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قديم 30-12-2004, 08:13 AM   #1
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افتراضي الجزء الثاني - M1





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n Horizontal
Creativity has the focus
Flat
Encourages creativity
Has only one sole manager, involved in work with the employees
A person may have more than one role in the same project
The manager in a project might be a regular contributor in another
Roles might change
Not practical for large organizations
Lack of control
There might be some, but few, levels of hierarchy
n The lowest level is not far from the head of the organization
- The culture of computer companies
n Different than the other industries
n No restrictions
n No special uniforms
n Soft drinks are allowed
n The offices are personal
n Enabling and encouraging creativity
n No barriers or red lines between the employees and their manager
n No need to go through many channels to reach the manager. An email is enough!

Section 5: IBM and the PC:
Main topics:
IBM and the PC market.
1- The Independent Business Unit.
2- The open standard.
3- IBM and Microsoft.

1- IBM and the PC market:

- IBM was founded in 1924 by Tom Watson. They were selling punch card electromechanical tabulating machines.
- In mid-1960s, IBM launched mainframe computers known as 360s.
- These products were hugely successful (vast majority of the computing market).
- Because of this, other computer companies looked at IBM as the leader in the industry.
- In the early of 1980’s, IBM tried to capitalize on its success in mainframe world and enter the PC industry.
- They formed what is known as the independent business unit.

2- The independent business unit:
- IBM was a huge company with many layers of management so that it is needs long time to take a decision.
- This was not suitable for PC industry ( rapid changes environment).
- IBM constructed a team of employees to work outside usual framework of IBM. It was called Independent Business Unit (IBU).
- The objective of IBU is to produce an IBM microcomputer (PC) within a year.
- The leader of IBU was Bill Lowe and it was based in a small US city called Boca Raton.
- The IBU model was a success and an IBM Microcomputer was produced within a year.
- As a result, IBU method became a widely used method in PC industry ( Microsoft and Macintosh had applied this model in their companies).

3- The open standard :
Why we need a standard?
Generally speaking, to enable various components and different devices for a certain industry to work together, they need a set of rules (or standards) that they all could agree on.
- So, every industry has its own set of standards. Ex: International Telecommunication Union (ITU).
IBU adopted the open architecture for producing the IBM microcomputer.
- Open architecture meant that the components made up the machine were bought from other suppliers and their design was available for anyone else to use.
- This set the standard for the PC industry and enabled many companies to produce similar PCs in structure to IBM PC...
- The only pieces of the design (IBM kept without sharing with other) is the BIOS which is: that piece that allows the operating system to work with the hardware.
- Most companies in PC Industry use the IBM architecture and pay IBM for the BIOS. (This lead to mass production of PCs).
- Other companies like Macintosh chose to have their own design different from IBM.
4- IBM and Microsoft:
- As most of IBM pc components were purchased from other suppliers ( like microprocessor from INTEL), IBM looked to other companies to supply the IBM pc with the operating system.
- At that time, the most reliable operating system was CP/M which was produced by Digital Re****** Company (Gary Kildall).

- IBM tried to contact Kildall to develop a CP/M version for the new Pc, but they never met.
- IBM contacted Microsoft ( it was a small company at that time ) .Later, IBM agreed to a proposal from Bill Gates to supply the new pc with an operating system called MS-DOS.
- MS-DOS was similar to CP/M. In fact, MS-DOS itself was obtained from another company, not Microsoft.
- IBM and Microsoft partnership was a successful one. Their cooperation continued until the early 1990.
- There were many differences between them. These differences highlight the differences between Mainframe and the PC industry. Some of these differences are the following:
a- Number of ******ers: the number of ******ers in the pc industry is much larger than that of Mainframe ones.
b- Sales and Profits: The profit margin in a PC is very small while the profit of selling one Mainframe could be hundreds of thousands of dollars.
c- ******er relation: the relation between a Mainframe ******er and the dealers continues for a very long time. Some companies still own Mainframes that are 20 years old. On the other hand, the relation between a PC dealer and a ******er is very short.
d- Employee’s type: Employees from IBM were very formal and tended to do things in a very professional, but sometimes in slow manner. On the other hand, Microsoft employees were young college graduates who worked in a smart but often unstructured ways.
Section 6 : IBM clones :
The Main topics in this section are:
1- IBM clones: Introduction.
2- Reverse Engineering.
3- The Clones.
4- What makes technology successful?
5- IBM after the PC.
1- IBM clones : Introduction :
- When IBM launched its PC, there were many different microcomputers available.
- These computers were produced by companies such as Tandy and Hewlett-Packard.
- These computers have their software compatible with the IBM PC , but their hardware wasn’t.
- Computers which are identical to the IBM PC in every important respect are called “clones”.
2- Reverse Engineering:
- To have a PC that is identical to the IBM, other companies could buy the different parts of the PC from the same companies IBM bought from, but they had to buy the BIOS from IBM.
- However, those companies went other option of trying to copy the BIOS of IBM without breaking any copyright laws.
- This was achieved by what is known as reverse engineering which is a means of achieving the same functionality without breaking copyright laws that exist for that other function.
- It is called reverse engineering because it reverses the conventional engineering process which starts with disparate components and constructs a functional piece of technology from them. With reverse engineering the starting point is the completed piece of technology, in this case IBM’s BIOS. A distinction is made between what it does, and how it does it.
- So, other companies used reverse engineering by observing how the IBM BIOS behaved in all different cases to determine its functionality, then specifications for a new BIOS could be written and implemented.
- The first company succeed in reverse engineering process to the IBM PC was Compaq. Later, Phoenix technologies achieved the same process. However, unlike Compaq, Phoenix did not use the BIOS to make their own PC clone, but instead sold their own BIOS as a ROM chip to other manufacturer.
- This process is good for the ******er since it means greater choice and cheaper products. However, the main manufacturer loses control over the market like what happened with the PC- it was no longer IBM’s PC, but Intel/Microsoft PC.
3- The clones:
- Compaq and other clones kept up with the advancing technology of microprocessor.
- when Intel came up with 80286 microprocessor, Compaq released its Deskpro 286 PC which was more powerful and cheaper than its competitor’s the PC-AT released by IBM.
- Later , Intel came up with the 80386 chip which was much more powerful than 80286.
- IBM tried to produce a PC based on that chip but decided to delay it. On the other hand, Compaq released its Deskpro 386 in 1986.
- At that point IBM lost its market leadership and began to lose its PC market share.

- Other reasons that caused IBM to lose market were:
a- The decision to allow Microsoft to sell DOS to other supplies, instead of owning it exclusively.
b- The surprising success of reverse engineering.
c- The speed with which clones appeared.
d- The delay in releasing an 80386 based computer.
e- The advantage that small, lean companies possess in a highly competitive industry.

4- What makes Technology Successful:
- Even though IBM did not benefit greatly from it, the IBM PC architecture was a huge success.
- There were two main companies that benefited much from it : Microsoft ( by using MS-DOS operating system Technology) and Intel ( by using 8088 microprocessor technology).
- There are many reasons for the success of a product like:
a- Technological superiority: although this is not a rule, but still the product with the best technology has a very good chance of success.
b- Legacy: in most cases for products to be successful, they need to be compatible with the older products.
c- Market leader: the leader of an industry always has an advantage producing products for that industry over its competitors.
d- Society acceptance: sometimes good technological products never make it because at the time they were developed, people either were not used to such a product or the price of that product was too high.
e- Product decisions: decisions made when the product is developed may affect the success of the product.
f- Marketing: in the PC industry, the marketing campaign alone can make or break the product.
5- IBM after the PC:
- After lost its share in the PC market, IBM lost around 5 billion dollars in 1992.
- Many people predicted the fall of IBM (like BILL Gates: IBM will fall within seven years).
- However, IBM recovered and partially changed the way it does business. As a result, they posted profits of 3 billion $ in 1994 and 6.1 billion $ in 1997.
- Some key factors that help IBM to make the turnaround are:
a- Their adoption of the internet with their promotion of integrated business solutions.
b- IBM bought Lotus Domino development in 1995.
c- IBM provides the server hardware such as AS/400 on which Domino can run.
Section7: Apple and the Mac.
The main covered in this section are:
4- Apple and the Mac- Introduction.
5- The Lisa.
6- Developing the Macintosh.
7- Empowerment.
8- Desktop publishing.
9- After the Mac.
10- The personality of companies.
1- Apple and the Mac- introduction:
- Apple II was produced in 1977 (before IBM PC) and was a best seller of its time.
- The production of the IBM PC and its clones significantly slowed the sales of the Apple II.
- Apple III , successor of Apple II had some initial flaws which had gave the computer a bad name (didn’t meet the expectation). Its sales were very weak compared to Apple II.
- Apple’s philosophy:
Make computer accessible to every one and make it very easy to use.
Apple decided to use GUI concept (developed by Xerox) in its new PCs to achieve its philosophy.
- That led to the production of the Lisa computer (1983) which used the GUI interface.
2- The Lisa :
- The Lisa computer was the result of the Apple’s Manager visit, “ Steven Levy “, to Xerox PARC where they realized that GUI was the key to making microcomputer accessible to everyone.
- The Lisa was based on Powerful Motorola 68000 CPU (instead of Intel). It required 1 MB and a hard disk (unusual at that time) à These factors made it very expensive as a PC (10,000 $).
- The Lisa computer used the GUI interface and a new expression (****phor) which is desktop.
- In this ****phor, the screen resembles the top of a desk, with various files on it and even a waste basket. If you want to move a file, you simply grab its icon with the cursor and drag it where you want it, as you move real items around your desk.
- Although it was very expansive, the Lisa computer was very slow compared to the IBM PC.
- For these reasons, the Lisa didn’t sell well and Apple depended on the success of the project which had run in parallel to Lisa which was led by Steve Jobs, the Macintosh.
3- Developing the Macintosh:
- The Macintosh team have worked very hard (100 hours per week) to make it ready.
- They used the best technology available for all of its components to produce a very significant PC.
- With all of this hard work, Macintosh was late for 2 years (supposed 1982, but released 1984).
- Its price was 2500 $ (target price was 1000 $).
- Although a group of people were convinced with its easy of use, still its sales was not that great.
- Macintosh was missing the application which was the Desktop publishing.
- A company called Aldus has produced the desktop publishing software, the Page Maker.
- With desk publishing software, people were able to produce magazines and newspapers using the computer much easier and faster than manual production.
- The Macintosh was very suitable for the desktop publishing software that required a GUI which was only available at the Macintosh at that time.
- This has increased the sales of Macintosh.
- However, the Macintosh did not sell to big corporations, which at that time resisted the idea of easy computing. They stayed with IBM or its clones.
4- Empowerment:
- Apple was successful in introducing GUI and desktop concept to general public.
- It helped making computing easier and accessible which had affect ed and improved people’s life.
- Some of these improvements are:
a- The ease of using and accessing information like using accounting software to check their finances and the Internet to get lots of information.
b- The PC provides a tool to help people be more creative like using drawing software to do their own drawings.
c- To be able to have your own business anywhere in the world through using the Internet.
5- Desktop Publishing:
- Computers needed applications to gain widespread popularity.
- First, Lotus 1-2-3 was the main spreadsheet application used for Apple II and the IBM PC.
- After that came the Microsoft Excel which used the Macintosh GUI to provide a good user interface but it didn’t offer much over Lotus 1-2-3.
- The product that had influenced greatly Macintosh and pushed it in the Market was the PageMaker which was producedby a company called Aldus, founded by Paul Brainerd.
- PageMaker allowed the process of producing Newspapers and Magazines which was a time consuming process, to be easy and accomplished within one program.
- With the benefits of PageMaker obvious to all those worked in industry, the Macintosh began to appear in the publishing department of institutions.
- This had increased the sales of Macintosh. However, it never overtook the IBM PC as the dominant microcomputer.
6- After the Mac:
- After producing the Macintosh, and even with its success, Apple still was losing market share.
- IBM PCs and compatibles still dominated the market.
- In 1996, Apple reported a loss of 1 $ billion dollars. There were many reasons for the decline of Apple. Some of these reasons are:
a- The decision not to make the Macintosh an open industry standard in the same way as that IBM did with its PC. Having an open standard for the Macintosh might not guarantee its success but it would at least make its design very popular.
b- The leadership of Apple which had many leaders come and go after Steve Jobs left. (after Steve Jobs resigned in 1985, John Sculley came from Pepsi and became the manager. In 1993, Sculley was replaced by Michael Spinder. After that, he was replaced by Gil Amelio in 1996.
c- The prices of Apple computers were always higher than an equivalent PC.
- Steve jobs returned to Apple in 1997. since then, its performance has improved.
- In 1998, Apple produced the IMac under leadership of jobs. This machine used the powerful Motorola G3 microprocessor so that it can run PC applications. This product had increased the net earnings of Apple in 1999 to 601 $ million.
- Other products from Apple were the PowerBook, iBook and a new Unix-like OS.
7- The personality of companies:
- Generally, computer companies have their own personalities formed by the personalities of their founders.
- These people have an enormous influence on the early years of a company’s development. They will determine which products to make, and how they should be made and sold.
- Examples:
[list][*]
Tom Watson ( founded IBM.in1924) Bill Gates and Paul Allan ( founded Microsoft in 1975). Steve jobs and Steve Wozniak ( founded Apple in 1977).
[/list]
Section 8: Windows, OS/2 and Networking
- The main topics covered in this section are:
1- Windows, OS/2 and Networking: introduction.
2- Legacy and the year 2000 problem.
3- Network operating system (NOS).
4- Competition, collaboration and co-operation.

1- Windows, OS/2 and Networking: introduction
- After the success of GUI in the Apple Macintosh PC and with the technological advances in the micro processor industry, there was a very big need for a better operating system for the IBM PC and its compatibles.
- Microsoft and IBM took on a joint development project to develop OS/2, a new GUI operating system which would be owned by IBM.
- The OS/2 was released around 1990. Many people predicted that OS/2 would be the operating system for the future.
- However, OS/2 had failed and is almost dead now. Some of these reasons for its failure were marketing and the need for a relatively powerful PC to run on.
- At the same time of developing the OS/2, Microsoft was developing its own operating system called windows 3.0. It was just a GUI interface for Dos.
- Windows 3.0 was released in 1990 and was a great success, even though OS/2 was technically superior. It was compatible with earlier software running on Dos.
- There were many software packages running on windows 3.0 available shortly. This was one of the main reasons for the success of windows.

2- Legacy and the year 2000 problem:
- To give a software product a good chance of success, it has to be compatible with older versions of the same product.
- This is known as backward compatibility.
- Backward compatibility is part of the general problem called Legacy problem which is a very famous term in computer industry.
- It means that there is a history relevant to a certain product that has to be considered.
- The legacy problem is not restricted to software. It is also present in hardware especially in mainframes where you could have a mainframe that has parts from 1990 and other parts from 1970.
- There is a huge amount of programs written. It is very hard and expansive to change these programs or stop their use. This leads to the famous Year 2000 problem or the millennium Bug.
- Many programs written in the 70s and 80s used two digits instead of 4 digits when referring to years. For example, instead of writing 1975, they wrote 75.
- The programmers who wrote those programs never thought that they would still be used in the year 2000. As an example, if you write 01 as a year it meant 1901 instead of 2001.
- So, when the year 2000 arrives, all dates in those programs will be wrong.
- To solve this problem, millions of code in programs had to be inspected and some of them needed to be changed. The cost of fixing this problem was estimated to be around 500 billion dollars.
3- Network Operating System:
- The earlier operating systems for PCs dealt with the PC as a separate unit that controls and has access only to its resources.
- So, there was a need for a new type of operating system that will allow the PC to interact with other computers. Such type of operating systems is called Network Operating System (NOS).
- Network operating system needs to perform the same functions of a regular operating system plus some additional features.
- The main additional features of a network operating system are:
a- Multi-user: the system needs to allow more than one user to access the computer resources at one time without interfering with each other.
b- Multi-task: with multi-tasking, the CPU time is divided among more than one program so that the system allows more than one task (or program) to run at the same time.
c- Portable: this allows NOS to work across different types of computers with different architectures.
d- Secure: because more than one user can access the system, the system should provide its users with security features so that everybody can access only his own things.
e- Compatible: the system should communicate with other operating systems on the network.
f- Safe: the system should be protected against accidental damage (like a computer virus).


4- Competition , collaboration and co-operation:
- The computer industry has many features that distinguish it from many other industries.
- These features led to companies being partners in one computer product and big enemies in another (like IBM and Microsoft, Netscape and Microsoft).
- Some of the reasons that led to such dynamic and fast shifting relations between companies are:

[list][*]
Moore’s law: Due to this law, the computer industry develops at a very high rate. So, companies try to keep up by making alliances and breaking them if necessary.
[/list]

[list][*]
Passionate about computers: Most of the leaders in computer companies are not regular businessmen. So, there are many products that were developed by people who made the product free for any one to use.
[/list]

[list][*]
Personalities: the founders of the computer industry were holding strong opinions about computer issues that often conflicted with other leaders in the industry.
[/list]

[list][*]
Development costs: In the computer industry, people often try to guess what the next hot technology will be. So, to develop some products, bug companies often try to be partners with a small company that has the experts in that product. If the product failed, then the big company would not lose as much as the cost of developing the whole product by itself, and it would end the partnership.
[/list]













خوخة غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 30-12-2004, 12:03 PM   #2
نــــــــــورا نــــــــــورا غير متصل
عضو شرف
 
الصورة الرمزية نــــــــــورا

 










افتراضي الرد على : الجزء الثاني


احختي خوخة تستطيعي شغط الملف ببرنامج winzip وبالتالي رفعه للمنتدى واذا ماعرفتي انا رح اراسلك على الخاص واخذه منك عن طريق الايميل وبالتالي رفعه للمنتدى حتى يستطيع الطلاب الاستفادة منه.
نــــــــــورا غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 31-12-2004, 09:16 AM   #3
خلود خلود غير متصل
مشرف سابق
 
الصورة الرمزية خلود

 











افتراضي الرد على : الجزء الثاني


مشكوره :خوخه
والله ماقصرتي
الله يجزاك الجنه حبيبتي
خلود غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 01-01-2005, 11:38 AM   #4
نــــــــــورا نــــــــــورا غير متصل
عضو شرف
 
الصورة الرمزية نــــــــــورا

 










افتراضي الرد على : الجزء الثاني


مشكووورة اختي وهذا الملف .
الملفات المرفقة
نوع الملف: zip Module-1_Summary.zip‏ (52.3 كيلوبايت, المشاهدات 104)
نــــــــــورا غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 03-01-2005, 06:05 PM   #5
الحزن الأكيد الحزن الأكيد غير متصل
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الصورة الرمزية الحزن الأكيد

 











الرد على : الجزء الثاني


مشكوره خوخه يعطيكي العافيه ..


تحياتي
الحزن الأكيد غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 09-01-2005, 07:21 PM   #6
aimhigh aimhigh غير متصل
طالب جديد
 
الصورة الرمزية aimhigh

 










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