|04-01-2017, 09:04 PM||#3|
رد: اسئلة اختبار الفاينل الفصل الدراسي الثاني 2014/2015
Communities of practice:
• The concept of communities of practice has been set out by Etienne Wenger. It looks for at the concepts of community and practice and their interactions. The idea of a community of practice depends on the concepts embedded in each of these terms.
• A community of practice: is a group of people who share a common understanding of their roles, talk about their work and their roles, and for whom shared knowledge and coordinated action is taken for granted between them.
• Wenger gives a simple definition: “communities of practice are groups of people who share a concern or a passion for something they do and learn how to do it better as they interact regularly.”
• The community: Not everything called a community is a community of practice. A neighborhood for instance, is often called a community, but is usually not a community of practice.
A website in itself is not a community of practice. Having the same job or the same title does not make for a community of practice unless members interact and learn together.
• The practice: A community of practice is not only a community of interest - people who like certain kinds of movies, for instance. Members of a community of practice are practitioners. They develop a shared repertoire of resources: experiences, stories, tools, ways of addressing recurring problems—in short a shared practice.
• Wenger characterize a community of practice as holding in common:
1. Mutual engagement. المشاركة المتبادلة
2. Joint enterprise. المشاريع والأهداف المشتركة
3. Shared repertoire. المراجع المشتركة
1. Mutual engagement: refers to the amount and pattern of interaction among the members of the community. Through their interactions, they shape the group's culture and it's practices.
Practice does not exist in the abstract. It exists because people are engaged in actions whose meanings they create & negotiate with each other.
Practice does not reside in books, tools or forms, though it may involve all these kinds of artifacts.
Practice resides in a community of people and the relations of mutual engagement by which they can do whatever they do. The community itself cannot be taken for granted. It is maintained of social exchange, by members who participate in the community in both formal and informal ways. The community is thus sustained by a network of relationships which is both diverse and complex.
Three important aspects of mutual engagement are:
• Enabling elements: e.g., Roberta's *******
• Diversity: complementarity and distributed cognition
• Multiplicity: joined by a variety of ties, including conflict
For example: newcomer in the office would not initially be a member of that office’s community of practice. They would be inducted into it by, for example, joining the coffee club, going for a party after work on Friday, and signing the birthday cards which circulate.
2. Joint Enterprise: refers to the common purpose that binds the people together and provides a unifying goal and coherence for their actions. It is the result of a collective process of negotiation that reflects the full complexity of mutual engagement.
Three important aspects to attend to:
• Negotiated goals: Sometimes this joint enterprise involves elements that are not exactly what management intends. The group develops a conception of their joint goals through mutual engagement.
• Indigenous purpose: In part the goals of the group are determined by the larger structure in which they are embedded. But the group itself creates its own identity, goals, enterprise. It is their negotiated response to their situation.
• Mutual accountability: The joint enterprise is not like McDonald's mission statement which is tacked on the wall and completely ignored. Because it is indigenous, and it is constructed by mutual negotiation, it creates a regime of mutual accountability. People are responsible to each other for sharing information & making each other's lives easier, and they enforce this themselves when it really is a community of practice.
3. Shared Repertoire: refers to the continual development and maintenance of a shared repertoire of procedures, techniques, shortcuts, jargon, tools, forms, symbols, mental categories, actions, concepts, etc. This is the most obvious outcome of a community of practice. The repertoire combines both reificative and participative aspects. It includes the discourse by which members create meaningful statements about the world, as well as the styles by which they express their forms of membership and their identities as members.
Three aspects of shared repertoire are worth noting:
• Shared history: Because the repertoire is built up and shaped over time by the participants themselves, they are part of their shared history and give a sense of identity and belongingness
• Richness: The shared repertoire provides a language for communicating meaning. The larger the repertoire, the easier to express meanings because there is more to work with.
• Ambiguity: How elements of the repertoire are viewed and used is always up for interpretation. For example, chairs can be viewed as just what you sit on, or as symbols of how management views the claims processing unit.
Wenger draws attention to the 'reificative and participative' aspects of the shared repertoire. If Open University students have a shared repertoire, its reificative aspects might include, TMAs, course materials, and other physical objects that represent common elements. The participative aspects are those shared events that have familiar routines associated with them. Neither mutual engagement, joint enterprise, nor shared repertoire need be explicitly stated or discussed. Nor need community of practice imply harmony and collaboration. A community of practice may be confining to individuals but many practices nonetheless take their meaning from the processes of participation.
|مواقع النشر (المفضلة)|
|انواع عرض الموضوع|