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قديم 08-03-2011, 02:04 AM   #1
فراشه المنتدى فراشه المنتدى غير متصل
مشرف سابق
 
الصورة الرمزية فراشه المنتدى
summary 4


Definition of Empire

Empire is a major political unit having a an extensive territory or enterprise under a single sovereign authority (single domination or control); especially one having an emperor as chief of state.
The term “Empire”, in this course, refers to the British Empire (1497 – 1997). At its peak, the British Empire was the largest formal empire that the world had ever known. As such, its power and influence stretched all over the globe; shaping it in all manner of ways.
الإمبراطورية هي وحدة سياسية كبرى وجود أراضي واسعة أو منشأة تحت سلطة واحدة ذات سيادة (هيمنة أو سيطرة واحدة)، خصوصا بعد واحد امبراطور كرئيس للدولة.
مصطلح "الإمبراطورية"، وهذا بطبيعة الحال ، يشير إلى الإمبراطورية البريطانية (1497-1997). في ذروتها ، وكانت الامبراطورية البريطانية أكبر امبراطورية الرسمية التي عرفها العالم. على هذا النحو ، من سلطة ونفوذ امتد في جميع أنحاء العالم؛ تشكيلها في كل طريقة من الطرق.

Effect of the British Empire

History of the British Empire includes the triumphs, the humiliations, the good that it brought, and the bad that it inflicted. For better or worse, the British Empire had a massive (huge) impact on the history, the politics, the economy, the arts, and the culture of the world.
تأثير الإمبراطورية البريطانية
تاريخ الإمبراطورية البريطانية يتضمن الانتصارات، والإذلال، والخير الذي جلبته، والسيئة التي التي ألحقتها. للأفضل أو أسوأ من ذلك ، كان للامبراطورية البريطانية الضخمة (ضخمة) تأثير على التاريخ ، والسياسة ، والاقتصاد، والفنون ، وثقافة العالم.Definition of Colonialism
The British Empire covered many territories or colonies around the five inhabited continents: Africa, America, Asia, Australia, and Europe.
British Colonies were basically units of overseas territory controlled by the British Government , organizations, or even individuals coming from Britain on behalf of the British government and representing the Crown.
تعريف الاستعمار

وشملت الإمبراطورية البريطانية العديد من المناطق أو المستعمرات في جميع أنحاء القارات الخمس المأهولة : أفريقيا وأمريكا وآسيا وأستراليا وأوروبا.
وكانت المستعمرات البريطانية أساسا وحدات من الأراضي في الخارج تسيطر عليها المنظمات الحكومة البريطانية، أو حتى الأفراد القادمين من بريطانيا نيابة عن الحكومة البريطانية ويمثل التاج.

Definition of Imperialism

Imperialism is the policy of forcefully extending a nation’s authority by territorial gain or by the establishment of historical, cultural, economic, and political dominance over other underdeveloped areas or weaker countries.
تعريف الإمبريالية
الامبريالية هي سياسة توسيع بقوة سلطة الدولة من خلال الحصول على الأراضي أو عن طريق إنشاء الهيمنة التاريخية والثقافية والاقتصادية والسياسية أكثر من غيرها من المناطق المتخلفة أو البلدان الضعيفة.Relation between Imperialism and Literature Within the changes around the world, literature has also been affected by the use of the English Language.
العلاقة بين الامبريالية والأدب

ضمن التغييرات في جميع أنحاء العالم، كما تم الأدب المتضررين من استخدام اللغة الإنجليزية.

Definition of “Orientalism”

The Orient signifies a system of representations framed by political forces that brought the Orient into Western learning, Western consciousness, and Western empire. The Orient exists for the West, and it is constructed by and in relation to the West.
It is a mirror image of what is inferior and alien ‘Other’ to the West. Orientalism is “a manner of regularized (or Orientalized) writing, vision, and study, dominated by imperatives, perspectives, and ideological biases suited to the Orient.” It is the image of the ‘Orient’ expressed as an entire system of thought and scholarship
.
تعريف "الاستشراق "

المشرق يدل على نظام التمثيل تحكمه القوى السياسية التي جلبت المشرق في التعلم الغربية، الوعي الغربي، والامبراطورية الغربية. المشرق موجود بالنسبة للغرب، والتي شيدت من قبل وبالنسبة إلى الغرب.
هو صورة مرآة لما هو أقل شأنا والغريبة 'أخرى' إلى الغرب. الاستشراق هو "طريقة نظامية (أو Orientalized) الكتابة، والرؤية ، والدراسة ، التي تهيمن عليها الضرورات، وجهات النظر، والتحيزات الايديولوجية تناسب المشرق."انها صورة 'المشرق' كما عبر عنها نظام كامل من الفكر و منحة دراسية.
Edward Said’s Three Meanings of “Orientalism”
1st meaning describes the academic study of the Orient
2nd meaning describes the imaginative conception of the Orient
3rd meaning describes the historical and material conception of the Orient (most important meaning for Said)
إدوارد سعيد في ثلاثة معان من "الاستشراق"
  1 معنى يصف الدراسة الأكاديمية من الشرق
  معنى 2 يصف مفهوم الخيال المشرق
3   معنى يصف المفهوم التاريخي والمادي للالمشرق (أهم معنى لسعيد

Edward Said is best known for his examination of representations of the Orient in European literature representations, where he argues the legitimated colonial rule. While he takes a critical view of Orientalist representations, at the same time, he identifies himself as a scholar in the tradition of humanism.
For Arab students, Said’s work gave them a new glimpse to understand their own cultures and their relationship to the West. When an author talks about the Orient, he has to write in the language, the dictionary known by his audience. To make them understand the Orient, the author is forced to write in their way of understanding. ومن المعروف ادوارد سعيد عن دراسته لتمثيل الشرق في تمثيل الأدب الأوروبي ، حيث يجادل الحكم الاستعماري شرعيتها. في حين انه يأخذ وجهة نظر تنتقد تمثيلات المستشرقين، وفي الوقت نفسه، وقال انه يعرف نفسه بأنه باحث في تقليد الإنسانية.
للطلاب العرب، وقدم لهم العمل سعيد لمحة جديدة لفهم الثقافات الخاصة وعلاقتها مع الغرب. عندما يتحدث المؤلف عن المشرق ، وعليه أن يكتب في اللغة، القاموس معروفة من قبل جمهوره. لجعلهم يفهمون المشرق ، ويضطر الكاتب إلى الكتابة في طريقهم من التفاهم.
A passage to India novel :
A “Passage to India” by E. M. Forster is a novel on colonial rule, and crucial differences between the natives of India and British are revealed. The novel is a relationship between colonized and the colonizer, which discusses the modern problem of clash between cultures, and it is a discourse on the cultural differences between two nations.The novel is a relationship between colonized and the colonizer, which discusses the modern problem of clash between cultures, and it is a discourse on the cultural differences between two nations.
In ‘A Passage to India’, the story of Miss Adela’s false accusation against the Indian doctor, Dr. Aziz, that he attempted to rape her on an expedition to the Marabar Caves, becomes symbolic of understanding and misinterpretation that can occur between cultures. It is also symbolic of the injustice that occurs when one people holds power over another.
“A Passage to India” is a discourse on the understandable existence of man, where it reveals the questions about man’s existence, which is the feature of 20th century literature. Although there was some sympathy for the Indian cause, most British people, at the time, would have supported the British presence in India. On a more symbolic level, the novel also addresses questions of faith (both religious faith and faith in social conventions). In the course of the novel, Dr. Aziz is accused of attempting to rape a young Englishwoman. Aziz’s friend Mr. Fielding, a British teacher, helps to defend Aziz.
Although the charges against Aziz are dropped during his trial, the gulf between the British and native Indians grows wider than ever, and the novel ends on an ambiguous note. When ‘A Passage to India’ appeared in 1924, it was praised by reviewers in a number of important British and American literary journals. Despite some criticism that Forster had depicted the British unfairly, the book was popular with readers in both Britain and the United States.
"ممر الى الهند" لفورستر م هي رواية عن الحكم الاستعماري ، ويتم الكشف عن الفروق الجوهرية بين السكان الأصليين من الهند وبريطانيا. الرواية هي العلاقة بين المستعمر والمستعمر ، الذي يناقش مشكلة الحديثة من الصدام بين الثقافات ، وأنه هو الحديث عن الاختلافات الثقافية بين رواية nations.The اثنين هي العلاقة بين المستعمر والمستعمر ، والذي يناقش مشكلة الحديثة الصدام بين الثقافات ، وأنه هو الحديث عن الاختلافات الثقافية بين البلدين.
في 'عبور إلى الهند ، قصة اتهام ملكة جمال عديلة وكاذبة ضد الطبيب الهندي ، الدكتور عزيز ، أنه حاول اغتصابها في رحلة استكشافية إلى كهوف Marabar ، ويصبح رمزا للتفاهم والتي يمكن أن يحدث سوء فهم بين الثقافات. بل هو أيضا رمزا للظلم الذي يحدث عند شخص واحد يحمل سلطة على أخرى.
"عبور إلى الهند" هو الحديث عن وجود مفهوم للإنسان ، حيث يكشف عن أسئلة حول وجود الرجل ، الذي هو سمة من سمات الأدب القرن 20. وإن كان هناك بعض التعاطف مع قضية الهندي ، إن أغلب الشعب البريطاني ، في ذلك الوقت ، لكان قد أيد الوجود البريطاني في الهند. على مستوى أكثر رمزية ، الرواية يتناول أيضا مسائل الايمان (كلا الإيمان الديني والإيمان في التقاليد الاجتماعية). في سياق الرواية ، واتهم الدكتور عزيز من محاولة اغتصاب فتاة انجليزية. صديق عزيز السيد فيلدينغ ، وهو مدرس بريطاني ، ويساعد على الدفاع عن عزيز.
وعلى الرغم من إسقاط التهم الموجهة إلى عزيز خلال محاكمته ، فإن الهوة بين البريطانيين والهنود الأصلية ينمو على نطاق أوسع من أي وقت مضى ، وتنتهي الرواية على مذكرة غامضة. وعندما 'عبور إلى الهند ظهرت في 1924 ، فقد أشاد بها من قبل المقيمين في عدد من المجلات الأدبية الهامة البريطانية والأمريكية. على الرغم من بعض الانتقادات التي فورستر قد صورت البريطانية ظلما ، وكان الكتاب شعبية مع القراء في كل من بريطانيا والولايات المتحدة.




Mrs. Moore is an Englishwoman who is a central figure in the book. She is the most sensitive and reflective of the English characters. An elderly widow, she is the mother of Ronny Heaslop,. She also has another son, Ralph, and a daughter, Stella, by her second marriage. Mrs. Moore has recently arrived to India with Adela, who is expected to marry Ronny.
Dr. Aziz has gone into the and he is startled when he discovers that a stranger – an Englishwoman – is also there. The two talk, and a friendship develops. Aziz is happy to have met an English person who is sympathetic toward him and India, while Mrs. Moore finds Aziz charming, intelligent, and interesting.
Adela later tells Aziz that Mrs. Moore “learnt more about India in those few minutes’ talk with you than in the three weeks since they landed.” Mrs. Moore decides that she wants to see “the real India.” Her plans to visit two Indian women were unsuccessful, but she enjoys Mr. Fielding’s tea party. At the tea party, Aziz invites Mrs. Moore, Adela, Fielding, and Professor Godbole to join him to the Marabar Caves.
In the meantime, Mrs. Moore quarrels with Ronny, who she finds has become narrow-minded during his time in India. When it becomes clear that Ronny and Adela will not marry, Mrs. Moore realizes that “My duties here are evidently finished. I don’t want to see India ‘’ and she is alarmed by “a terrifying echo.” When she emerges from the cave, “the echo began in some indescribable way to undermine her hold on life.” For her, the echo’s message is “Everything exists, nothing has value.”
Shortly– just before Aziz’s trial – she leaves India; we later learn that she has died on the voyage back to England. However, her presence continues to be felt after her death. Although Dr. Aziz’s career is ruined by Adela’s false charge of rape, and he develops a hatred of the English, Aziz continues to think of Mrs. Moore. Indeed, the Indian crowd acclaims her as “Esmiss Esmoor,” transforming her into a Hindu goddess.
The Indians apparently believe that she had to testify on Aziz’s behalf, and regard her as a deity of justice. At the end of the novel, the spirit of Mrs. Moore returns to India symbolically in the form of her daughter Stella, who has married Cyril Fielding.
السيدة مور هو الانكليزية وهو شخصية محورية في هذا الكتاب. هي الأكثر حساسية ويعكس الأحرف الإنجليزية. وهي أرملة عجوز ، وهي أم لHeaslop روني. لديها أيضا ابن آخر ، رالف ، وابنة ، ستيلا ، قبل زواجها الثاني. وقد وصل مؤخرا السيدة مور إلى الهند مع عديلة ، الذي يتوقع أن يتزوج روني.
وقد ذهب الدكتور عزيز إلى والدهشة عندما يكتشف أن الغريب -- إنكليزية -- أيضا هناك. الحديث اثنين ، والصداقة ويتطور. العزيز سعيد والتقى شخص الإنجليزية الذين متعاطفة نحوه والهند ، في حين أن السيدة مور يرى عزيز ذكي الساحرة ، ومثيرة للاهتمام.
عديلة عزيز يقول في وقت لاحق أن السيدة مور "تعلمت الكثير عن الهند في نقاش تلك الدقائق القليلة المقبلة معكم من خلال الأسابيع الثلاثة منذ وصولهم." السيدة مور تقرر أنها تريد أن ترى "الهند حقيقية". خططها لزيارة وكان اثنان من النساء الهنديات غير ناجحة ، لكنها تتمتع حزب السيد فيلدينغ من الشاي. في حفلة شاي ، عزيز تدعو السيدة مور ، عديلة ، فيلدينغ ، وGodbole أستاذ للانضمام إليه في الكهوف Marabar.
في غضون ذلك ، أصبحت السيدة مشاجرات مع روني مور ، الذي يرى أنها ضيقة الأفق خلال فترة وجوده في الهند. عندما يصبح واضحا أن روني وعديلة لن تتزوج ، والسيدة مور يدرك أن "واجباتي الانتهاء من الواضح هنا. أنا لا تريد أن ترى الهند «وانها تشعر بالانزعاج من قبل" صدى مرعبة. "عندما يخرج من الكهف ،" صدى بدأت في بعض الطريق لا توصف لتقويض عقد لها في الحياة. "بالنسبة لها ، وصدى لرسالة هو "كل شيء موجود ، لا شيء له قيمة."
قريبا ، قبل محاكمة عزيز -- تغادر الهند ، ونحن نتعلم في وقت لاحق أن توفيت في رحلة العودة الى انكلترا. ومع ذلك ، وجودها لا يزال يشعر بعد وفاتها. وعلى الرغم من خراب شهادة الدكتور عزيز من تهمة كاذبة عديلة في الاغتصاب ، وانه يطور الكراهية للالإنجليزية ، عزيز لا يزال يفكر في السيدة مور. والواقع أن الحشد الهندية تشيد لها بأنها "Esmoor Esmiss" تحويل لها الى الهة هندوسية.
الهنود يعتقدون على ما يبدو أنها على الشهادة نيابة عن عزيز ، وبالنسبة لها بمثابة إله العدالة. في نهاية الرواية ، وروح السيدة مور يعود إلى الهند رمزيا في شكل ستيلا ابنتها ، الذي تزوج سيريل فيلدينغ.






How is the English Character Presented in ‘A Passage to India’?

Forster is referring to the fact that everything done by an Englishman is taught in a public school, that everything is done a specific way, and that there is no originality. For example, Ronny had to change from being a open minded to suspicious of Indians. This is shown in the characteristics of the British men and women throughout the novel. The British men are unable to connect with the Indians, and they consider themselves as superior, not to mention the women, especially Mrs. Turton in her condescending attitude towards the Indians.
When Dr. Aziz was accused of rape, Fielding does not act with feelings or intuitions but with rationality. He sees that Aziz is not a man of such weak character, but we realize that he does not really feel Aziz’s pain, as he is willing to forgive Adela, and be friends with her once again after her confession that she was not violated by Aziz. He cannot feel the anger towards Adela, since he thinks out rationally that even if she at first ruined his reputation, she was brave enough in not sending him to prison by
confessing. Fielding did not realize that he was deceiving Aziz by helping Adela out and indirectly showing that the British do stick together, even if that is not what Fielding is implying
. كيف هي الأحرف الإنجليزية في ورقة 'عبور إلى الهند؟

فورستر يشير إلى حقيقة أن تدرس كل ما فعلت من قبل الانكليزي في المدارس العامة ، أن كل شيء يتم بطريقة معينة، وأنه لا يوجد الأصالة. على سبيل المثال، كان روني لتغيير من كونه منفتح على المشبوهة من الهنود. يظهر هذا في الخصائص من الرجال والنساء في جميع أنحاء بريطانيا الرواية. الرجال البريطانيون غير قادر على الاتصال مع الهنود، وهم يعتبرون أنفسهم متفوقة، ناهيك عن النساء، ولا سيما السيدة Turton في موقفها يتعاطف مع الهنود.
عندما اتهم الدكتور عزيز الاغتصاب، فيلدينغ لا يعمل مع المشاعر أو الحدس ولكن مع العقلانية. انه يرى ان عزيز ليس رجلا من ضعف شخصية من هذا القبيل ، لكننا ندرك انه لا يشعر حقا الألم العزيز، كما انه مستعد ليغفر عديلة، ونكون اصدقاء معها مرة أخرى بعد اعترافها بأن عدم انتهاك انها العزيز . وهو لا يستطيع أن يشعر بالغضب تجاه عديلة، لأنه يعتقد أن أصل بعقلانية حتى إذا كانت في البداية دمرت سمعته، وكانت الشجاعة في عدم ارساله الى السجن
الاعتراف. لم فيلدينغ لا يدركون انه خداع عزيز خارج عديلة مساعدة وغير مباشرة تبين أن البريطانيين لا تلتصق ببعضها البعض، ولو كان ذلك لا يعني ما هو فيلدينغ.



Opposing Cultures and what Divides them

In the Standard English colonist’s mind, there are three types of people in India: the British, the Indians in professional environments, and the natives. To the (superior) colonist, only the first group requires any acknowledgement; otherwise, Ronny would obviously have greeted Aziz or Godbole.
The natives are unworthy of respect, they should not be trusted, and certainly they are not gentlemen. As Aziz is unworthy of respect, in Ronny’s mind, Ronny could not be rude to him, simply because it is physically impossible to offend a native.
In Ronny’s logic, if he was told he had been rude to one of the British, he would be ashamed and apologetic; with regard to Indians, he simply does not see his misbehavior.
From the English perspective, the natives are almost worthless, but from the Indian perspective, the English are rude .It is unfortunate that the two groups cannot find a middle ground.
If the English and the Indians are able to find a common ground and communicate with each other, it is likely that the two cultures could co-exist in Forster’s world
معارضة الثقافات وما يفرقهم

في اعتبارها مستعمر الإنجليزية قياسي، وهناك ثلاثة أنواع من الناس في الهند : البريطاني ، والهنود في البيئات المهنية ، والسكان الأصليين و. للمستعمر (الرئيس)، المجموعة الأولى فقط يتطلب أي اعتراف، وإلا فإن من الواضح أن روني استقبال عزيز أو Godbole.
السكان الأصليين لا يستحقون الاحترام، فإنه لا يمكن الوثوق بها، وبالتأكيد أنهم ليسوا السادة. وعزيز هو لا يستحق الاحترام، روني في الاعتبار، ويمكن أن روني لا يكون وقحا له، لأنه ببساطة أمر مستحيل عمليا للاساءة الى مواطن.
في منطق روني، وإذا قيل له انه كان وقحا لأحد البريطانيين، وقال انه يخجل واعتذاري؛ فيما يتعلق الهنود، وقال انه ببساطة لا يرى له سوء السلوك.
من منظور اللغة الإنجليزية، والسكان الأصليين لا قيمة لها تقريبا ، ولكن من منظور الهندي، والإنجليزية وقحا. ومن المؤسف أن المجموعتين لا يمكن العثور على أرضية مشتركة.
إذا كانت اللغة الإنجليزية والهنود قادرون على إيجاد أرضية مشتركة والتواصل مع بعضهم البعض، فمن المرجح أن الثقافتين يمكن أن تتعايش في العالم لفورستر
فراشه المنتدى غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 11-03-2011, 02:15 PM   #2
NESREEN NIZAR NESREEN NIZAR غير متصل
طالب جديد

 









افتراضي رد: summary 4


مرحبا يعطيكم العافية في مجال تنزلونا ملخصات للقصائد الموجودة في الكتاب
NESREEN NIZAR غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 12-03-2011, 08:10 PM   #3
فراشه المنتدى فراشه المنتدى غير متصل
مشرف سابق
 
الصورة الرمزية فراشه المنتدى
افتراضي رد: summary 4


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هذا ملف القصائد
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قديم 12-03-2011, 09:33 PM   #4
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افتراضي رد: summary 4


فراشة الله يجزاج خير
الرابط ما يفتح لو سمحت شلون ادخله
Malako2007 غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 14-03-2011, 12:14 AM   #5
فراشه المنتدى فراشه المنتدى غير متصل
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الصورة الرمزية فراشه المنتدى
افتراضي رد: summary 4


نزلت الملف بعده مراكز تحميل
.
.
.
http://arabsh.com/qt0knwzfg0o8.html
هذا الرابط الاالملف المباشر
.
.
.
وهذا رابط تحميل من موقع ثاني
واللي مايقدر يضغط ع الرابط
ينسخه ويحطه بالصفحه وينزل الملف

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قديم 14-03-2011, 09:32 AM   #6
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افتراضي رد: summary 4


الله يجزاج كل الخير فراشة ماقصرتي
Malako2007 غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 14-03-2011, 05:34 PM   #7
فرح سعادة فرح سعادة غير متصل
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الصورة الرمزية فرح سعادة
افتراضي رد: summary 4


هذ ملخص الاستاذة شيماء:

Introduction:

The block title end of empire refers specially to the British empire, but when did it end? Was it in 1947 or it could be argued that the key years were 1940-1941. Our concern is with the effect of this extended history on British culture and how they became an explicit element in the national consciousness. Such consciousness had to register the inescapable fact that Britain could no longer sustain a world political role independently of the USA. The purposes of this block 'end of empire' dates from the post-1956 years when it was clear that Britain could no longer act as if it were the centre of a worldwide empire.


How did this recognition affect British literary culture?

That Britain was an imperial power had certainly influenced writers since the 1890's.

The response of writers to that end, during and after the 1950s, was not uniform. The difficult question it posed engaged a writer's sense of the national identity given the imperial history, and given that it had ended, what did it now mean to be an English writer? For some poets it meant a ****** for new conceptions of 'Englishness', and in literary culture generally it marked the emergence of writers previously ignored or marginalized.

This block falls in two parts. The first part, consisting of sections 2-5 together with material printed in the reader, discusses 'A passage To India' from a number of angles.

The second part consists of section 6, the relevant poems in the poetry and drama anthology.

Section 2 Empire, imperialism and Literature:

Imperialism: as defined by The Dictionary of Human Geography, is "the creation and maintenance of an unequal economic, cultural, and territorial relationship, usually between states and often in the form of an empire, based on domination and subordination."

The British Empire was a world wide phenomenon which was at the height of its power from around 1850. In passage to India, India was, in any event, politically and economically at the heart of the British Empire, contributing huge amounts to both private and public purses from the early eighteenth century. The Indian Civil Service provided careers for the British middle class, and the Indian Army provided a force to police the empire.

The nature of empire:

What kind of political, economic cultural structures were characteristic of these empires?

Each had its own qualities, but in all of them, one state dominates the other.

Control can operate at a number of different levels.

Raymond Williams:

Imperialism, defined in late nineteenth century England, is primarily a political system in which colonies governed from an imperial centre, for economic, but also for other reasons held to be important. Please see p4.

In the 18th and 19th c huge fortunes were earned from cheap labour or cheap natural resources were transferred from Africa and Asia to support British aristocratic society.

Williams suggests, the relationship of imperial power and colony may not always be so directly visible.

In much of India the illusion that the empire would last forever was sustained by the way British power and presence infiltrated all of Indian life. The British controlled national and local government, but their efforts did not stop at such administrative actions.

In these parts the Indian princes appeared to be in control, governing in an Indian rather than a British way however these Indian states recognize how important the British Government is.

The state where Foster worked in 1921, is an example of one of these Indian states, the Maharajah was effectively installed, sustained and ultimately dismissed by the British.



Empire and imperialism:

In this section we will distinguish between empire and imperialism.

Empire refers to a set of territories governed by an emperor.

Imperialism describes the attitudes of the rulers.

To combine the terms in a sentence " The empire is composed of states under the rule of the emperor who lives in the imperial palace supported by a government keen to pursue imperialist policies confident that their imperialism will be unchallenged."

British imperialism is then not limited within the time period that the British Empire existed, or was at its height, as a political structure. At the beginning of the twenty first century part of the West Indies for example continue to remain dependent on the British trade in sugar or bananas. It is argued by some that English is the only language that can serve as a national language for India as a whole, and must be preserved as such to avoid the country falling into internal arguments about which Indian language should be elevated to national status.

For others the English is inevitable because it is the language of international high technology and trade.

Britain is of imperialist importance as part of a developed country able to give charity and technological aid to ex colonies.



A study guide to A Passage to India:

Passage to India was published in 1924 and it was greeted with great interest. A passage to India came to be Foster's most popular book .


End of Empire: Chapter one;

In passage to India the setting immediately tells us that it will be about colonialism or imperialism. In the second paragraph it becomes obvious with the creation of a geographically and politically stratified setting. At the lowest level is the river with the old town, inhabited by Indians, on its banks an open area where people from all races meet without the formality of chairs and, doors and so on. Beyond this open area on higher ground are the houses of the people of mixed race and the railway. The land stands to form a valley before rising to form the second rising stands the British railway station.

Cultural imperialism , the worlds of the ruler and ruled appear separate while the Indian areas are described as mean and dirty.

Modernism :

The date of publication 1924 Forster's novel was published two years after The Waste Land and a year after Mrs. Dalloway.

Modernism style at the beginning of the book gives us a hint that he is presenting imperialism in crisis.

Chapters one and two are proleptic foreshadows the events, we are told what is going to follow but not analepsis what are the past events.

We are drawn into imagining a character from the inside rather than simply observing a caricature from the outside.

The text repeats words as 'screeched' and ' full of their own affairs'.


Innocent details:

There are innocent details that are embedded in the narrative conveying important messages as Azziz wearing slippers symbolizes poor preparation for any country.

We feel confident that Aziz will be the most important Indian character as the narrating voice provides us with a lot of detail about his character , but instead of a long exposition telling us about his character the process is achieved through the incident. Messages are passed to us through trivial details as the incident of the bicycle not only to dramatize Said's character but to depict the gap between Indian life and the civil lines.

The incident with the Tonga is introduced to dramatise even more sharply that even an educated Indian such as Aziz had no status in British eyes.

Forster is not know as a political novelist, A passage to India has been identified with a group of so called 'Raj novels'. In Raj novels the real political tensions of India are dissolved into stories of personal relationships, and are usually focused on British experiences so that these appear to be the most significant events in the end of empire.

One might say that despite the imperial setting and the references to discrimination, Forster does not put true Indian political life on the agenda in this early part of the book, but remains within a British context. We may claim the novel is personal not political for example last paragraph in chapter two discrimination which is the heart of imperialism is present in references to the exclusion of Indians from the club, but we are urged to see these things as not mattering .

Forster saw the best literature as necessarily having a serious purpose but he was reluctant to equate that seriousness with political life.

See p.27 and 29

The cave section:

The expedition to the cave section represents a turning point in the book, first there is a change in the setting and the novel appears to move to a different kind of India.

The initial passage To India taken by Adela and Mrs Moore leads only to another version of England. India might present simply an opportunity to depict the English at their most narrow minded, as well as a country that was very different from England.

As the narrative focuses more and more on the caves, so our sense of the foreignness of India becomes more dominant. Imperialism- the sense that the British point of view is automatically superior to the native one appears only in a small and rather a comic way for example when Adela mistakes twisted stump for a snake and this prompts the villagers and Aziz to exclamations that match the European sense of the exotic danger in India.


Orientalism:

“Oriental” was simply understood as the opposite of “occidental” (western). The word was used to develop negative connotations after the publication of the work Orientalism by the American-Palestinian scholar Edward Said. Following the ideas of Michel Foucault, Said emphasized the relationship between power and knowledge in scholarly and popular thinking. In particular, Said says that without examining Orientalism as a discourse one cannot possibly understand the enormously systematic discipline by which European culture was able to manage the Orient politically, sociologically, militarily, ideologically, scientifically, and imaginatively during the post-Enlightenment period (p. 3).



Definitions of Orientalism In Part I of Said's introduction:

“Anyone who teaches, writes about, or re******es the Orient is an Orientalist and what he or she does is Orientalism" (p. 57) academic

" Orientalism is a style of thought based upon an ontological and epistemological distinction made between ‘the Orient’ and (most of the time) ‘the Occident’ (p. 57) Ontology is a branch of ****physics dealing with the nature of being, epistemology is the ground knowledge. imaginative

More historically and materially defined, "Orientalism is “a Western style for dominating, restructuring, and having authority over the Orient” (p. 58)

Said gives limitation in his work, that Orientalism derives from a particular closeness experienced between Britain and France and the Orient, which until the early nineteenth century had really meant only India and the Bible lands. America also has dominated the Orient since World War II. British, French, or American come the large body of texts Said calls Orientalist (p. 4).

In Part II, particularly Said stresses on the Orient as an idea that has history and a tradition of thought, imagery, and vocabulary that have given it reality and presence in and for the West. Then, he gives three qualifications to someone who deals with Orientalism.
First, it would be wrong to conclude that the Orient was essentially an idea, or a creation with no corresponding reality. The phenomenon of Orientalism deals principally with the internal consistency of Orientalism and its ideas about the Orient beyond any correspondence with a real Orient (p. 5).

Second, the ideas, cultures, and histories cannot seriously be understood without their force or their configuration of power. The relationship between Occident and Orient is a relationship of power, of domination, and of varying degrees of a complex hegemony (p. 5).

Third, one has never to assume that the structure of Orientalism is nothing more than a structure of lies or myths, which would simply blow away. It is particularly valuable as a sign of European-Atlantic power over the Orient than it is as a veridical discourse about the Orient (p. 6).


In his book, Said suggests that all discourse, particularly discourse about other cultures, is inherently ideological. Therefore, regardless of the subject, any historical discourse must be situated within a particular framework with an overall structure that is necessarily ideological. Said situates his argument in the realm of Orientalism, particularly the academic study and political and literary discourse surrounding Arabs, Islam and the Middle East that originated primarily in England and France and later the United States. Said attempts to show that this discourse actually creates (rather than examines or describes) a palpable divide between East and West. It is this divide, through the examples he gives in the book, which situates the West as a superior culture to the East. This became politically useful, Said suggests, when countries such as France or Britain attempted to colonize and conquer Eastern countries such as Egypt, India, Algeria, and others.

The discourse surrounding these countries is coded, Said says, by a superiority that is not necessarily reflected in the realities of the concerned countries. When people in the West attempt to study, the East they typically do so within this already coded discourse. Therefore, Said says, the study of somewhere called the "Orient" and of some people known as "Arabs" fails to take into account the reality of the area as being the same place as the West (i.e., part of the Earth). Other countries and other people are not seen as the same within Oriental discourse, however, and therefore a study of these "others" must inherently be one of studying an inferior culture when Oriental discourse is used to describe them.

According to Said, Orientalism begins in the late eighteenth century with the establishment of empires in the East, and is primarily ' a British and French cultural enterprise' p261. From the beginning of the 19thc until the end of the second world war, France and Britain dominated the Orient and were the main agents in the practice of Orientalism, through imperial influence and commercial exploitation, to be replaced since then by USA.




Summary

Said summarized his work in these terms: My contention is that Orientalism is fundamentally a political doctrine willed over the Orient because the Orient was weaker than the West, which elided the Orient’s difference with its weakness. . . . As a cultural apparatus Orientalism is all aggression, activity, judgment, will-to-truth, and knowledge" (Orientalism, p. 204)
Said also wrote, “My whole point about this system is not that it is a misrepresentation of some Oriental essence — in which I do not for a moment believe — but that it operates as representations usually do, for a purpose, according to a tendency, in a specific historical, intellectual, and even economic setting.” (p. 273)
Principally a study of 19th-century literary discourse and strongly influenced by the work of thinkers like Chomsky, Foucault and Gramsci, Said's work also engages contemporary realities and has clear political implications as well. Orientalism is often classed with postmodernist and postcolonial works that share various degrees of skepticism about representation itself (although a few months before he died, Said said he considers the book to be in the tradition of "humanistic critique" and the Enlightenment.


Orientalism and A Passage to India:

The language of the first passage is generalizing and evaluative, it makes us think critically about conventional images of the beauty of the Orient in which the Anglo Indian has an investment. " glorify the city to the English people who inhabit the rise'.

The structure of the opening chapter of the novel, as Richard Allen has pointed out repeatedly deflects attention away from the earthly and the human aspects of India, dissolving political and imperial problems into a universal drama. This movement away from the material problems of Anglo Indian rule is the core part of the discourse orientalism, the orient is perceived and utilized as a means to higher self awareness for the western consciousness.
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قديم 12-04-2011, 12:07 PM   #8
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افتراضي رد: summary 4


thank sooooooooooooooooo mouch
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قديم 01-06-2012, 08:42 AM   #9
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الصورة الرمزية The moon face

 











افتراضي رد: summary 4


شكراااااااااااا حبيبه قلبي فراااشتووو


باااااااااارك الله فيج..،‘
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