control over the conversation than one might expect; you may be able to add more points of your own.

In the second part of your answer, you should develop the discussion Fairclough begins on page 58 of the set book, about different ways of interpreting this extract at the situational, institutional and societal level. It would be useful briefly to explain the concept of ‘members’ resources’, and how these are involved in the production and interpretation of text (see pp. 20–1 in the set book and pp. 54–5 in the Study Guide), in relation to the tran****** example.


Notes on Part C questions

Question 5

Your answer to this question should explain how the approaches you have chosen deal with the relationship of language to context (a key issue in any social theory of language), draw out useful points of comparison and contrast between approaches, and make some critical comments of your own, in relation to your experience of the course. For instance, are important issues omitted in particular approaches? How convincing do you find their account of the relationship? How successfully can the explanation in a particular approach be applied to the analysis of data? Make sure that you back up any points you make with evidence from the course.

You may want to focus on comparing two approaches, or range more widely across the course. Holmes discusses the relationship of language use to context most directly in Chapters 1 and 10 of the set book An Introduction to Sociolinguistics , and there are also relevant points throughout the book. You should identify the way sociolinguistics constructs this relationship: for instance, in terms of relative degrees of formality, or domains of language use (Chapter 2 of Holmes). Halliday’s views about the grammatical encoding of context within language are first introduced on page 31 of the Study Guide and in Reading 17, and Fairclough’s use of broader social theory to provide a more political account of context is indicated on pages 53–4 of the Study Guide. The anthropological approaches in Part 4 emphasise the importance of cultural aspects of context, and how these are implicated in the ways people use and interpret language.


Question 6

To answer this question successfully, you need to choose two or three of the issues or topics covered by E300, for example, language and social context, language and relationships, language and power and then to give a detailed account of how they are discussed within a functional grammatical framework and a critical language studies approach. You can then consider how far and how effectively the ideas of Halliday and Fairclough go beyond sociolinguistic de******ion. In a good essay the evaluations should be supported by examples from the course relating to the different approaches. It is not enough simply to disagree with an approach. You need to make a case to explain why you think it is poor, or conversely why you think an approach is particularly useful.

In answering this question you will find useful material in Parts 1, 2 and 3 of the Study Guide, though the focus is more on the work of Halliday and Fairclough than on sociolinguistics. Of particular relevance is the introductory section of ‘Language as social semiotic’, Reading 17 by Halliday, and Chapter 1 of Fairclough’s book. Both of these specifically set out criticisms of sociolinguistics and, in particular, its emphasis on de******ion rather thanexplanation. In the Study Guide, pages 53–4 deal with applications of Halliday’s work and criticisms of it. There is also a comparison between Halliday’s concerns and those of the sociolinguist. There is a critique of CLS on pages 69–71 and the article by Stubbs in Appendix 1 of the Study Guide is also relevant.

























eternity غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 15-01-2012, 09:44 PM   #5
eternity eternity غير متصل
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الصورة الرمزية eternity
افتراضي رد: نماذج فاينال E300a


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قديم 16-01-2012, 03:51 PM   #6
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افتراضي رد: نماذج فاينال E300a


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love & stability غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
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افتراضي رد: نماذج فاينال E300a


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قديم 18-01-2012, 09:37 PM   #8
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افتراضي رد: نماذج فاينال E300a


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