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قديم 13-01-2013, 08:39 PM   #1
amalriyadh amalriyadh غير متصل
طالب مميز
 
الصورة الرمزية amalriyadh
مميز ملخصاتي لكتاب الماركتنق


مافيه اي تفاعل .. بحاول انزل اول لملخص لي .. اذا فيه تفاعل كملت الباقي والا بوقف

بسم الله وعلى بركة الله

Chapter 1
What marketers do?
Jim Blythe
Course calendar


The development of the marketing concept pp 3-6
• Marketing on a day-to-day basis: the marketing mix pp 9-10
• Definitions of some marketing terms pp 12-13

Marketing is the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion and distribution of ideas, good and services to create exchange and satisfy individual and organizational objectives.
Marketing is the management process which identifies, anticipates and supplies ******er requirement efficiently and profitably.


التسويق علمية تخطيط و تنفيذ مفهوم .. التسعير .. الترويج .. وتوزيع الافكار و البضائع و الخدمات لخلق تبادل وارضاء الافراد وكذلك لاهداف المنظمه
التسويق هو عملية إدارية التي تحدد توقعات واللوازم ومتطلبات العملاء بكفاءة وربحية.


Some Important Marketing Terms
Need: Something which you don’t have and you are aware of it too.
Want/Desire: Something which is not need but just a satisfier.
Demand: Wants become demands when ******er can and willing to pay for something.
Public any organization or individual that influence on the marketing organization. This could include competitors, pressure groups, employees.
Markets. are the actual and potential buyers of the firm's products

The Development of the marketing Concept.

Production Orientation
During the 19th century the ******er would buy anything, provided it was cheap enough, even it was poor quality and don’t fit their needs. On the early twenty first century with rising affluence people start not to accept standardized product therefore manufacture started to provides more specialized products, something fit their needs and much different.

Product orientation
In order to satisfy maximum ******ers in the market, firms started producing comprehensive products with more or better features. This process lead to complex products having features not required by everyone and that can be drawback too.

Sales Orientation
With the increase of supply over demand, means more production and less capacity to be used in market, firms hire smart salesmen, who sell the product even to those who are not in need. This is called personal selling and advertising. This approach leads to needs of buyer rather than the needs of seller because salesmen try to sell the product with the language skills, but in this case buyer will not come back. But modern salesmen try to create a long term relationship with the ******ers to retain them.

Consumer Orientation:
Modern Buyers and sellers both understand the value of money. When company puts the ******er as a centre of all of its activities, focuses on the consumer satisfaction, it will cover all aspects of business from production to sales to after sales.

Societal Marketing:

This Orientation moves the focus of marketers towards the long term effect on society at in large. To Kotler et al, products can be classified according to the immediate satisfaction and long term consumer benefits like vitamins or fruits, called desirable products, then there can be salutary. Products which have only a long term benefit with no immediate satisfaction like Fire alarm, life insurance policy. On the other hand there can be pleasing products with immediate satisfaction but no long term benefit rather it is bad for consumers like Alcohol, cigarettes. Finally, there can be deficient products which are neither good nor satisfying, like slimming products. To re******er, desirable products are beneficial in both the respects but people they tend to choose pleasing products.

هذا التوجه نقل التركيز المسوقين نحو تأثير على المدى الطويل على المجتمع . لكوتلر ، يمكن تصنيف المنتجات وفقا لرضا المستهلك الفورية .. على المدى الفوري مثل الفيتامينات أو الفواكه، تسمى هذه المنتجات المرغوب فيها،المنتجات على المدى الطويل مثل إنذار الحريق،و التأمين على الحياة . من ناحية أخرى يمكن أن يكون هناك ارضاء المنتجات بارتياح فوري ولكن لا فائدة منه على المدى الطويل بل هو سيء بالنسبة للمستهلكين مثل الكحول والسجائر. وأخيرا، يمكن أن يكون هناك نقص المنتجات التي ليس جيده وليس مرضية، مثل منتجات التخسيس. بالنسبة للباحث ,,المنتجات المرغوب فيه هي مفيدة في كل النواحي ولكن الناس يميلون إلى اختيار المنتجات التى تجلب السرور.

Relationship Marketing:
Historically marketers used to work on short term relationship with the ******ers to meet the targets, but the change in all of the economic, political and cultural factors creating more and more competition, modern marketers aim on long term relationship with the clients. The products have become complex too with lots of segments in them. Manufactures conduct lot of re****** of the demand for their product even before it is launched in the market. Here marketers are one of the main sources of feedback for management who have already built up the long term relationship with the ******ersتاريخيا المسوقين استخدامو العمل مع العملاء على علاقة المدى القصير لتحقيق الأهداف ، ولكن التغيير في كل من العوامل الاقتصادية والسياسية والثقافية وخلق المنافسة أكثر وأكثر، المسوقين الحديثين يهدف الى العلاقة ذات المدى الطويل مع العملاء. أصبحت المنتجات معقدة للغاية في الكثير من قطاعات . تصنيع اجراء كثير من البحوث الطلب على منتجاتها حتى قبل إطلاقها في السوق. المسوقين هنا هم احدى المصادر الرئيسية لملاحظات إدارتها و الذين بنوا بالفعل على علاقة طويلة الأمد مع العملاء.

Marketing on a day-to-day basis: Marketing mix
J. McCarthy grouped marketing mix into the four categories that today are known as the 4 P's of marketing, depicted below:

1- product: the product should fit the task the target consumer needs and expectations, quality, quantity, features, brand name, size, warranties, etc. (what color or size should it be?)
2- Place: the product should be available and more convenient for target ******er and easiest to shop, location, transport, channels, deliveries. (Where do buyers look for our product or services?)
3- Promotions: advertising, public relations, sales promotions, personal selling and all other communications tools should put a cross the organization's message in a way to fit ******ers' needs. (When is the best time to promote?)
4- Price: product should be seen as representing good value for money. This does not mean the price should be cheap. ******ers are prepared to pay a little more for something really worth it. Price, discounts, credits (how will your prices comparing to other competitors?)

With increasing in service provision the model does not provide full enough picture. Therefore Booms and Bitner proposed 7 Ps
5- People: all services are reliant on people to perform them. As an example a waiter in restaurant is a part of the service that the restaurant is providing to ******ers as well as a part of what consumer is buying.
6- Process: since the service are usually carried out with the consumer present, the service is delivered is, again a part of what consumer is paying for. There are differences in services between silver-service meal in a restaurant which is slower process and beef burger from fast food outlet which is fast process.
7- Physical Evidence: almost services contain physical elements. For example a restaurant meal is physical thing. Intangible element in restaurant is meal bill.
Marketing mix is like recipes that each ingredient must be added in the right quantities at the right time to achieve consumer satisfactions.


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amalriyadh غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
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