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قديم 08-11-2012, 03:06 PM   #15
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افتراضي رد: EL120 Mid Term Discussion


على ما اعتقد الوحدات من الاولى للخامسه
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قديم 08-11-2012, 04:52 PM   #16
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افتراضي رد: EL120 Mid Term Discussion


اللي سمعته انه من الوحده الاولى للسادسه
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قديم 08-11-2012, 05:14 PM   #17
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افتراضي رد: EL120 Mid Term Discussion


ممكن حد يساعدني فهالاسئله هاي ويجيب لي ايجابات مبسطه


1.what is the difference between letters and soun d ?

2.in what ways are languages different?

.in what ways are languages similar .3

4.languages may have similar phonetics but different phonologies.discuss

5.The relation between english letters and sounds is/isnt a ,,one to one representtation,, discuss..with examble

6.one English letter consonant may be pronounced differently and one sound may be represented difrently in spelling.Discuss wite examples

7.what is the vocal tract in human beinge?

8.what is the difference between nasal sounds and oral sounds?

بلــــــــــــــــــــــــــيز ابا الرد ضرووووري
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قديم 08-11-2012, 05:24 PM   #18
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افتراضي رد: المشآركات المهمه في موآضيع ( المذآكره الجمآعيه - لـ امرؤالقيس ) .. ممنوع الرد


ممكن حد يساعدني فهالاسئله هاي ويجيب لي ايجابات مبسطه


1.what is the difference between letters and soun d ?

2.in what ways are languages different?

.in what ways are languages similar .3

4.languages may have similar phonetics but different phonologies.discuss

5.The relation between english letters and sounds is/isnt a ,,one to one representtation,, discuss..with examble

6.one English letter consonant may be pronounced differently and one sound may be represented difrently in spelling.Discuss wite examples

7.what is the vocal tract in human beinge?

8.what is the difference between nasal sounds and oral sounds?

بلــــــــــــــــــــــــــيز ابا الرد ضرووووري
همس الشفاه غير متصل  
قديم 08-11-2012, 09:24 PM   #19
^lilly^ ^lilly^ غير متصل
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الصورة الرمزية ^lilly^

 











افتراضي رد: المشآركات المهمه في موآضيع ( المذآكره الجمآعيه - لـ امرؤالقيس ) .. ممنوع الرد


^
من وين جايبه الاسئله هذي؟
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قديم 12-11-2012, 03:32 AM   #20
treerose treerose غير متصل
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معلومة EL120 Mid Term Discussion


آخر موعد لتسليم ال tma هو 12/12/2012 والداخل في الإمتحان 6 أجزاء فقط يعني حتى صفحة
72
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قديم 20-11-2012, 09:10 PM   #21
^lilly^ ^lilly^ غير متصل
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الصورة الرمزية ^lilly^

 











افتراضي رد: EL120 Mid Term Discussion


هذي تعاريف و اسئله اتكررت في اختبارات سابقه

Morphemes: smallest unit of sounds, combine together to produce words
Class + room= classroom.

Linguistics: Linguistics is the scientific study of language. Language means either human language or specific language.

Minimal pairs: uses a pair of words that differ only in a single sound. Ex: lit , let


Morphology: a de******ion of the internal structures of words and their derivations.
Ex:un+kind+ness=unkindness

Syntax: study of how words combine to form acceptable and grammatical sentences.


Phonology: the study and identification of significant sounds
(m + a + n = man).

Diphthongs: a complex vowel sound which changes its quality within a single syllable.

Prosody: is the name of speech elements of stress, rhythm, and intonation.

Phonemes: Are meaningful sound, if one is used instead of the other in a word its meaning will change.

Allophones: the varieties of a phoneme. They do not change the meaning of a word if one is used instead of the other.

Discourse: the study of units beyond the sentence boundary.

Diphthong: complex vowel sound which changes quality within a single syllable.
Example: eye

Vowel sounds:
Vowel sounds have certain characteristics. These are:
1. Vowel sounds are voiced.
2. A vowel occupies the nucleus of a syllable.
3. In the production of vowels there is no complete closure. and no narrowing close enough to cause friction. Also there are only 5 vowels.

Describe the various classes of manner of articulation . with examples

Consonants: Manner of Articulation
There are 24 English consonant sounds which are divided into seven classes according to the manner of Articulation:
1. Stop/Plosive [ 6 sounds ]
2. Fricative [ 9 sounds ]
3. Affricate [ 2 sounds ]
4. Nasal [ 3 sounds ]
5. Approximant [ or glide ] [ 2 sounds ]
6. Lateral approximant [ 1 sound ]
7. Trill [ 1 sound ]

With examples
1. Stop / Plosive [ 6 sounds ]
Stops or plosive sounds are produced when the air stream is completely stopped at certain points in the vocal tract.

E.g. in the production of the sounds /p/ and /b/, the two articulators [ i.e. the upper lip and the lower lip ] are completely closed for a moment, then after air pressure builds up, the airstream is released causing some sort of explosion.

2. Fricative [ 9 sounds ]
no complete closure of the air passage.

E.g. when you rub your hands together, you can hear the friction e.g. /f/ and /v/.

3. Affricate [ 2 sounds ]
sound there is first a total closure (obstruction) of the airstream and then it is allowed to pass a narrow passage.
There are two affricate consonants in English.
• /t∫/ as in the first and last sounds in the word church /t ∫ 3 : t ∫ /, and
• /d3/ as in the first and last sounds in the word judge /d 3 ^d3/
4. Nasal
when the soft palate is lowered the airstream flows out through the nose.

There are three nasal consonants in English:
• /m/ as in the first and final sound in the word mum
• /n/ as in the first and final sound in the word nine
• /∩/ as in the final sound in the word sing
5. Approximant
In the production of (j and w) as in yesterday and water, the active articulator moves close towards the passive articulator without a point of contact.

There are two approximant sounds in English:
• /j/ as in the first sound in the word yesterday
• /w/ as in the first sound in the word water

6. Lateral
relates to the sides of the tongue and the air flows through the 2 sides of the tongue

7. Trill
it consists of a series of rapid closures between two articulators.

Consonants: Place of Articulation

Consonants are described according to two parameters:
1) Manner of Articulation
2) Place of Articulation
A place of articulation refers to the point at which the two articulators meet or come close to each other
This is a list of the major points at which articulators meet or come close to each other. This is a list of the major points at which articulators meet to produce English consonants.

1. Bilabial [ the two lips ]
The two articulators that take part in producing bilabial sounds are the two lips. e.g. /p/; /b/; /m/

2. Labiodental [ lip and teeth ]
The active articulator is the lower lip and the passive articulator is the upper front teeth. Labiodental sounds in English are /f/ and /v/.

3. Labial – velar [ Labio –Velar ]
In the production of labio – velar sounds, there are simultaneous structures at the lips and between the back of the tongue and the soft palate. The sound /w/ is labio – velar.

4. Dental
The active articulator is the tongue tip and the passive articulator is the upper front teeth. Dental English sounds are: /o/ [ the first sound in thick ] and [ the first sound in that ].

5. Alveolar
The active articulator is the tip or blade of the tongue and the passive articulator is the alveolar ridge. Alveolar sounds in English are: /t/; /d/; /n/; /s/; /z/; /l/; /r/.

6. Post – alveolar
The active articulator is the blade of the tongue, and passive articulator is the back part of the alveolar ridge. Post – alveolar sounds in English are: /∫/ and /3/. Post – alveolar consonants are sometimes classed as Palato – alveolar.

7. Palatal:
The active articulator is the front of the tongue and the passive articulator is the hard palate. The sound /j/ as in the first sound in the word yesterday is a palate consonant.

8. Velar
The active articulator is the back of the tongue and the passive articulator is the soft palate. The velar sounds in English : /k/; /g/; /n/.

9. Glottal
The articulators that take part in producing glottal sounds are the vocal cords. The sound /h/ is an example of a glottal sound.

Received Pronunciation [RP]
Received pronunciation refers to an accent of British English. RP has been thought to be a high prestige accent, though less so in recent times. It is the accent which is most frequently used as a model for teaching English as a second or foreign language.

What is Phonetics?
Phonetics: the study of production of sounds

Fundamental branch of linguistics, is the study of the sounds made by the human voice in speech. Phonetics has three main branches/divisions.

1) Articulatory Phonetics: describes how speech sounds are produced or articulated in various parts of the mouth and throat.
2) Acoustic Phonetics : investigates how speech sounds ate transmitted as vibrations in the air.
3) Auditory Phonetics: study of how speech sounds are perceived or received by the hearer.


Vocal tract
Vocal tract: the cavities in the head and neck associated with the production of speech. These are :
 The oral cavity,
 The nasal cavity and
 The pharynx.
Organs of speech: muscles and organs that take part in producing sounds.

Describe the main organs of speech responsible for producing sound.

1. The windpipe:
It is the tube which carries out air from lungs to the larynx and the vocal tract. In breathing it carries the air that has been breathed in from the upper end of the throat to the lungs.

2. The Larynx :
The larynx is known as Adam’s apple. or “voice box” it is box- like organ that is placed at the top of the wind pipe. The chief importance the larynx in speech is that it contains the vocal cords.

3. Vocal Cords :
They are a pair of folds (muscles) placed inside Adam’s apple.
Their edges move quickly backwards and forwards and produce sound when air from the lungs moves over them. Sounds produced when the vocal cords are vibrating are so-called voiced sounds, as opposed to those in which the vocal cords are apart, Which are said to be unvoiced or voiceless sounds.

4. The Pharynx :
The pharynx is soft part at the top of the throat which connects the mouth and nose to the larynx.

5. Oral Cavity (mouth) :
The mouth contains the following organs that play an important role in modifying the passage of the air flow coming from lungs.
(a) The Tongue
(b) Roof of the mouth
(c) The Lips

6. The Nasal Cavity :
The nasal cavity extends from the upper part of the Pharynx to the nostrils (nose openings). When the velum (soft Palate) is lowered, the air stream can pass through the nose producing nasal sounds like /m/ and /n/.


Using a tree diagram give a representation of each of these sentences.

Students may use abbreviations rather than the full phrase, e.g. they may write Cl instead of Clause.

1. The boys will wash the dishes and the girls will clean the rooms.
The boys will wash the dishes = Clause 1
The boys = Noun phrase
The = determiner
Boys= Noun
Will wash = verb phrase
Will = auxiliary
Wash = verb
And= conjunction
The girls will clean the rooms =clause 2
The girls =noun phrase
The =determiner
Girls =noun
Will clean = verb phrase
The rooms = noun phrase
The =determiner
Rooms= noun

2. I saw a mouse running across the sitting room.

I = pronoun
Saw = verb
A mouse = noun phrase
A =indefinite article
Mouse= noun
Running=gerund
Across = a preposition
The sitting room = a noun phrase
The = determiner
Sitting room = noun phrase
Sitting = adjective
Room = noun

talked about the tree diagram for these sentences:

1- The teacher will talk and the students will write..
2- John saw the big frog

صح وخطا

all vowel are voiceless f
sounds are influenced by surrounding sounds (t)
linking r link consonants (f)
assimilation is a puff of air (f)
minimal pairs are used to discover the phonemes language
a syllable may consist of one vowel(f)

طبعاً اذا في احد عنده شي يزيده يتفضل هذا اذا في احد موجود في القسم غيري
باقي اسئلة التمارين كم يوم و انزلهم ان شاء الله

بالتوفيق
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قديم 21-11-2012, 07:29 PM   #22
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الصورة الرمزية Ashwaq S

 











افتراضي رد: EL120 Mid Term Discussion


Thank you Lilly
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قديم 25-11-2012, 02:27 AM   #23
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الصورة الرمزية ^lilly^

 











افتراضي رد: EL120 Mid Term Discussion


بالنسبه لتعريف الـ Interdental sounds
هو نفسه dental sound

و بالنسبه لتعريف الـ Active articulator
دورت و مالقيت له تعريف واضح بس اللي لقيته في الكتاب صفحه 35
it is the active member that moves towards the passive one
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قديم 25-11-2012, 06:05 AM   #24
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الصورة الرمزية ^lilly^

 











افتراضي رد: EL120 Mid Term Discussion


التمارين

و الله مدري وش اذاكر بس في الاختبارت السابقه كان التركيز على جدول صفحه 43 - 44
يجيب لك الحرف و انت تكمل الباقي

و كمان يجيبوا كلمات و يطلبوا كتابتها بطريقة الـ phonetic
اتوقع مثل اللي بصفحة 46 او 31

و كمان الجدول اللي بصفحه 2

اللي عنده شي يضيفه يتفضل
اكلم نفسي انا مافي احد غيري
ترى انا الحين اساعد لأني محتاجه احد يساعدني باللهي لا تجحدوا
ترى الدنيا دواره و عشان تنجح بالجامعه هذي لازم تنسى شي اسمه نفسي نفسي

بالاضافه الى انه في سؤالين احتمال يجوا و ما عرفت كيف ادرسهم
لأن اللي نزل الاسئله ما وضح المطلوب

السؤال الاول كان عن linguistic scientifics

او تكلم عن there is no one to one correspondence between letters and sounds

لا تخلوني اندم على اني سئلتكم
ما ابردكم يا اللهي!!

التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة ^lilly^ ; 25-11-2012 الساعة 06:07 AM
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قديم 25-11-2012, 06:55 PM   #25
^lilly^ ^lilly^ غير متصل
طالب فعال
 
الصورة الرمزية ^lilly^

 











افتراضي رد: EL120 Mid Term Discussion


طيب بجاوب نفسي xD
بالنسبه للسؤال هذا
تكلم عن there is no one to one correspondence between letters and sounds

اتوقع الجواب صفحه 24 -25
الفقرات الثلاثه

اما السؤال اللي يخص linguistic scientifics
جاري البحث عن اجابه

يعطيني العافيه ما قصرت
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قديم 25-11-2012, 08:44 PM   #26
^lilly^ ^lilly^ غير متصل
طالب فعال
 
الصورة الرمزية ^lilly^

 











افتراضي رد: EL120 Mid Term Discussion


للمساعده في فهم الجداول و طريقة النطق

اقتباس:
المشاركة الأصلية كتبت بواسطة فراشه المنتدى مشاهدة المشاركة
شوفي
اول شي بعطيك ملاحظات بسيطه تتبعيها
1-soundهوالصوووت سوء كان ساكن او عله
2-الصوت يختلف عن حرف الكتابه
مثلاaاحنا نكتبه aبس يوم تجين تقريبنه يكون غير
3-ثالثه شي نلفظ الحرف c اذا جاء وراه هذي الحروف طبعا هذا u2
(y-i-e)وباقي الحروف يلفظ k
مثال عليه
catومثال ثاني كلمه cluer
مثال على حرف y
cycle
شوفي ياقلبي صفحت 23
هذي رموز الصوتيات طبعا احفظيها نفسها مع المثال اللي موجود
هذي ماتتغير الحروووف
عند الاشياء اللي يحتاجله شوي تغير هي
وتركيز بصفحه 24
اخر الجدول من رقم 20الى رقم 24
حرف thينطق ذا الاهو الرمز الاول
والرمز الثاني ينطق ث
عندك رقم 21 عند رمز ng
هي نون الحلقيه تنطق من عند الحلق حاول تنطقين المثال الموجود راح تعرفين ليش سميت حلقيه
عندكك بعد 23 chينطق جــــ
sh ينطق بالعربي ش طبعا لاتنسين تحفظين الرموز حقتها علشان تعرفين شنو المقصود
شوفي الجدول المقابل نفس الشي احفظي sound
لاتنسين تطبقين الحرووف اللي مع بعض تنطق شنو
طبعا latterسهل pa26
لانها فيها الحروف الساكنه اللي هي(u,i,o,e,a)
^lilly^ غير متصل  
قديم 25-11-2012, 08:49 PM   #27
^lilly^ ^lilly^ غير متصل
طالب فعال
 
الصورة الرمزية ^lilly^

 











افتراضي رد: EL120 Mid Term Discussion


و كمان سؤال الصح و الخطأ صفحه 51 و 52
و الحل بصفحه 54
الارقام الفرديه صح odd
و الارقام الزوجيه خطأ even
^lilly^ غير متصل  
قديم 25-11-2012, 11:18 PM   #28
^lilly^ ^lilly^ غير متصل
طالب فعال
 
الصورة الرمزية ^lilly^

 











افتراضي رد: EL120 Mid Term Discussion


linguistic scientific
بتلاقوه بصفحه 10 تعريف و تعداد
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