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أدوات الموضوع انواع عرض الموضوع

قديم 16-11-2012, 06:36 PM   #1
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unit:1


Traditional or structural: grammar, a grammar that divides language on the basis of parts of speech, units such as nouns, verbs, and adjectives.
Functional grammar: which uses a different de******ive vocabulary. Functional grammar is the other main approach to describing language. The emphasis is on describing words or groups of words according to the function they are fulfilling in a sentence
De******ive: means to let people decide by themselves what they want to use/do, no judgments weather it's right or wrong
Perspective means to impose rules on people
pedagogic grammar: It is simply the way grammar is described in grammar book
This type of grammar is based on the Standard English
Sociocultural context : It simply means: how language is used in context, is it face to face? Is it a conversation? Is it by phone or distance? And …etc
Modes: mean the communication language, weather it is speech, writing, email or even phone
-dysfluncy عكس الfluency يعني الفصاحة والطلاقة فاللغة، طبعا الspoken يكون ارتجالي وغير فصيح
heads and tails terms that are placed at the beginning /the end of the main utterance
HEADS AND TAILS : Features of speech. Heads occur at the beginning of clauses and help listeners orient to a topic and to prepare for what is coming next.Tails occur at the end of clauses, normally echoing an antecedent PRONOUN and help to reinforce what is being said, They are often used in evaluative context.
Lexical density: when you say something in a few words
Nominalization: to say many nouns instead of verbs (like in written language)
Lexicogrammar: convey the meaning we make with language.
Ellipsis: to avoid repetition. Ex, what day is today? Monday
(Instead of: what day is today? Today is Monday)ويرمز لها بالرمز^
Text’ in language analysis can refer both to speech which has been prepared in a written form that can be analysed and to writing
hesitators :sounds such as erm, um, . Hesitators are devices for indicating that a speaker has not yet finished their turn, and thus does not want to be interrupted
MODE: In functional linguistics: mode refers to the nature of the text as a communicative process, e.g. whether written or spoken, spontaneous or ******ed, monologue or dialogue.
MONOLOGUE: A sample of language produced by one speaker or writer \ one person speaking or writing.
QUESTION TAGs : A reduced interrogative clause added to the end of a DECLARATIVE clause to seek confirmation or agreement: Fatma is such a lovely person, isn’t she?.
DYSFLUENCY: Features that disturb the fluency of speech, including HESITATORS, pauses and REPETITIONS.
lexicogrammar : The lexical and grammatical resources in a language from
word class: A class of words based on grammatical and semantic properties.Two major families of word classes are LEXICAL WORD classes (nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs) and FUNCTION WORD classes (e.g. DETERMINERS, prepositions). Word classes aresometimes called ‘parts of speech’

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unit:2

A corpus: refers to a collection of naturally occurring language data (usually many millions of words). The data are in from of texts which can be either written ones, i.e. books, letters and newspapers articles, or spoken ones e.g. transcribed speech from radio and TV programmes and from spontaneous conversation. Usually this large collection of texts is stored on a computer and analysed using special software.
concordancer: A computer programme which can ****** a CORPUS to find and display particular words (or other STRINGS of text).
The word that is ******ed for is called the node, key word or the word under investigation.
wildcard :The symbol* is called a wildcard and it means that the concordance program will display the different forms of a particular word (e.g. the word we are looking for is walk; the program will look at all the forms of walk i.e. walks, walking, walked). These different forms are known as a lemma
wild card means that the concordancer program will find any words that begin with the same letters.
co-text: the words that come at the right, or the left of the node
register: is a varieties of language that are associated with different circumstances and purposes.
registers:they are varieties of language that are associated with different circumstances and purposes. This includes factors such as mode (speech or writing), interactivity (monologue or dialogue) and communicative purpose (telling, requests, orders…etc.
collocation: It is the tendency for two or more words to occur within a short distance of each other. It is a combination of lexical words which frequently occur together in texts
CONJUNCTIONS, PREPOSITIONS, PRONOUNS and AUXILIARY
VERBS. Compare LEXICAL WORDS.
*Each collection of texts which represents a register can be analysed separately and can therefore be considered as*a subcorpus.
Each occurrence of a word in a written or a spoken text is a separate*token.
A word's frequency in a given texts is called a*type.
*Inserts/ discourse markers: they are found mainly in spoken language. They generally carry emotional and discoursal meanings such as oh, aha, wow …etc.*
function word : Function words (or ‘grammatical words’) express grammatical relationships and classifications, such as DETERMINERS,
Lexical verbs: act as the main verb in a verb phrase,
closed class: A class of words for which all the members may be listed, and
for which new additions hardly ever occur. PRONOUNS, for
example, form a closed set. Compare OPEN CLASS.
lexical density: A measure of how much information is packed into a text,
calculated as a percentage by dividing the number of LEXICAL
WORDS by the total number of words.
register: A variety of language which is distinguished by its CONTEXT OF
USE. This involves three main aspects: FIELD (subject matter and
activity type), TENOR (social roles and relationships of the
participants) and MODE (the nature of the text as a
communicative process). All of these affect the lexical and
grammatical features of the language used..
string: Any linear sequence of whole words or individual characters
and spaces. Strings are often used in computer ******es.
word: See ORTHOGRAPHIC WORD.
KWIC: This type of display is known as key word in context (KWIC


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unit:3

A clause: is a unit revolving around the verb, it is the simplest kind of a sentence. Each clause must have a verb
imperative: which has the function of command,
interrogative: (yes/no)(wh), which has the function of question
declarative: which has the function of statement
rank system or rank scale: Most typically a unit consists of one or more elements on the level i.e. a clause the consists of one or more phrases, a phrase consists of one or more words, a word of one or more morphemes…
A participant is not necessarily a person; it can be something inanimate like a picnic. And it need not be a single entity.
A process is the action done, to be done
A circumstance does the job of describing something of the setting which accompanies the process. It gives extra information about the process such as how, when, where, how long, what means, who with
Spoken Clause Structure: the most spontaneous , online communication with only limited planning and thinking time (coordinate not subordinate) by using chains of clauses linked by coordinating conjunctions such as and, cos, though …
Modal expressions: such as possible, probably, I don’t know, I guess, I don’t think…etc.
Deixis: it describes the oriental features of language and includes words and phrases which point to particular features of a situation (time and space) e.g. this, these, that, those here, there.
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unit:4

A qualifier is any element in the NOUN PHRASE that follows the
HEAD word: the man in the moon, the lady I bought the dog
from. Also known as a ‘postmodifier’.
Noun Phrase: A phrase with a noun or a PRONOUN as HEAD: we, holidays, all
the right answers, the man in the moon. Further information
may be given by premodifiers before the head, and qualifier
after the head. Also known as a ‘nominal group’ or ‘noun
group’.
head noun :The required element in any phrase, e.g. Noun Phrase have a
noun (or pronoun) as the head: the standard rules of
behaviour.
premodification: The use of elements in a Noun Phrase which come before the head word and modify it: a natural atmospheric effect.
Postmodification: The use of elements in a Noun Phrase which come after the
head word and modify it: his impression of sunlight reflected
in the water.

classifier: An element of the NOUN PHRASE that indicates the class or
category of the HEAD word. It answers the question ‘What type
is it?’, and is typically realised by a noun (an oil painting) or an
adjective (solar energy

Describer: A describer (or ‘epithet’) is an element of the NOUN PHRASE that describes some attribute or quality of the HEAD word. It answersthe question ‘What like?’, and is typically realised by an adjective: this nebulous picture, a blue haziness.


Determiner: A function word that specifies the kind of reference a noun has (e.g. definite, indefinite, negative): the walls, those experiences, a bell, no time.
‘form’ is realized by noun phrases, verb phrases and prepositional phrases
‘function’ by participants, processes and circumstances
Nominalization:* Nominalisation occurs when events and qualities are represented as ‘things’, using an abstract noun instead of a verb or adjective: submit 5 submission, free 5 freedom.

Embeded clause : An embedded clause is one that no longer functions as a clause in its own right, but as part of another constituent: The key that you need is hanging behind the door. See also restrictive relative clause
embedding : embedding occurs when a phrase or clause is contained within a higher-level phrase or clause: [reduction [in the risk [of death [from job-related accidents.

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unit:5

The lexical verb: is the last element of the verb phrase and expresses some kind of processes.
Material processes: they interpret external actions, both concrete (e.g. catch, play,
run) and abstract actions(e.g. close a meeting, resign, dissolve committee):Mental processes: they express processes that go inside the head such as thinking and sensing- intellectual action. They include cognition ( I don’t believe you) , affection (I hate injections) ,perception (I saw the accident) and receiving of information (e.g. read, hear).
Verbal processes: they interpret the saying and reporting of things –verbal action. They include saying and all its synonyms, e.g. tell, ask, state, whisper…etc.
Relational processes: these processes interpret the many different ways of being and having and they relate participants to each other (She was so small. She is the biology lecturer. She has a piano). See pages 130& 131

Activity verbs: they refer to an action performed intentionally by an agent or a doer e.g. move, buy (they are equivalent to material processes).
Communication verbs: they describe speech and writing e.g. ask, offer, talk, speak, write (they are the same as verbal processes)
Mental verbs: they refer to mental states and activities. e.g. think, want, know, love. They are equivalent to mental processes.
Causative Verbs: they indicate that some person or thing helps to bring about a new state of affairs e.g. allow, enable, cause, force, and help. (They are equivalent to relational processes)
Verbs of Occurrence: they report events that occur without an actor e.g. become, grow, change , happen, die.(They are equivalent to relational processes)
Verbs of existence or relationships: they report states of existence or logical relationships between two entities e.g. seem, appear, and stay. (They are equivalent to relational processes).
Verbs of aspect: they characterize the stage of progress of an event or activities e.g. stop, start, begin, keep, continue. (They are equivalent to relational processes).
Lexical Verbs : (e.g. run, eat, think) function only as main verbs
Primary Verbs: (be, have & do) can function as both auxiliary and main verbs.
Modal Verbs: (can, could, shall, should, will, would, may, might, must) function only as auxiliary verbs.
The temporal finite: anchors the verb phrase in terms of person (I, you, he, she, it, we, they) and number (plural or singular).
Adjective phrases: have adjectives as the head words, which can be modified in a similar way to the way nouns are modified in noun phrases.
adverb phrase: has an adverb as its head word and may have other adverbs to modify.e.g. so beautifully, hardly ever,
active voice: In the active voice, the agent occurs before the verb as the subject, and the entity affected by the action occurs after the verb: The police released the driver’s name. Compare passive voice
passive voice: In the passive voice, the entity affected by the action occurs before the verb as the subject, and the agentis either omitted, or occurs in a by-phrase: The driver’s name was released (by the police). See also PASSIVISATION
passive : o+ verb to be + v3+by-s
Agent : The doer of an action
auxiliaries verb: A closed clss of verbs: which specify the way in which the process of the verb phrase is to be interpreted: will have applied, was overtaking, may believe, is being used.
Modal finite: Modal finites are auxiliary verb used to express modality: He may be out. You can’t smoke here. Also known as ‘modal verbs
Aspect: A choice in the verb phrase that expresses time meanings, related to whether an action is finished or still in progress: have eaten, was going
Predicator : In functional grammar, the predicator refers to those verbal elements of the clause that do not serve as finite: he had walked to the shops. It is called predicator because it is the basis for the predication, or validation, of the rest of the
modality: The expression of a writer or speaker’s judgement about the likelihood of what they are saying (e.g. How sure am I about it?) or about levels of obligation (e.g. Do I have to do it?)

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unit:6


clause: is a fundamental unit in the process of communication because it is the minimal unit which can stand alone as constituting a complete message. e.g. Go! Stop! and Run.!
main clause: term used to indicate an independent clause to which other dependent clause are subordinated: The class was cancelled because the teacher was ill
Non-clausal units are defined as structural units that are not composed of clauses.
Non-clausal material is defined as the parts of the text which do not consist of clauses
Coordination: a function word used to connect (or coordinate) two or more words, phrases or clauses with equivalent status: and, but, or
Circumstantial dependent clause: a dependent clause which supplies information about the Circumstances: When I arrive, I’ll give you a call. The class was cancelled because the teacher was ill.
The sentence: is essentially a phenomenon of written language. It can be identified as a stretch of words beginning with a capital letter and ending with a full stop.
Clause complexes: accordingly, are said to be constituted of one or more clauses.
An independent clause: is one which stands by it self and has equal status to the other clause or clauses it is being linked with.
A dependent clause: (subordinate clause);is not able to stand alone
finite clause: is a clause that has either present / past tense or a modal verb.(I leave early, we waited …etc.)
non-finite clause: has no tense and does not include a modal verb (After having tired so hard, in order to see better…etc.)
relativiser: is either a relative pronoun (which, who, whom, whose, that) or a relative adverb (where, when, why. The function of the elaborating clause is to specify the meaning of the main clause in some way, by clarifying it, giving more detail, restating it in different terms or by providing an example).
non-restrictive relative clauses: that does not restrict the reference of a head noun, but rather adds elaborating, de******ive information about the noun: her husband, who is now remarried. Also known as a ‘non-defining clause’. These clauses are often interrupting clauses
Projection involves: reporting and quoting what people have said or thought
embedding: occurs at the rank of phrase when one phrase is put inside another phrase.
quoting: A direct way of expressing what people have said or thought: She said ‘I am leaving’; Alfred thought ‘We will succeed’. Also known as ‘direct speech
reporting : An indirect way of expressing what people have said or thought: She said she was leaving. Alfred thought we would succeed. Also known as ‘indirect speech
فيحاء العسل غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 16-11-2012, 09:10 PM   #2
فيحاء العسل فيحاء العسل غير متصل
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الصورة الرمزية فيحاء العسل
افتراضي رد: تجميعي لتعاريف الميــدتيرم من عدة مصادر


" لا امانع بنقل مواضيعي الى اي منتدى ^_^ حياكم الله "
فيحاء العسل غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 16-11-2012, 09:46 PM   #3
PylsaN PylsaN غير متصل
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الصورة الرمزية PylsaN
افتراضي رد: تجميعي لتعاريف الميــدتيرم من عدة مصادر


يعطيكي العااافية يارب

بميزان حسناتك
PylsaN غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 16-11-2012, 09:55 PM   #4
ليااان ليااان غير متصل
طالب جديد
 
الصورة الرمزية ليااان

 










افتراضي رد: تجميعي لتعاريف الميــدتيرم من عدة مصادر


بميزان حسناتك

شكرا لك
ليااان غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 16-11-2012, 10:04 PM   #5
انتي انا انتي انا غير متصل
طالب فعال

 











افتراضي رد: تجميعي لتعاريف الميــدتيرم من عدة مصادر


فففففففففففففففففففففففيححححاااااااااااااااااااااا ااااااااااااءءءءءءءءءءءءءءءءءءءءءء انتي هننننننننننننا !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

ابيكككككككك ابي اكلممممممممممممك ضرررررررررررررررورييييييييييي
شلون اقدر ارسللك انتي شايله الخاص

ابي اكلمك ضروري
انتي انا غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 17-11-2012, 12:18 AM   #6
فيحاء العسل فيحاء العسل غير متصل
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الصورة الرمزية فيحاء العسل
افتراضي رد: تجميعي لتعاريف الميــدتيرم من عدة مصادر


الله يعافيكم يارب ... العفوو


حبيبتي فعلته لك بستناك

بالتوووفيق للجميـــــع يارب
فيحاء العسل غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 13-01-2013, 04:42 PM   #7
Angel Whisper Angel Whisper غير متصل
طالب جديد
 
الصورة الرمزية Angel Whisper

 











افتراضي رد: تجميعي لتعاريف الميــدتيرم من عدة مصادر


لو سمحتي ممكن تنزليها ملف وورد؟ لأن بعض الكلمات بالمنتدى تنحذف ويصير مكانها نجوم!
Angel Whisper غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 13-01-2013, 06:25 PM   #8
فيحاء العسل فيحاء العسل غير متصل
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الصورة الرمزية فيحاء العسل
افتراضي رد: تجميعي لتعاريف الميــدتيرم من عدة مصادر


حياك الله اختي ..

اتفضلي حمليها من هذا الرابط

هنا

وموفقه ان شاءالله
فيحاء العسل غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
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مواقع النشر (المفضلة)

أدوات الموضوع
انواع عرض الموضوع

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