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قديم 10-04-2008, 01:22 PM   #1
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افتراضي Analysis paintings of David-part 2


[center]hi all
here i'll put most of David paniting I hope it will help u
first i'll start with 'The Oath of the Horatii' as all we did it in TMA 3




Symbolic theme


The painting depicts the Roman Horatii, who according to Titus Livius' Ab Urbe Condita (From the Founding of the City) were male triplets destined to wage war against the "Curiatii," who were also male triplets, in order to settle disputes between the Romans and the Albans of the city of Alba Longa. As revolution in France loomed, paintings urging loyalty to the state rather than to clan or clergy abounded. Although it was painted nearly five years before the revolution in France, the Oath of the Horatii became one of the defining images of the time.

In the painting, the three brothers express their loyalty and solidarity with Rome before battle, wholly supported by their father. These are men willing to lay down their lives out of patriotic duty. In this patriarchal society, the steely men, with their resolute gaze and taut, outstretched limbs are citadels of republican patriotism. They are symbols of the highest virtues of the Republic, even as the tender-hearted women lay home weeping and mourning, ******* to wait.

The mothers and sisters are shown clothed in silken garments seemingly melting into tender expressions of sorrow. Their despair is partly explained by the fact that one sister was engaged to one of the Curiatii and another is a sister of the Curiatii, married to one of the Horatii. Upon defeat of the Curiatii, the remaining Horatius journeyed home to find his sister cursing Rome over the death of her fiancé. He killed her, horrified that Rome was being cursed. Originally David had intended to depict this episode, and a drawing survives showing the surviving Horatius raising his sword, with his sister lying dead. David later decided that this subject was too gruesome a way of sending the message of public duty overcoming private feeling, but his next major painting depicted a similar scene - Lucius Junius Brutus brooding as the bodies of his sons, whose executions for treason he had ordered, are returned home.

The painting shows the three brothers on the left, the Horatii father in the center and the sister/wives on the right. Starting from the left, the Horatii brothers, there are the three of them swearing upon (saluting) their swords as they take their oath. As members of a patriarchal society, the men show no sense of emotion. Even the father shows no emotions. He holds up three swords. On the right, there are three women weeping, one in the back and two up closer. The woman dressed in the white is a Horatii sister weeping for both her fiancée and her brother, as the one dressed in brown is a Curiatii sister who weeps for her husband and her brother. The woman in black in the back is holding two children of one of the Horatii husband and the Curiatii wife. The younger daughter hides her face in her nanny’s dress as the son refuses to have his eyes shielded.



The story

"This painting occupies an extremely important place in the body of David’s work and in the history of French painting. The story was taken from Livy. We are in the period of the wars between Rome and Alba, in 669 B.C. It has been decided that the dispute between the two cities must be settled by an unusual form of combat to be fought by two groups of three champions each. The two groups are the three Horatii brothers and the three Curiatii brothers. The drama lay in the fact that one of the sisters of the Curiatii, Sabina, is married to one of the Horatii, while one of the sisters of the Horatii, Camilla, is betrothed to one of the Curiatii. Despite the ties between the two families, the Horatii's father exhorts his sons to fight the Curiatii and they obey, despite the lamentations of the women
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Symbolic technique

This painting shows the neoclassical art style,[1] and employs various techniques that were typical for it:

The background is deemphasized, while the figure in the foreground are emphasized to show their importance.
The use of dull colors is to show the importance of the story behind the painting over the painting itself.
The picture is clearly organized, depicting the symbolism of the number three and of the moment itself.
The focus on clear, hard details and the lack of use of the more wispy brushstrokes preferred by Rococo art.
The brushstrokes are invisible, to show that the painting is more important compared to the artist
The frozen quality of the painting is also intended to emphasize rationality, unlike the Rococo style.
The only emotion shown is from the women, who were allowed to feel, while it was for the men to do their duty with heroic determination.[1]
The fact that it also depicts a morally complex or disturbing story lends to its classification as a neoclassical work.



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oath_of_the_Horatii



التوقيع

Even the dearest, that I love the best
are strange-nay, rather stranger than the rest."John Clare"
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قديم 10-04-2008, 01:29 PM   #2
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افتراضي رد: Analysis paintings of David


THe Death of Marat


Context


The painting represents the 1793 fate of Jean-Paul Marat, the writer of the radical newspaper L'Ami du peuple (The Friend of the People) and prominently associated with the Jacobin faction during the Reign of Terror, although he was never an outright member. Marat was stabbed on July 13 while writing in his bathtub by Charlotte Corday, a supporter of the more moderate Girondist faction who came to Paris from Normandy obsessed with the idea of killing the man she perceived as a "beast", in order "to save France", and got to approach him using the subterfuge of reporting traitors to the cause of the Revolution.

Marat often sought the comfort of a cold bath to ease violent itchings due to a skin disease long said to have been contracted years earlier, when he was forced to hide from his enemies in the Paris sewers. More recent examination of Marat's symptoms has led to the assertion that Marat's skin eruptions came from coeliac disease, an allergy to gluten, found most commonly in wheat.

David was a close friend of Marat, as well as a strong supporter of Robespierre and the Jacobins. He was overwhelmed by their natural capacity for convincing crowds with their speeches, something he hadn't yet easily achieved through painting (not to mention his difficulty to speak, due to a facial deformation caused by an injury during a duel). Determined to memorialize his friend, David not only organized for him a lavish funeral, but painted his portrait soon afterwards. He was asked to do it because of his previous painting, The Death of Lepelletier de Saint-Fargeau. (After 1826, nobody saw this work, representing the first martyr of the Revolution, a deputy murdered on January 20. The official reason for his death was for having voted for the death of King Louis XVI, though he was possibly also the victim of some obscure plot implicating Spain.)

Despite the haste in which the portrait of Marat was painted (the work was completed and presented to the National Convention less than four months after Marat's death), it is generally considered to be David's best work, a definite step towards modernity, and an inspired and inspiring political statement.


Style: an iconographic paradox

Although the figure of Marat himself is idealized—for example, none of the skin problems from which he suffered are obvious in David's depiction—the details surrounding the subject are considered largely true-to-life. David said that he had visited Marat the day before his assassination and remembered seeing the sheet, the green rug, the papers, and the pen, saying to his peers of the Convention later on he would depict their murdered friend as he had seen him: "écrivant pour le bonheur du peuple" ("writing for the good of the people"). The name of the assassin, Charlotte Corday, can be seen on the paper held in Marat's left hand; but notably enough, the murderer has been withdrawn, although we literally watch Marat at his last breath, in other words: when Corday and many others were still around (it is established that Corday didn't try to escape). In this sense, for realistic as it is in its details, this painting, as a whole, from its start, is a methodical construction focusing on the victim, a striking set up regarded today by several critics as an "awful beautiful lie"—certainly not a photograph in the forensic scientific sense and barely the simple image it may seem.

First and above all, of course, this painting is a portrait of the man Charlotte Corday killed on the 13th of July. But there is more here than meets the eye. The painting as we know it has often been compared to Michelangelo's Pietà—note, in particular, the elongated arm hanging down in both works. David was also a known admirer of Caravaggio's works, especially for their composition and light, and the Entombment of Christ (1602-1604), kept in the Vatican's Pinacotheca, is another often quoted reference. The similarities may be the result of an "unconscious mental alchemy" in the brain of an artist reputed for his extended visual culture, but they may be deliberate. That David sought, in art, to transfer the sacred qualities long associated with the monarchy and the Catholic Church to the new French Republic is indisputable—no doubt he was expected to do so by the leaders of the Terror. Consequently, he painted Marat, martyr of the Revolution, in a style reminiscent of a Christian martyr, with the face and body bathed in a soft, glowing light, but as Christian Art had done it from its beginning, he also played here with multileveled references including Classical Art, this in order, not only to respond to an immediate political event (aspect that "ate" the literature on the subject, probably due to the impact of French Revolution on occidental imagination), but as well to compete with Rome as Capital and Mother City of the Arts, the French revolutionairs being thrilled with the idea of forming a kind of new Roman Republic.

In that perspective, more models, having a Roman origin (as a student of the Academy of France, David spent many years in Rome where he made more than 1,000 drawings he later kept in 12 albums, copied from the ancient masters) possibly interfered. Quite interesting is to observe that almost all of these models (the relief of Il letto di Policletto from the Palazzo Mattei, the statue on the façade from the jesuit church Il Gesu, the Giuditta with the head of Holoferne painted by Guido Reni or the copy made by Carlo Maratta, etc.) were to be seen in the same Roman neighbourhood, precisely the one were David stayed at the Academy of France (which was then located in Via del Corso, close to the Campidoglio). Doing so in the long hot summer of 1793 (this heat being the reason of the rapid decay of Marat's corpse which gave so much trouble for the funeral), David actually continued a fascinating regeneration process (of the Arts and of himself) he initiated earlier in the year with his Death of Lepelletier, an image achieved in less than three months, quoting his own previous Hector from his Andromaque mourning the body of Hector (his 1783 reception work to the Academy), both images (Hector, Lepelletier) reprocessing previous works such as The Testament of Eudamidas by Poussin (the most Roman of the French painters) before 1650, and the saint Sebastien carved by Giuseppe Giorgetti before 1672 (for the basilica of San Sebastiano fuori le Mura in Rome).

Therefore, rarely has a painting been such a paradox, for this "multifaceted" image is simultaneously a portrait, a historical painting in the highest sense (the way David himself emphasized it in the lists he later left of his own works), a realistic image, an idealized one, a burning topical act, and a scholarly condensation of multiple ancient models. The key of the artistic achievement being of course to succeed in this "meticulous mix", this to elaborate a powerful and haunting "icon for the masses".

In the painting the knife is found on the ground beside the bathtub, not in Marat's ches




Later history


Widely admired during the Terror whose leaders ordered several copies of the original work (copies made in 1793-1794 by David's pupils to serve propaganda), The Death of Marat had fallen into disfavor at the time of Robespierre's fall and execution. It was returned to David in 1795, himself being prosecuted for his involvement in the Terror as a close friend of Robespierre (he would have to wait for Napoleon's rise to become prominent in the arts once more). From 1795 to David's death, the painting languished in obscurity and fell into oblivion. In 1826 (and later on), the family tried to sell it, with no success at all. It was rediscovered by the critics in the mid-nineteenth century, especially by Charles Baudelaire whose famous comment in 1846 became the starting point of an increased interest among artists and scholars. In the 20th century, the painting inspired several painters (among them Picasso who delivered his own version) and writers (the most famous being Peter Weiss with his play Marat/Sade).

The original painting is currently displayed at the Royal Museum of Fine Arts in Brussels, being there as a fortunate result of a decision made by the family to offer it, in 1886, to the city where the painter had lived quietly and died in exile after the fall of Napoleon. Some of the copies (the exact number of those completed remains uncertain) made by David's pupils (among them, Serangeli and Gérard) survived, notably visible in the museums of Dijon, Reims, and Versailles.

The death of Marat was also depicted by other artists, including Charlotte Corday by Paul Jacques Aimé Baudry, painted in 1860, nearly a century after the murder, during the Second Empire. This painting, made when Marat's "dark legend" (the angry monster insatiably hungry for blood) was widely spread among educated people, depicts Charlotte Corday as a true heroine of France, a model of virtue for the younger generations.
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افتراضي رد: Analysis paintings of David


The Lictors Bring to Brutus the Bodies of His Sons (1789)



For his next painting, David created The Lictors Bring to Brutus the Bodies of His Sons. The work had tremendous appeal for the time. Before the opening of the Salon, the French Revolution had begun. The National Assembly had been established, and the Bastille had fallen. The royal court did not want propaganda agitating the people, so all paintings had to be checked before being hung. David’s portrait of Lavoisier, who was a chemist and physicist as well as an active member of the Jacobin party, was banned by the authorities for such reasons.[7] When the newspapers reported that the government had not allowed the showing of The Lictors Bring to Brutus the Bodies of His Sons, the people were outraged, and the royals were forced to give in. The painting was hung in the exhibition, protected by art students. The painting depicts Lucius Junius Brutus, the Roman leader, grieving for his sons. Brutus's sons had attempted to overthrow the government and restore the monarchy, so the father ordered their death to maintain the republic. Thus, Brutus was the heroic defender of the republic, at the cost of his own family. On the right, the Mother holds her two daughters, and the grandmother is seen on the far right, in anguish. Brutus sits on the left, alone, brooding, but knowing what he did was best for his country. The whole painting was a Republican symbol, and obviously had immense meaning during these times in France
.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacques-Louis_David

This is other analysis in other websit for the same painting



In all his historical paintings done in the years immediately precedinge great revolution, David worked hard to introduce the themes of the triumph and role of reason. In the Oath of the Horatii, the father demands a committment from his sons. A few years later, in this picture, the demands are on the father, but both are in the name of reason.


The full title of this work is "Brutus Returning HOme after Having Sentenced His Sons for Plotting a Tarquinian Restoration and Conspiring against Roman Freedom; the Lictors Brint their Bodies to be Buried." Having led the fight which overthrew the monarchy and established the Roman Republic, Brutus tragically saw his own sons participate in a plot to restore the monarchy. As a judge, he was called upon to render the verdict, and unhesitatingly condemned his own boys to death.


In 1789, for David to bring up such a subject was hotly controversial, and reveals how deeply committed the artist was to the new ideas and enlightement principals. Indeed, had the revolution not occurred, this picture would doubtlessly could never have been exhibitied publicly. But in the exciting days following the fall of the bastille, David's picture was seen as a republican manifesto, and greatly raised David's reputation.

The picture's influence was immedialy felt in other ways, including taste, fashion and even morals. "After it was exhibited," one commentator noted, "fashion returned to hair without p[owder and women adoptlked loose hair styles, soon to be followed by men.... Corsets were banished, as were high-heeled shoes and women got into the habit of replacing so-called court dresses by light and simple clothes, which were more elegant than sumptuous."


Artistically, David achieved his effect through an uncompromising clarity and a subordination of color to drawing. This economy of statement were in keeping with the new severity of taste, while his themes gave expression to the new cult of the civic virtues of stoical self-sacrifice, devotion to duty, honesty, and austerity. Seldom have paintings so completely typified the sentiment of an age as David's The Oath of the Horatii (1784), The Death of Socrates (1787), and Brutus and his Dead Sons (Louvre, 1789). They were received with acclamation by critics and public alike, and have become almost the logo of the French Revolution.


http://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/his...av_brutus.html
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افتراضي رد: Analysis paintings of David


The Death of Socrates

At the height of his youthful popularity and enthusiasm, part of a close circle of friends (including Chernier, Lafayette and Lavoisier) who were purshing for radical political reform, David painted this unusual historical picture in 1787. Commissioned by the Trudaine de Montigny brothers, leaders in the call for a free market system and more public discussion, this picture depicts the closing moments of the life of Socrates. Condemned to death or exile by the Athenian government for his teaching methods which aroused scepticism and impiety in his students, Socrates heroicly rejected exile and accepted death from hemlock.


For months, David and his friends debated and discussed the importance of this picture. It was to be another father figure (like the Horatii and Brutus), unjustly condemned but who sacrifices himself for an abstract principle. By contrasting the movements of the energetic but firmly controlled Socrates, and his swooning disciples, through the distribution of light and dark accents, David transforms what might have been only a fashionable picture of martyrdom to a clarion call for nobility and self-control even in the face of death.

Here the philosopher continues to speak even while reaching for the cup, demonstrating his indifference to death and his unyielding commitment to his ideals. Most of his disciplines and slaves swirl around him in grief, betraying the weakness of emotionalism. His wife is seen only in the distance leaving the prison. Only Plato, at the foot of the bed and Crito grasping his master's leg, seem in control of themselves.


For contemporaries the scene could only call up memories of the recently abandoned attempt at reform, the dissolution of the Assembly of Notables in 1787, and the large number of political prisoners in the king's jails or in exile. David certainly intended this scene as a rebuke to cringing souls. On the eve of the Revolution, this picture served as a trumpet call to duty, and resistance to unjust authority. Thomas Jefferson was present at its unveiling, and admired it immensly. Sir Joshua Reynolds compared the Socrates with Michelangelo's Sistine Ceiling and Raphael's Stanze, and after ten visits to the Salon described it as `in every sense perfect'.



http://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/his...l_dav_soc.html


The Death Of Socrates

In contemporary with the Age of Enlightenment, also called the Age of Reason in France, neoclassical painters used famous works of literature as a source of inspiration for their paintings. The Death Of Socrates (1787; Oil on canvas, 129.5 x 196.2 cm or 51 x 77 1/4 in) by Jacques Louis David, is a perfect example of a neoclassical painter using a famous work of literarue, in this case Plato’s Phaedo, as his source of inspiration. Plato’s marvelous work, however, was not completely captured in David’s this painting, instead David looking through “Roman lenses” chose to focus more on the famous philosopher’s immortality.

In the painting The Death of Socrates, the painter Jacques Louis David, takes a scene from Plato’s Phaedo and paints it from a Roman perspective. For example the setting of the scene takes place in a chamber that has Roman arches on the windows and an arch in the hallway. In addition there is also a Roman style lamp found behind Socrates. Other than the Roman perspective portrayed by David there is also a distribution of light and dark accents in this masterwork that aids in distinguishing the significance and “divinity” of Socrates. First of all, the light coming from the windows in the background and the lamp in the background are not the main source of light in this scene. However, the origin of the primary source of light that is emphasizing on Socrates and then on his disciples is unknown.

In David’s painting the light that shines on Socrates is brighter than all of the other light sources. This contrast in lighting helps emphasize Socrates’ “godliness”. In addition to the lighting contrast, Socrates “godliness” is also reflected on way his body has been painted. David painted Socrates with an ideally proportioned and athletic body in his painting so that he can depict Socrates as perfect man or a god like man. In addition Socrates is seen as a father like figure with great amount of wisdom because a beard is painted on his face. David summed up all of Socrates’ beliefs by painting physical emotions on Socrates.

Socrates movements and gesture demonstrates how he sacrifices himself, like a Greek god would, rather than betray his principles. David painted Socrates pointing his finger upward and higher than anyone in this painting to symbolize that his philosophical teachings have no end. In addition to painting Socrates with his a notion, David painted Socrates without anything supporting his back. A Socrates without any back support aids in showing the viewer that Socrates is strong and free to move about. The shackles in the floor also help illustrate a sense of freedom, however, this freedom is of his spirit being freed from this material world. This painting is not only projecting a martyrdom but it is also a clarion call to the viewer for nobility and self-control even in the face of death.

Socrates is perceived to be very calm and at peace, as he discusses the immortality of the soul with his disciples. Even though Socrates is in his deathbed, he is still teaching, philosophizing, and thanking the God of Health, Asclepius, for the hemlock brew, which, by the way, will insure a peaceful death. His last words are "a cock for Asclepius!” Which symbolizes that he is sacrificing himself to that god just like the cock will sacrificed. His students on the other hand are in grief and seem to be taking his execution worse than Socrates. Socrates had his wife and family removed had to be removed from the chamber where he was to drink the poison because the might get too emotional and his last request was to die in “omened silence”. Some of the story told in the Phaedo is seen the scene portrayed in David’s painting

Both David’s neoclassical painting and Plato’s literary work depicts the closing moments of the life of Socrates. This is when he is condemned to death by hemlock by the Athenian government for his teaching methods, which aroused skepticism and impiety in his students. Although David’s painting was an illustration of Plato’s Phaedo, the scene in the painting was slightly different because was painted through a Roman point of view
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قديم 11-04-2008, 12:43 PM   #5
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افتراضي رد: Analysis paintings of David


The Tennis Court Oath

The Tennis Court Oath (French: serment du jeu de paume) was a pivotal event during the French Revolution. The Oath was a pledge signed by 576 members out of 577 of France's Third Estate and a few members of the First Estate during a meeting of the Estates-General of 20 June 1789 in a tennis court near the Palace of Versailles. As of 17 June 1789 this group began to call themselves the National Assembly,[1] which became the name of the primary French legislative body.

On the morning of 20 June the deputies were shocked to discover that the doors to their chamber were locked and guarded by soldiers. Immediately fearing the worst and anxious that a royal coup was imminent, the deputies congregated in a nearby indoor handball court where they took a solemn collective oath "never to separate, and to meet wherever circumstances demand, until the constitution of the kingdom is established and affirmed on solid foundations".[2]

The deputies pledged to continue to meet until a constitution had been written, despite the royal prohibition. The oath was both a revolutionary act, and an assertion that political authority derived from the people and their representatives rather than from the monarch himself. Their solidarity forced Louis XVI to order the clergy and the nobility to join with the Third Estate in the National Assembly


Text of the Assembly's decree


The Assembly quickly decrees the following:

The National Assembly, considering that it has been called to establish the constitution of the realm, to bring about the regeneration of public order, and to maintain the true principles of monarchy; nothing may prevent it from continuing its deliberations in any place it is forced to establish itself; and, finally, the National Assembly exists wherever its members are gathered.

Decrees that all members of his assembly immediately take an oath never to separate, and to reassemble wherever circumstances require, until the constit ution of the realm is established and fixed upon solid foundations; and that said oath having been sworn, all members and each one individually confirm this unwavering resolution with his signature


Text of Oath

We swear never to separate ourselves from the National Assembly, and to reassemble wherever circumstances require, until the constitution of the realm is drawn up and fixed upon solid foundations


[center]Significance of the Tennis Court Oath

The Oath signified the first time that French citizens formally stood in opposition to Louis XVI, and the refusal by members of the National Assembly to back down forced the king to make concessions. The Oath also inspired a wide variety of revolutionary activity in the months afterwards, ranging from rioting across the French countryside to renewed calls for a written French constitution.

Moreover, the Oath communicated in unambiguous fashion the idea that the deputies of the National Assembly were declaring themselves the supreme state power. From this point forward, Louis XVI would find the Crown increasingly unable to rest upon monarchical traditions of divine right.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oath_of_the_Tennis_Court
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افتراضي رد: Analysis paintings of David


Portrait of Monsieur Lavoisier and His Wife


Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier (1743-1794) was an eminent scientist. Elected to the Académie des Sciences at the age of twenty-five, he became the first great French chemist. In 1783, he was the first person to succeed in determining the composition of water and in synthesizing the compound from its elements. This discovery made him famous. He was also an extremely wealthy man. A Fermier-Général (tax collector for the Crown), he belonged to that class of financiers whose wealth would eventually arouse envy and precipitate its downfall. He was also a remarkable administrator. In recognition of his very diverse talents, he was elected alternate deputy to the States-General in 1789. His wife, Marie-Anne Paulze (1758-1836), was the daughter of a Fermier-Général. She took drawing lessons from David, and was an intelligent, cultured woman with a passion for chemistry that matched her husband's..


In this double portrait David has painted a happy couple--two intelligent, sensitive people who are united by tenderness for each other. Aside from his portraits of the members of his own family, David, ever the realist, did not paint many common people. Most of his models came from the aristocracy and the haute-bourgeoisie. For this painting, David was paid an astronomical sum at the time: $ 25,000, or nearly double the amount he received as the royal commission for the Oath of the Horatii..


He preferred the sublime to the unpretentious; the Lavoisiers, however, had both qualities. David expresses his respect and affection for them through the air of superior simplicity with which he has endowed them. What David is depicting in this portrait is charming virtue, natural talent, intimacy between two exceptional individuals. This is the core of the painting.


The balance is achieved through its delicacy and harmony: the composition is enhanced by the dominant colors--red, black, blue, and white. David makes Madame Lavoisier's full white dress a soft, luminous mass that corresponds to the softness of her features and her gaze. Her husband's black suit takes on a kind of luster from the whites and reds around it. The warmth of the large red velvet table covering reinforces the subdued simplicity of the scene.


The laboratory instruments have a shimmering quality. The distillation flask on the right has the transparency and brilliance of the finest glass, while the test tubes on the table have the flat, dense look of thick glass; each instrument has its own distinct texture and reflections play off their surfaces with a marvelous lightness. They are in the picture to bear witness to the Lavoisiers' experiments and their sole object is to serve as symbols and emblems jujst as portfolio in the left background is a reminder of Madame Lavoisier's interest in art..


The static nature of the painting is skillfully broken in the triangle bisected by Lavoisier's extended leg. This is not merely family tenderness--it is also amusing chemistry. It is a felicitous and quietly radiant display of David's talent at its best. Fortunately, the painting contains no hint of the tragedies ahead. Both Lavoisier and his wife will be guillotined in the reign of Terror, just 5 years later.

http://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/his...av_lavois.html
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قديم 11-04-2008, 02:44 PM   #7
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افتراضي رد: Analysis paintings of David


here i put them in word file
wish u all the best

fro0om:ga6wh^_^
الملفات المرفقة
نوع الملف: doc David paintings analysis.doc‏ (231.5 كيلوبايت, المشاهدات 1027)
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قديم 30-04-2009, 09:34 AM   #8
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افتراضي رد: سؤاااال سريع عن لوحااات ديفد ....!!!


و عليكم السلام و رحمة الله و بركاته

صباح النــــــــور

ديفد عنده 4 لوحات غير موت سقراط (5 in total)
كل اللوحات صراحة مهمة و داخلة في المواضيع اللي درسناهم خصوصا Brutus و Marat
بس حتى Napoleon و Horatti مهمين!
نصيحة لا تحفظين شي ... افهمي قصة اللوحات و اكتبي باسلوبج .. و ركزي على الجانب السياسي للوحة أكثر من الفني لأن هذا المهم.
إحنا بالمدتيرم جانا Brutus الجانب السياسي للوحة

تلقين تلخيص حلو حق اللوحات هني http://www.aoua.com/vb/showthread.php?t=155269
(شكرا لبنت الشرق)

GOOD LUCK ~!
G_MadLoL غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 07-06-2009, 09:50 PM   #9
Arwa Abh Arwa Abh غير متصل
طالب جديد
 
الصورة الرمزية Arwa Abh

 










افتراضي رد: سؤاااال سريع عن لوحااات ديفد ....!!!


السلام عليكم .......اليكم ما استطعت تقديمه من شرح للوحات ....... كما وانتظر اي تعديل ممن له وجهة نظر اخرى ........... جزاكم الله عنا كل خير
39
For his next painting, David created The Lectors' Bring to Brutus the Bodies of His Sons, the Roman leader, grieving for his sons. Brutus's sons had attempted to overthrow the government and restore the monarchy, so the father ordered their death to maintain the republic. Thus, Brutus was the heroic defender of the republic, at the cost of his own family. On the right, the Mother holds her two daughters, and the grandmother is seen on the far right, in anguish. Brutus sits on the left, alone, brooding, but knowing what he did was best for his country. The whole painting was a Republican symbol, and obviously had immense meaning during these times in France
In 1789, for David to bring up such a subject was hotly controversial, and reveals how deeply committed the artist was to the new ideas and enlightenment principals. Indeed, had the revolution not occurred, this picture would doubtlessly could never have been exhibited publicly. But in the exciting days following the fall of the Bastille, David's picture was seen as a republican manifesto, and greatly raised David's reputation.
The picture's influence was immediacy felt in other ways, including taste, fashion and even morals. "After it was exhibited," one commentator noted, "fashion returned to hair without powder and women adopt ked loose hair styles, soon to be followed by men.Corsets were banished, as were high-heeled shoes and women got into the habit of replacing so-called court dresses by light and simple clothes, which were more elegant than sumptuous."
David achieved his effect through an uncompromising clarity and a subordination of color to drawing. This economy of statement were in keeping with the new severity of taste, while his themes gave expression to the new cult of the civic virtues of stoical self-sacrifice, devotion to duty, honesty, and austerity. Seldom have paintings so completely typified the sentiment of an age.

40
The story “the Oath of the Horatii” was taken from Titus – Livy. We are in the period of the wars between Rome and Alba, in 669 B.C. It has been decided that the dispute between the two cities must be settled by an unusual form of combat to be fought by two groups of three champions each. The two groups are the three Horatii brothers and the three Christi brothers. The drama lay in the fact that one of the sisters of the Christi, Sabina, is married to one of the Horatii, while one of the sisters of the Horatii, Camilla, is betrothed to one of the Curiatii. Despite the ties between the two families, the Horatii’s father exhorts his sons to fight the Curiatii and they obey, despite the lamentations of the women.
David decided to treat the beginning, rather than the denouement of the action.
The painting is containing different divides, the left and right sides differ not only in their physical composition, but also in the emotional connotations each depicts. on the left, the men are more activity, larger, animated, and brought to the foreground with a ‘for love of country and sacrificing to it’ on the right, the women are subdued, smaller, huddled for comfort, and moved closer to the background as they weep for husbands, brothers, and all that war brings.
In the painting, the three brothers express their solidarity and loyalty with Rome before fight, wholly supported by their father. These are men willing to lay down their lives out of patriotic duty. On the left, light colors which had drawn the seers’ eye to view strong and enthusiasm. While on the right, dusty colors refer to weeping, mourning and fear the women to children (thy in armful the mother) from the fight.
Then loveliness in design of the decor is reduced to a more abstract order, that of architectural space – massive columns, equally massive arches, opening out onto a majestic shadow.
Both David and Rousseau expressed similar notions in different ways-one in his writings and the other in his paintings. Both promoted patriotism and loyalty to the state and tried to spread the spirit of commitment and sacrifice instead of greed and selfishness. Both emphasized the need for the general will instead of the particular will. Both appealed to people’s conscience to do the morally right thing that benefits the majority of the people in a civil state.




41
This picture depicts the closing moments of the life of Socrates. Condemned to death or exile by the Athenian government for his teaching methods which aroused skepticism and impiety in his students; Socrates heroically rejected exile and accepted death from hemlock.
It was to be another father figure (like the Horatii and Brutus), unjustly condemned but who sacrifices himself for an abstract principle. By contrasting the movements of the energetic but firmly controlled Socrates, and his swooning disciples, through the distribution of light and dark accents, David transforms what might have been only a fashionable picture of martyrdom to a clarion call for nobility and self-
In David’s painting the light that shines on Socrates is brighter than all of the other light sources. This contrast in lighting helps emphasize Socrates’ “godliness”. In addition to the lighting contrast, Socrates “godliness” is also reflected on way his body has been painted. David painted Socrates with an ideally proportioned and athletic body in his painting so that he can depict Socrates as perfect man or a god like man. In addition Socrates is seen as a father like figure with great amount of wisdom because a beard is painted on his face. David summed up all of Socrates’ beliefs by painting physical emotions on Socrates.
Here the philosopher continues to speak even while reaching for the cup, demonstrating his indifference to death and his unyielding commitment to his ideals. Most of his disciplines and slaves swirl around him in grief, betraying the weakness of emotionalism. His wife is seen only in the distance leaving the prison. Only Plato, at the foot of the bed and Crito grasping his master's leg, seem in control of themselves.
First of all, the light coming from the windows in the background and the lamp in the background are not the main source of light in this scene. However, the origin of the primary source of light that is emphasizing on Socrates and then on his disciples is unknown.
For contemporaries the scene could only call up memories of the recently abandoned attempt at reform, the dissolution of the Assembly of Notables in 1787, and the large number of political prisoners in the king's jails or in exile. David certainly intended this scene as a rebuke to cringing souls. On the eve of the Revolution, this picture served as a trumpet call to duty, and resistance to unjust authority.

42
‘The Death of Marat’ is an idealistic portrait painted by Jacques-Louis David, depicting the
Assassination of one of the leaders of the French Revolution, Jean-Paul Marat.Through the title
of his paper, he became widely acknowledged as just that. Marat used his ‘the Friend of the People’ publication frequently to call for popular violence against politicians. Marat was a part of a group
of people called the ‘Sans Culottes’. The ‘Sans Culottes’ supported Marat, and Marat
Had an influence over them. The main target of his calls was largely a group of people called the ‘Girondins’.
During this period, groups of citizens in every town were required to write up lists of people suspected of opposing the government. Citizens of whatever sex, age, or condition were ruthlessly executed purely for being suspected of opposing the government; “public safety” was in fact at an all time low. Marat was vocal in support of the executions and this was what ultimately led to his demise. Marat was stabbed on July 13, while writing in his bathtub by Charlotte Corday, a supporter of the more moderate Girondist faction. By depicting Marat in such a martyr like fashion, David ensured that Marat’s political ideologies would live on. In Marat’s right hand is the pen with which he had been writing and draped over part of the bathtub is a cloth, which serves as a desk. By attempting to paint Marat as a ‘friend of the people’, and Corday as someone who falsely appealed to his generosity at the very moment he was responding to a citizens needs.
Marat is slumped in the bathtub, hand outstretched, lying motionless, in a lifeless picture of tranquility and peace. Marat is portrayed in a similar pose to sculptor Michelangelo’s masterpiece Pieta, which depicts Christ, arm outstretched as David depicted Marat. The significance is the inference that Marat sacrificed himself for the good of the people, just as Christ is said to have done. Other religious elements are also prominent, the halo like turban around Marat’s head, and the heavenly light shining upon Marat’s angelic face The portrayal of Marat in this way contrasts with other accounts of Marat. Marat up until the moments before his death was a violent man who totally supported the executions of all those who opposed the government. Marat was once known to have said, “In order to ensure public tranquility 200,000 heads must be cut off.”




43
The painting depicts Bonaparte leading his army through the Alps on a mule, a journey Napoleon and his army of soldiers made in the spring of 1800, in an attempt to surprise the Austrian army in Italy.
Napoleon is seen wearing clothing appropriate for his location: over his uniform he wears a long topcoat, which is wrapped firmly around him, in which he keeps his gloveless right hand warm. He retains a piece of his dignity in the gold-trimmed black bicorn he wears on his head. On the left of the mule is his guide, Pierre Nicholas Dorsaz, who must constantly push himself and the mule forward, and who leans heavily on the shaft of wood he clutches in his left hand to allow himself to continue moving forward. His clothes are weather-beaten, his face ruddy from the cold. He is not allowed the luxury of riding an animal, for he must be able to navigate independently, on the ground.
Elements of the cold, harsh environment of the Alps are apparent: distant mountains capped in snow rise up behind Napoleon and his troupe, while a steep cliff face appears on his left, and the path underfoot has a thick layer of ice.
Delaroche wanted to depict Napoleon as a credible man, who suffered and underwent human hardship too, on his most daring exploits, and felt that making him appear as he really would have been in the situation would by no means debase or diminish Napoleon's iconic status or legacy, but rather make him a more admirable person.
Along with the mass of white seen behind Napoleon, the amber sunlight glow, originating from the West of Napoleon's troupe, is the central source of lighting in the painting. It introduces contrast when coupled with shadow, and, by illumination, highlights key aspects of the scene; this is particularly seen by the light that falls across Bonaparte's pigeon chest. Napoleon and the mule he is saddled on are richly textured visually by the contrasting light and shade, as is the guide leading the mule. The ice and snow layers, also, are made whiter by the sunshine from the West, brightening the whole scene. However, the overhanging cliff on the left of Napoleon's guide and the legs of the mule both cast shadows to balance the lighting scheme of the painting.
The textural hues and schemes that Delaroche uses in this painting are quite detailed and well considered, especially in regards to the most important figures. Such aspects of the work were described as being '...rendered with a fidelity that has not omitted the plait of a drapery, the shaggy texture of the four-footed animal, nor a detail of the harness on his back'.

التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة Arwa Abh ; 07-06-2009 الساعة 09:53 PM



التوقيع

ما تحسَّر أهل الجنة على شيء كما تحسروا على ساعة لم يذكروا فيها اسم الله

إمـــــــــــــلأ أوقات الإنتــظـــار بالإســتـــغفــــار
Arwa Abh غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 07-06-2009, 10:10 PM   #10
Arwa Abh Arwa Abh غير متصل
طالب جديد
 
الصورة الرمزية Arwa Abh

 










افتراضي رد: سؤاااال سريع عن لوحااات ديفد ....!!!


igThe Lictors Bring to Brutus the Bodies of His Sons (1789)






For his next painting, David created The Lictors Bring to Brutus the Bodies of His Sons, the Roman leader, grieving for his sons. Brutus's sons had attempted to overthrow the government and restore the monarchy, so the father ordered their death to maintain the republic. Thus, Brutus was the heroic defender of the republic, at the cost of his own family. On the right, the Mother holds her two daughters, and the grandmother is seen on the far right, in anguish. Brutus sits on the left, alone, brooding, but knowing what he did was best for his country. The whole painting was a Republican symbol, and obviously had immense meaning during these times in France


In 1789, for David to bring up such a subject was hotly controversial, and reveals how deeply committed the artist was to the new ideas and enlightement principals. Indeed, had the revolution not occurred, this picture would doubtlessly could never have been exhibitied publicly. But in the exciting days following the fall of the bastille, David's picture was seen as a republican manifesto, and greatly raised David's reputation.

The picture's influence was immediacy felt in other ways, including taste, fashion and even morals. "After it was exhibited," one commentator noted, "fashion returned to hair without powder and women adopt ked loose hair styles, soon to be followed by men.... Corsets were banished, as were high-heeled shoes and women got into the habit of replacing so-called court dresses by light and simple clothes, which were more elegant than sumptuous."



David achieved his effect through an uncompromising clarity and a subordination of color to drawing. This economy of statement were in keeping with the new severity of taste, while his themes gave expression to the new cult of the civic virtues of stoical self-sacrifice, devotion to duty, honesty, and austerity. Seldom have paintings so completely typified the sentiment of an age



قصة اللوحة ::

حاول ابناء بروتس الانقلاب على الملكيه وتحويلها لجمهوريه فقام الملك بروتس بالحكم بالاعدام على ابناءه حفاظا على بلده وهذا يشير الى التفاني من اجل الوطن والاخلاص والصدق والدفاع عنه مهما كلف الامر
كان اسلوب دافيد مميز في تلك اللوحة كان مخالف للمقاييس الاكادمية بكل شيء
وهذا ماجعل دافيد ياخد جائزة روما وينضم للاكاديمية في فرنسا لاسلوبه الراقي والمميز

ونرى باللوحة كيف استطاع دافيد من تنظيم الالوان وتناسقها وتدرجاتها فجعل الاب في عتمة والام والابنتان في ضوء وبين دافيد طبيعة لباس النساء في ذلك العصر من خلال ثيابهم الطويلة الفضفاضة وحليهم واحذيتهم ذو الكعوب العاليه واستخدم الاشكال الهندسيه ( المثلث ) في الستارة الخلفيه وفي لباسهم وفي الاثاث

وبالرغم من صارمة الاب بالحكم بالاعدام على ابناءه الا ان الحزن واضح عليه من خلال التشنجات في قدمه ويده

ولقد بين دافيد ( رسام الثورة ) حزن وولع الام وبناتها على اولادها من خلال قسمات وجهها وحركة يدها

ونرى ان العتمة واضحة كثيرا عند الابناء القتوليين وكما هو معروف ان الشيء المختلف في اللوحة هو الشيء الذي يود الفنان الاشارة له

فنرى ان اللوحة ذات الوان فاتحة وقريبه اما من جهة اليسار فاللون قاتم لان دافيد يود ان ننظر الى حاله الاب الصارم وضعفه امام اخلاصه وولائه لدولته وامام مشاعر الابوة تجاه اولاده

ونرى في اللوحة عدة اقسام قسمة ::

الجهة اليمنى من الامام :: الام وبناتها والحزن الظاهر عليهم

ومن الجهة اليسرى من الامام :: انفصام الاب تجاه اولاده ووطنه

ومن الخلف من الجهة اليمنى :: هناك ستارة رمادية ترابيه كان دافيد يود ان يشير الينا بان هناك خفايا سياسيه لا نعرفها من وراء تلك الحادثه ( اي ماخفي كان اعظم )

ومن الجهة اليسرى من الخلف :: محور القصه والهدف منها وهو موت ابناء بروتس بسبب محاولتهم الانقلاب على الدولة وكانها رساله لكل من يحاول بذلك سيكون مصيره الاعدام ولو كان اقرب الناس



'The Oath of the Horatii'





The story “the Oath of the Horatii” was taken from Titus – Livy. We are in the period of the wars between Rome and Alba, in 669 B.C. It has been decided that the dispute between the two cities must be settled by an unusual form of combat to be fought by two groups of three champions each. The two groups are the three Horatii brothers and the three Curiatii brothers. The drama lay in the fact that one of the sisters of the Curiatii, Sabina, is married to one of the Horatii, while one of the sisters of the Horatii, Camilla, is betrothed to one of the Curiatii. Despite the ties between the two families, the Horatii’s father exhorts his sons to fight the Curiatii and they obey, despite the lamentations of the women. David succeeded in ennobling these passions and transforming these virtues into something sublime.
David decided to treat the beginning, rather than the denouement of the action.

The painting is containing different divides, the left and right sides differ not only in their physical composition, but also in the emotional connotations each depicts. on the left, the men are more activity, larger, animated, and brought to the foreground with a ‘for love of country and sacrificing to it’ on the right, the women are subdued, smaller, huddled for comfort, and moved closer to the background as they weep for husbands, brothers, and all that war brings.

In the painting, the three brothers express their solidarity and loyalty with Rome before fight, wholly supported by their father. These are men willing to lay down their lives out of patriotic duty. In this virile society, the made of iron men, with their resolute gaze and taut, outstretched limbs are citadels of republican patriotism. They are symbols power and of the highest virtues of the Republic, even as the tenderhearted women lay home weeping and mourning, ******* to wait result of the war.

On the left, light colors which had drawn the seers’ eye to view strong and enthusiasm. While on the right, dusty colors refer to weeping, mourning and fear the women to children (thy in armful the mother) from the fight.

Then loveliness in design of the decor is reduced to a more abstract order, that of architectural space – massive columns, equally massive arches, opening out onto a majestic shadow. The three archways loosely correspond to the three groups. The contemplative atmosphere is softened by shades of green, brown, pink, and red, all very discreet. Instead of opening his painting out onto a landscape or an expanse of sky, David closes it off to the outside, bathes it in shadow. As a result, the light in this setting takes on a brick-toned reflection, which encircles his figures with a mysterious halo.

There are the geometrical figures in “The Oath of the Horatii”
Triangle; this one slightly left of center and inverted. The eye is immediately drawn to these triangular compositions such as triangle in foots the men and it in the their clothes; yet it also notices the contradicting horizontal lines of the marble floor in the foreground, and the strong vertical lines of the Doric columns and curvilinear archways of the background. All the geometrical figures refer to gravity event.

This painting certainly served to promote the spirit of loyalty, the rejection of selfishness and spread unity so that more men will be prepared to fight for their state. It gives a clear and precise message in visual terms. This source was perhaps more effective than Rousseau’s writings to those who were illiterate.
Both David and Rousseau expressed similar notions in different ways-one in his writings and the other in his paintings. Both promoted patriotism and loyalty to the state and tried to spread the spirit of commitment and sacrifice instead of greed and selfishness. Both emphasized the need for the general will instead of the particular will. Both appealed to people’s conscience to do the morally right thing that benefits the majority of the people in a civil state.

The theme of the painting has an extreme patriotic and neoclassical perspective; it later became a model work for future painters



يبين دافيد كيف يستطيع الفن ان يرتبط بالاحداث السياسيه والاجتماعية ومنها حادثة الحرب :

هناك حرب سوف تقام بين روما والبا ويجب ان تكون بين ثلاثة ابطال من كل عائلة
الاخوة الثلاث من هوراتي والاخوة الثلاثه الاخرى من كوراتي ورغم العلاقة الحميمة بين العائلتين لان احدى اخوات كوراتي مخطوبه لاحد اخوة هوراتي واخوت من كوراتي متزوجه من شاب من هوراتي

واللوحة مقسمة الى قسمين ::
على الجهة اليسى نرى الرجال اكثر حماسه ونشاط المنبعث من الاب لاولاده والقوة الظاهرة في نضرتهم الحادة وقوة اجسادهم الظاهرة وحبهم للتضحية من اجل الوطن
اما الجهة اليمنى نجد نحيف النساء وحزنهم على ازواجهم واخوتهم واولادهم وضعفهم امام تلك الحرب الضاريه

الالوان من الجهة اليمنى قاتمة لتعبر عن الحزن من جراء الحرب من خلال لباسهم لالوان قاتمة ترابيه كالرمادي
والالوان فاتحة وساطعه في الجهة اليسرى لتعبر عن القوة والحماس من خلال لباسهم لالوان فاتحه كالاحمر


وتعمد الفنان دافيد من رسم ذلك الحدث داخل بناء معمعاري ليعبر عن الضيق والحزن
ولم يرسمه في الجو الخارجي حتى لانشعر براحه في المنطر الطبيعي

واستخدم ايضا الشكل الهندسي ( المثلث ) ايضا ليشد انتباه الناظر للوحة
فنرى المثلث واضح في الاعمدة وفي لباسهم ووقفتهم واقدامهم

ولقد توحدت افكار روسو مع لوحات دافيد في فكرة استخدام الجنرال ول بدل البارتكيورال ول


























The Death of Socrates







This picture depicts the closing moments of the life of Socrates. Condemned to death or exile by the Athenian government for his teaching methods which aroused skepticism and impiety in his students; Socrates heroically rejected exile and accepted death from hemlock.

تلك الصورة تمثل حادثة الحكم على سقراط بالاعدام او النفي لان اساليب تدريسه تثير الشك والعصيان في طلابه ضد الدولة الا انه لزم الصمت وهدوء النفس واختار شرب السم بدلا من النفي او الاعدام

It was to be another father figure (like the Horatii and Brutus), unjustly condemned but who sacrifices himself for an abstract principle. By contrasting the movements of the energetic but firmly controlled Socrates, and his swooning disciples, through the distribution of light and dark accents, David transforms what might have been only a fashionable picture of martyrdom to a clarion call for nobility and self-
Control even in the face of death.

كان ذلك الحكم حكم جائر على سقراط الذي تفاني في خدمة علمه وتقديمه للطلاب الا انه سيظل صامد امام مبادئه
ولقد اصاب تابعه الاغماء لان معلمه سوف يشرب السم ويموت
ولقد بين دافيد النبل في سقراط من خلال زيه والالوان والتقسيمات الواضحة في اللوحة
والنبل واضح على سقراط حتى في اخر لحظات حياته








In David’s painting the light that shines on Socrates is brighter than all of the other light sources. This contrast in lighting helps emphasize Socrates’ “godliness”. In addition to the lighting contrast, Socrates “godliness” is also reflected on way his body has been painted. David painted Socrates with an ideally proportioned and athletic body in his painting so that he can depict Socrates as perfect man or a god like man. In addition Socrates is seen as a father like figure with great amount of wisdom because a beard is painted on his face. David summed up all of Socrates’ beliefs by painting physical emotions on Socrates.

Here the philosopher continues to speak even while reaching for the cup, demonstrating his indifference to death and his unyielding commitment to his ideals. Most of his disciplines and slaves swirl around him in grief, betraying the weakness of emotionalism. His wife is seen only in the distance leaving the prison. Only Plato, at the foot of the bed and Crito grasping his master's leg, seem in control of themselves.

First of all, the light coming from the windows in the background and the lamp in the background are not the main source of light in this scene. However, the origin of the primary source of light that is emphasizing on Socrates and then on his disciples is unknown.

سقراط التقي هو رجل الله او صاحب الحكمة بين ذلك من خلال اللحية
كان عالما بالامور الفلسفيه والحكمة وحتى وهو في فراش الموت يعلم طلابه الفلسفة والحكمة من اشارة اصبعه للسماء يعلمهم وهو في اخر انفاسه وهذا يدل على حبه لعلمه واخلاصه له

وتظهر اللوحة انه بالسجن مع زملائه وتلاميذه الذين يودعونه في اخر لحظات حياته مع الاسى الظاهر على وجوههم بسبب ماوقع على سقراط كن ظلم
وبوضح لنا ان زوجته واطفاله يودعونه من خلال الاضاءة المنبعثه من الجهة اليمنى وان اصل الاضاءة او مصدر الضوء منبعث من سقراط نفسه لايمانه الكبير وليس من الشباك

For contemporaries the scene could only call up memories of the recently abandoned attempt at reform, the dissolution of the Assembly of Notables in 1787, and the large number of political prisoners in the king's jails or in exile. David certainly intended this scene as a rebuke to cringing souls. On the eve of the Revolution, this picture served as a trumpet call to duty, and resistance to unjust authority. Thomas Jefferson was present at its unveiling, and admired it immensely. Sir Joshua Reynolds compared the Socrates with Michelangelo's Sistine Ceiling and Raphael's Stanza, and after ten visits to the Salon described it as `in every sense perfect'.

تلك اللوحة دعوة لمقاتلة الحكومة الظالمة وتغيير الوضع الراهن واشارة مقدمة من دافيد بان هناك الكثير من السجناء او في المنافي مظلومين ويجب ان تقوم الدولة بالاصلاح وتعديل الاحكام
ووضعت تلك اللوحة في الصالون لما تحمله من رسائل ودعوات قيمة وقد تم شكر دافيد على ابداعه من عدة اشخاص.



The Tennis Court Oath






The Tennis Court Oath (French: segment du jeu de Pauma) was a pivotal event during the French Revolution. The Oath was a pledge signed by 576 members out of 577 of France's Third Estate and a few members of the First Estate during a meeting of the Estates-General of 20 June 1789 in a tennis court near the Palace of Versailles. As of 17 June 1789 this group began to call themselves the National Assembly,[1] which became the name of the primary French legislative body.

تمثل تلك اللوحة ملعب التنس الذي اجتمعو فيه العامة للمطالبه بحقوقهم والانضمام لمجلس النبلاء واصبحوا يطلقون على انفسهم الجمعيه الوطنيه التي قامو باليمين على امور معينه والتي قام 576 من اصل 577


The deputies pledged to continue to meet until a constitution had been written, despite the royal prohibition. The oath was both a revolutionary act, and an assertion that political authority derived from the people and their representatives rather than from the monarch himself. Their solidarity forced Louis XVI to order the clergy and the nobility to join with the Third Estate in the National Assembly

واصر الممثلون على الاجتماع بالرغم من الاوضاع الراهنة حتى قام الملك لويس السادس باجبار رجال الدين والنبلاء على الاجتماع من الطبقة العامة وتم انشاء الجمعية الوطنيه




Portrait of Monsieur Lavoisier and His Wife








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- Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier (1743-1794) was an eminent scientist. Elected to the Académie des Sciences at the age of twenty-five, he became the first great French chemist. In 1783, he was the first person to succeed in determining the composition of water and in synthesizing the compound from its elements. This discovery made him famous. He was also an extremely wealthy man.. His wife, Marie-Anne Paulze (1758-1836), was the daughter of a Fermier-Général. She took drawing lessons from David, and was an intelligent, cultured woman with a passion for chemistry that matched her husband's..
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انطوان لوران لافوازييه (1743-1794) كان بارزا في العالم. وانتخب لاكاديميه العلوم في سن الخمسة والعشرين ، اصبح اول الكيميائي الفرنسي العظيم. في 1783 ، وكان أول شخص على النجاح في تحديد تشكيل المياه وتوليفها في المجمع من عناصرها. هذا الاكتشاف جعلته مشهور. كما انه كان رجل ثري للغاية
- زوجته امراة مثقفه وموهوبه كانت تاخد دروس رسم من دافيد وكانت باركه وتشارك زوجها في الكيمياء







In this double portrait David has painted a happy couple--two intelligent, sensitive people who are united by tenderness for each other. Aside from his portraits of the members of his own family, David, ever the realist, did not paint many common people. Most of his models came from the aristocracy and the haute-bourgeoisie. For this painting,

لم يكن من عادة دافيد رسم الاشخاص الا النماذج منهم كالارستقراطيين والبرجوازيين
وتلك اللوحة تبين العلاقة الحميمه والسعيده بين الزوجين من خلال قربهم لبعض

The balance is achieved through its delicacy and harmony: the composition is enhanced by the dominant colors--red, black, blue, and white. David makes Madame Lavoisier's full white dress a soft, luminous mass that corresponds to the softness of her features and her gaze. Her husband's black suit takes on a kind of luster from the whites and reds around it. The warmth of the large red velvet table covering reinforces the subdued simplicity of the scene.

ويتحقق التوازن من خلال دقة والوئام : تكوين ومما يعزز المهيمنه الالوان -- الأحمر ، الأسود ، الأزرق ، والابيض. ديفيد يجعل السيدة لافوازييه الكامل اللباس الابيض لينة ، مضيءه في الكتلة ان يستجيب ليونة ولها ملامحها نظره. زوجها الاسود تناسب يأخذ على نوع من اللمعان من البيض والحمر حوله. دفء كبير من القطيفه الحمراء التي تغطي الجدول يعزز مستضعفه بساطة الى مكان الحادث.

The laboratory instruments have a shimmering quality. The distillation flask on the right has the transparency and brilliance of the finest glass, while the test tubes on the table have the flat, dense look of thick glass; each instrument has its own distinct texture and reflections play off their surfaces with a marvelous lightness. They are in the picture to bear witness to the Lavoisiers' experiments and their sole object is to serve as symbols and emblems jujst as portfolio in the left background is a reminder of Madame Lavoisier's interest in art..

وهنا يبدا دافيد بوصف ادوات المختبر وملمسها وضوئها وايضا دافيد يلجا لاستخدام الشكل الهندسي في اللوحة وهو المثلث.















.
Bonaparte Crossing the Alps





The painting depicts Bonaparte leading his army through the Alps on a mule, a journey Napoleon and his army of soldiers made in the spring of 1800, in an attempt to surprise the Austrian army in Italy

اللوحة تصور بونابرت من خلال قيادته للجيش جبال الألب على بغل ، رحلة نابليون وجيشه من الجنود في ربيع 1800 ، وذلك في محاولة لمفاجاه الجيش النمساوي في ايطاليا.

France had gone from being ruled by a monarchy to becoming a democracy. However, no one would have suspected that when Napoleon Bonaparte was put in charge of France's army in Italy that he would eventually come to claim himself Emperor of France a few years later. The convention, meanwhile, had been dissolved and replaced with the Directory in 1795: five men who were voted in each year to make the major decisions for France. Napoleon gained favor in France by winning military campaigns against Austria. He was a hero of the people. In 1799, Abbe Sieyes, one of the members of the Directory, that year helped Napoleon stage a coup of Paris. Napoleon and his military power took the city and Napoleon dissolved the Directory, replacing it with a leadership council of his choosing. Napoleon had taken France as his own.

خلال قيادة نابليون للجيش كان هناك انقلاب الحكم ضد الحكم الملكي لجعله جمهوري
وقد كان نابليون من الموافقين على ذلك الانقلاب




he planned to launch a surprise assault on the Austrian army stationed in the Cisalpine Republic. Based on the assumption that the Austrians would never expect Napoleon's large force to be able to traverse the Alps, he chose that as his route. He selected the shortest route through the Alps, the Great St Bernard Pass, which would enable him to reach his destination as quickly as possible. Although Napoleon's army was victorious, it suffered more casualties: approximately 1,100 to the Austrians’ 960.

وقال انه يعتزم شن هجوم مفاجئ على النمساويه الجيش المرابطه في جمهورية cisalpino. على أساس افتراض ان النمساويين لن نتوقع نابليون الكبيرة في القوة ان تكون قادرة على عبور جبال الألب ، انه اختار له الطريق. وقال انه اختار أقصر الطرق الممكنة عبر جبال الألب ، وسانت برنارد كبيرة من المرور ، التي من شأنها تمكينه من الوصول الى المقصد بلدة في اسرع وقت ممكن.وبالرغم من انتصار جيش نابليون الى انه خسر كثيرا من الضحايا في تلك الحرب


Napoleon is seen wearing clothing appropriate for his location: over his uniform he wears a long topcoat, which is wrapped firmly around him, in which he keeps his gloveless right hand warm. He retains a piece of his dignity in the gold-trimmed black bicorn he wears on his head. The mule Napoleon rides is undernourished, tired from its ordeal in struggling through the Alps. On the left of the mule is his guide, Pierre Nicholas Dorsaz, who must constantly push himself and the mule forward, and who leans heavily on the shaft of wood he clutches in his left hand to allow himself to continue moving forward. His clothes are weather-beaten, his face ruddy from the cold. He is not allowed the luxury of riding an animal, for he must be able to navigate independently, on the ground.
Elements of the cold, harsh environment of the Alps are apparent: distant mountains capped in snow rise up behind Napoleon and his troupe, while a steep cliff face appears on his left, and the path underfoot has a thick layer of ice.
Delaroche wanted to depict Napoleon as a credible man, who suffered and underwent human hardship too, on his most daring exploits, and felt that making him appear as he really would have been in the situation would by no means debase or diminish Napoleon's iconic status or legacy, but rather make him a more admirable person.

واضح في اللوحة لباس نابليون الذي يليق بقوته وشجاعته العناصر الباردة ، والبيئة القاسيه من جبال الألب واضحة : في البعيد جبال الثلج حد اقصى ارتفاع له وراء نابليون والفرقة ، في حين وجه منحدر حاد يظهر على يساره ، والطريق تحت القدمين قد طبقة سميكة من الجليد. واللوحة تصور مدى الجهد والمعانى التي يتحملها نابليون من اجل بلده







Along with the mass of white seen behind Napoleon, the amber sunlight glow, originating from the West of Napoleon's troupe, is the central source of lighting in the painting. It introduces contrast when coupled with shadow, and, by illumination, highlights key aspects of the scene; this is particularly seen by the light that falls across Bonaparte's pigeon chest. Napoleon and the mule he is saddled on are richly textured visually by the contrasting light and shade, as is the guide leading the mule. The ice and snow layers, also, are made whiter by the sunshine from the West, brightening the whole scene. However, the overhanging cliff on the left of Napoleon's guide and the legs of the mule both cast shadows to balance the lighting scheme of the painting.
The textural hues and schemes that Delaroche uses in this painting are quite detailed and well considered, especially in regards to the most important figures. Such aspects of the work were described as being '...rendered with a fidelity that has not omitted the plait of a drapery, the shaggy texture of the four-footed animal, nor a detail of the harness on his back'. The mule, especially its fur, was intensely textured and detailed to make it look visually rough and bristly and the mule itself weary and worn. The same techniques were applied to the red and yellow adornments draped and hung over the animal. The central detail of Napoleon is applied to his coat, in its ruffles and creases. Much detail and textural diversity is given to the guide too, most particularly to his face, his green, wind-caught tunic, and his leather boots.
Delaroche's attention to detail and literal precision in this painting evidences and demonstrates the slow but steady evolution of realism in art during the 19th century, and it shows how its popularity began to rise



والان مصدر الضوء القادم من اتصال ضوء الشمس بالغيوم البارده التي تلتقي بالوسط لتشكل مصدر الضوء على نابليون وبغله

ولقد اشار دافيد على ادق تفاصيل ثيابه من معطفه الطويل وحذائه وقبعته التي تدل على جنسيته وارتباطه بفرنسا

وحركة معطفه تدل على شدة الريح القادمة من الجهة اليسرى للبغل
والالوان الغامقه كالاحمر تدل على حماس نابليون وشجاعته في شده الالوان القاتمه والجو البارد الصعب













The Death of Socrates









‘The Death of Marat’ is an idealistic portrait painted by Jacques-Louis David, depicting the assassination of one of the leaders of the French Revolution, Jean-Paul Marat. Marat was a prominent member of a group of people called the ‘Jacobins’, and founder of a controversial newspaper publication, ‘L’Ami du Peuple’ (the Friend of the People). Through the title of his paper, he became widely acknowledged as just that. Marat used his ‘the Friend of the People’ publication frequently to call for popular violence against politicians. Marat was a part of a group of people called the ‘Sans Culottes’. The ‘Sans Culottes’ supported Marat, and Marat had an influence over them. The main target of his calls were largely a group of people called the ‘Girondins’. The Jacobins blamed the Girondins for the defeats on the battlefield and the rising prices of food.

تلك اللوحة تصور اغتيال احد قادة الثورة مارات وقد كان صديق للشعب لانه كان ينشر في الصحيفه امور تفيد الشعب ومقاومة السياسه الظالمة والعمل على مقاومة رفع اسعار الطعام








During this period, groups of citizens in every town were required to write up lists of people suspected of opposing the government. Citizens of whatever sex, age, or condition were ruthlessly executed purely for being suspected of opposing the government; “public safety” was in fact at an all time low. Marat was vocal in support of the executions, and this was what ultimately led to his demise. Marat was stabbed on July 13, while writing in his bathtub by Charlotte Corday, a supporter of the more moderate Girondist faction. She came to Paris from Normandy obsessed with the idea of killing the man she perceived as a ‘beast’, in order ‘to save France’, and got to approach him using the subterfuge of reporting traitors to the cause of the Revolution.
Subsequently, Jacques-Louis David was ‘commissioned by the convention’ to paint a portrait of Marat. The function of David’s painting was to ensure that the momentum of the revolution kept moving forward. If Marat was to be a symbol for maintaining the momentum of the revolution then David needed to portray him in the most appealing possible way, as ‘friend of the People’, a martyr. Obviously then, David could not portray Marat as old and ill. David’s aim was to indeed ‘construct images of the secular saint’. By depicting Marat in such a martyr like fashion, David ensured that Marat’s political ideologies would live on. With David’s painting displaying such sympathies towards Marat, he helped the Sans Culottes strengthen support, which in turn ensured Marat’s, and the Sans Cullotes ideals would therefore continue the momentum of the revolution moving forward.

وقد ظهرت فرقه للقبض على كل المشتبهيين بهم من القادة ضد الحكومة
























The assassination of Marat sent shockwaves through Paris. The fact that a ‘Girondin’ had infiltrated Paris, and killed a leading revolutionary figure in his own home scared many leaders (in particular Robespierre) who now feared the same could easily happen to them. They needed to ensure Marat’s death would raise sympathies with their parties and quash any future counter-revolutionary assassinations.
David had previously shown an aptitude for painting historical events. One of his most famous is that of ‘The Oath the Horatii’. In this painting, David depicts precisely what the French Revolution came to represent. The painting depicts three brothers declaring that they would fight to their death as champions of their city against that of a rival city, for the common good of the people. The subject of ‘The Oath of the Horatii’ is dedication and sacrifice.
This same theme was present in David’s portrayal of Marat. David shows a ‘Marat’ who sacrificed his life for the people of his country. In his hand, Marat holds a letter. In the letter, Corday pleads for assistance. This is an historical inaccuracy by David, showing the problems of representing the past, as this particular letter was never actually shown to Marat. It was only to be used by Corday to gain access to Marat if her first attempt to see him should fail. It is the distortion and manipulation of the facts such these that artists used to further a particular point of view or cause.

وقد تم اغتياله وهو في بيته لانه يقاوم ضد الدولة ويحمل رساله تحمل مصالح الشعب

In Marat’s right hand is the pen with which he had been writing and draped over part of the bathtub is a cloth, which serves as a desk. By attempting to paint Marat as a ‘friend of the people’, and Corday as someone who falsely appealed to his generosity at the very moment he was responding to a citizens needs

وقد يظهر مارات في اللوحه وهو في اشد فقره فبيته لا يحتوي الا على بساط وصندوق خشبي وورقه وقلم لانه يعيش من اجل الشعب ويمثل مطالب وحاجات الشعب

















Marat is slumped in the bathtub, hand outstretched, lying motionless, in a lifeless picture of tranquility and peace. Marat is portrayed in a similar pose to sculptor Michelangelo’s masterpiece Pieta, which depicts Christ, arm outstretched as David depicted Marat. The significance is the inference that Marat sacrificed himself for the good of the people, just as Christ is said to have done. Other religious elements are also prominent, the halo like turban around Marat’s head, and the heavenly light shining upon Marat’s angelic face. It was Marat’s aim to “construct images of a secular saint”
The portrayal of Marat in this way contrasts with other accounts of Marat. Marat up until the moments before his death was a violent man who totally supported the executions of all those who opposed the government. Marat was once known to have said, “In order to ensure public tranquility 200,000 heads must be cut off.”
Marat is dying. His eyelids droop, his head weighs heavily on his shoulder, and his right arm slides to the ground. His body, as painted by David

يمثل موت مارات بهدوئه وسكونه كطريقة موت وصلب المسيح لانه صلب من اجل مبدا ومارات اغتيل من اجل مصلحة الناس وحبهم
وصور مارات بوجهه الملائكي والنور الساطع منه وعمامته التي على راسه بانه رجل خير ومحب للشعب
وانحناء راسه وجسده في اللوحة يمثل الاعباء الكبيرة الواقعه عليه

When analyzing representations from the past we must recognize motivating factors behind representations. In a time when violence was, so prevalent ‘actuality’ was replaced by inaccurate images resulting in historical misrepresentations. This was partly due to the fear people experienced, partly due to sympathies people held. David supported the Jacobins and so this representation was biased, giving only the Jacobins perspective, not at all representing the views of Corday or the Girondins who particularly hated Marat. All reflections in history are biased documents. This is because the various problems experienced throughout history such as differing political viewpoints and loyalties affect the reliability and accuracy of historical representations. These differences affect peoples reflections, and afterthoughts of an event or experience, meaning what one person perceives and interprets in a certain way can be very different to another individuals point of view. Subsequently we must question representations of the past, such as David’s “The Death of Marat” and the validity of opposing views.

لاندري هل تلك الحادئه حقيقيه ام لا فقد يكون دافيد متحيز لمارات لانه على علاقه وثيقه به وتلك هي مشكلة الاحداث التاريخيه والسياسيه فقد يكون مات بسبب المرض الجلدي الذي يعاني منه







Arwa Abh غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 07-06-2009, 10:23 PM   #11
Arwa Abh Arwa Abh غير متصل
طالب جديد
 
الصورة الرمزية Arwa Abh

 










افتراضي رد: سؤاااال سريع عن لوحااات ديفد ....!!!


igThe Lictors Bring to Brutus the Bodies of His Sons (1789)






For his next painting, David created The Lictors Bring to Brutus the Bodies of His Sons, the Roman leader, grieving for his sons. Brutus's sons had attempted to overthrow the government and restore the monarchy, so the father ordered their death to maintain the republic. Thus, Brutus was the heroic defender of the republic, at the cost of his own family. On the right, the Mother holds her two daughters, and the grandmother is seen on the far right, in anguish. Brutus sits on the left, alone, brooding, but knowing what he did was best for his country. The whole painting was a Republican symbol, and obviously had immense meaning during these times in France


In 1789, for David to bring up such a subject was hotly controversial, and reveals how deeply committed the artist was to the new ideas and enlightement principals. Indeed, had the revolution not occurred, this picture would doubtlessly could never have been exhibitied publicly. But in the exciting days following the fall of the bastille, David's picture was seen as a republican manifesto, and greatly raised David's reputation.

The picture's influence was immediacy felt in other ways, including taste, fashion and even morals. "After it was exhibited," one commentator noted, "fashion returned to hair without powder and women adopt ked loose hair styles, soon to be followed by men.... Corsets were banished, as were high-heeled shoes and women got into the habit of replacing so-called court dresses by light and simple clothes, which were more elegant than sumptuous."



David achieved his effect through an uncompromising clarity and a subordination of color to drawing. This economy of statement were in keeping with the new severity of taste, while his themes gave expression to the new cult of the civic virtues of stoical self-sacrifice, devotion to duty, honesty, and austerity. Seldom have paintings so completely typified the sentiment of an age



قصة اللوحة ::

حاول ابناء بروتس الانقلاب على الملكيه وتحويلها لجمهوريه فقام الملك بروتس بالحكم بالاعدام على ابناءه حفاظا على بلده وهذا يشير الى التفاني من اجل الوطن والاخلاص والصدق والدفاع عنه مهما كلف الامر
كان اسلوب دافيد مميز في تلك اللوحة كان مخالف للمقاييس الاكادمية بكل شيء
وهذا ماجعل دافيد ياخد جائزة روما وينضم للاكاديمية في فرنسا لاسلوبه الراقي والمميز

ونرى باللوحة كيف استطاع دافيد من تنظيم الالوان وتناسقها وتدرجاتها فجعل الاب في عتمة والام والابنتان في ضوء وبين دافيد طبيعة لباس النساء في ذلك العصر من خلال ثيابهم الطويلة الفضفاضة وحليهم واحذيتهم ذو الكعوب العاليه واستخدم الاشكال الهندسيه ( المثلث ) في الستارة الخلفيه وفي لباسهم وفي الاثاث

وبالرغم من صارمة الاب بالحكم بالاعدام على ابناءه الا ان الحزن واضح عليه من خلال التشنجات في قدمه ويده

ولقد بين دافيد ( رسام الثورة ) حزن وولع الام وبناتها على اولادها من خلال قسمات وجهها وحركة يدها

ونرى ان العتمة واضحة كثيرا عند الابناء القتوليين وكما هو معروف ان الشيء المختلف في اللوحة هو الشيء الذي يود الفنان الاشارة له

فنرى ان اللوحة ذات الوان فاتحة وقريبه اما من جهة اليسار فاللون قاتم لان دافيد يود ان ننظر الى حاله الاب الصارم وضعفه امام اخلاصه وولائه لدولته وامام مشاعر الابوة تجاه اولاده

ونرى في اللوحة عدة اقسام قسمة ::

الجهة اليمنى من الامام :: الام وبناتها والحزن الظاهر عليهم

ومن الجهة اليسرى من الامام :: انفصام الاب تجاه اولاده ووطنه

ومن الخلف من الجهة اليمنى :: هناك ستارة رمادية ترابيه كان دافيد يود ان يشير الينا بان هناك خفايا سياسيه لا نعرفها من وراء تلك الحادثه ( اي ماخفي كان اعظم )

ومن الجهة اليسرى من الخلف :: محور القصه والهدف منها وهو موت ابناء بروتس بسبب محاولتهم الانقلاب على الدولة وكانها رساله لكل من يحاول بذلك سيكون مصيره الاعدام ولو كان اقرب الناس



'The Oath of the Horatii'





The story “the Oath of the Horatii” was taken from Titus – Livy. We are in the period of the wars between Rome and Alba, in 669 B.C. It has been decided that the dispute between the two cities must be settled by an unusual form of combat to be fought by two groups of three champions each. The two groups are the three Horatii brothers and the three Curiatii brothers. The drama lay in the fact that one of the sisters of the Curiatii, Sabina, is married to one of the Horatii, while one of the sisters of the Horatii, Camilla, is betrothed to one of the Curiatii. Despite the ties between the two families, the Horatii’s father exhorts his sons to fight the Curiatii and they obey, despite the lamentations of the women. David succeeded in ennobling these passions and transforming these virtues into something sublime.
David decided to treat the beginning, rather than the denouement of the action.

The painting is containing different divides, the left and right sides differ not only in their physical composition, but also in the emotional connotations each depicts. on the left, the men are more activity, larger, animated, and brought to the foreground with a ‘for love of country and sacrificing to it’ on the right, the women are subdued, smaller, huddled for comfort, and moved closer to the background as they weep for husbands, brothers, and all that war brings.

In the painting, the three brothers express their solidarity and loyalty with Rome before fight, wholly supported by their father. These are men willing to lay down their lives out of patriotic duty. In this virile society, the made of iron men, with their resolute gaze and taut, outstretched limbs are citadels of republican patriotism. They are symbols power and of the highest virtues of the Republic, even as the tenderhearted women lay home weeping and mourning, ******* to wait result of the war.

On the left, light colors which had drawn the seers’ eye to view strong and enthusiasm. While on the right, dusty colors refer to weeping, mourning and fear the women to children (thy in armful the mother) from the fight.

Then loveliness in design of the decor is reduced to a more abstract order, that of architectural space – massive columns, equally massive arches, opening out onto a majestic shadow. The three archways loosely correspond to the three groups. The contemplative atmosphere is softened by shades of green, brown, pink, and red, all very discreet. Instead of opening his painting out onto a landscape or an expanse of sky, David closes it off to the outside, bathes it in shadow. As a result, the light in this setting takes on a brick-toned reflection, which encircles his figures with a mysterious halo.

There are the geometrical figures in “The Oath of the Horatii”
Triangle; this one slightly left of center and inverted. The eye is immediately drawn to these triangular compositions such as triangle in foots the men and it in the their clothes; yet it also notices the contradicting horizontal lines of the marble floor in the foreground, and the strong vertical lines of the Doric columns and curvilinear archways of the background. All the geometrical figures refer to gravity event.

This painting certainly served to promote the spirit of loyalty, the rejection of selfishness and spread unity so that more men will be prepared to fight for their state. It gives a clear and precise message in visual terms. This source was perhaps more effective than Rousseau’s writings to those who were illiterate.
Both David and Rousseau expressed similar notions in different ways-one in his writings and the other in his paintings. Both promoted patriotism and loyalty to the state and tried to spread the spirit of commitment and sacrifice instead of greed and selfishness. Both emphasized the need for the general will instead of the particular will. Both appealed to people’s conscience to do the morally right thing that benefits the majority of the people in a civil state.

The theme of the painting has an extreme patriotic and neoclassical perspective; it later became a model work for future painters



يبين دافيد كيف يستطيع الفن ان يرتبط بالاحداث السياسيه والاجتماعية ومنها حادثة الحرب :

هناك حرب سوف تقام بين روما والبا ويجب ان تكون بين ثلاثة ابطال من كل عائلة
الاخوة الثلاث من هوراتي والاخوة الثلاثه الاخرى من كوراتي ورغم العلاقة الحميمة بين العائلتين لان احدى اخوات كوراتي مخطوبه لاحد اخوة هوراتي واخوت من كوراتي متزوجه من شاب من هوراتي

واللوحة مقسمة الى قسمين ::
على الجهة اليسى نرى الرجال اكثر حماسه ونشاط المنبعث من الاب لاولاده والقوة الظاهرة في نضرتهم الحادة وقوة اجسادهم الظاهرة وحبهم للتضحية من اجل الوطن
اما الجهة اليمنى نجد نحيف النساء وحزنهم على ازواجهم واخوتهم واولادهم وضعفهم امام تلك الحرب الضاريه

الالوان من الجهة اليمنى قاتمة لتعبر عن الحزن من جراء الحرب من خلال لباسهم لالوان قاتمة ترابيه كالرمادي
والالوان فاتحة وساطعه في الجهة اليسرى لتعبر عن القوة والحماس من خلال لباسهم لالوان فاتحه كالاحمر


وتعمد الفنان دافيد من رسم ذلك الحدث داخل بناء معمعاري ليعبر عن الضيق والحزن
ولم يرسمه في الجو الخارجي حتى لانشعر براحه في المنطر الطبيعي

واستخدم ايضا الشكل الهندسي ( المثلث ) ايضا ليشد انتباه الناظر للوحة
فنرى المثلث واضح في الاعمدة وفي لباسهم ووقفتهم واقدامهم

ولقد توحدت افكار روسو مع لوحات دافيد في فكرة استخدام الجنرال ول بدل البارتكيورال ول


























The Death of Socrates







This picture depicts the closing moments of the life of Socrates. Condemned to death or exile by the Athenian government for his teaching methods which aroused skepticism and impiety in his students; Socrates heroically rejected exile and accepted death from hemlock.

تلك الصورة تمثل حادثة الحكم على سقراط بالاعدام او النفي لان اساليب تدريسه تثير الشك والعصيان في طلابه ضد الدولة الا انه لزم الصمت وهدوء النفس واختار شرب السم بدلا من النفي او الاعدام

It was to be another father figure (like the Horatii and Brutus), unjustly condemned but who sacrifices himself for an abstract principle. By contrasting the movements of the energetic but firmly controlled Socrates, and his swooning disciples, through the distribution of light and dark accents, David transforms what might have been only a fashionable picture of martyrdom to a clarion call for nobility and self-
Control even in the face of death.

كان ذلك الحكم حكم جائر على سقراط الذي تفاني في خدمة علمه وتقديمه للطلاب الا انه سيظل صامد امام مبادئه
ولقد اصاب تابعه الاغماء لان معلمه سوف يشرب السم ويموت
ولقد بين دافيد النبل في سقراط من خلال زيه والالوان والتقسيمات الواضحة في اللوحة
والنبل واضح على سقراط حتى في اخر لحظات حياته








In David’s painting the light that shines on Socrates is brighter than all of the other light sources. This contrast in lighting helps emphasize Socrates’ “godliness”. In addition to the lighting contrast, Socrates “godliness” is also reflected on way his body has been painted. David painted Socrates with an ideally proportioned and athletic body in his painting so that he can depict Socrates as perfect man or a god like man. In addition Socrates is seen as a father like figure with great amount of wisdom because a beard is painted on his face. David summed up all of Socrates’ beliefs by painting physical emotions on Socrates.

Here the philosopher continues to speak even while reaching for the cup, demonstrating his indifference to death and his unyielding commitment to his ideals. Most of his disciplines and slaves swirl around him in grief, betraying the weakness of emotionalism. His wife is seen only in the distance leaving the prison. Only Plato, at the foot of the bed and Crito grasping his master's leg, seem in control of themselves.

First of all, the light coming from the windows in the background and the lamp in the background are not the main source of light in this scene. However, the origin of the primary source of light that is emphasizing on Socrates and then on his disciples is unknown.

سقراط التقي هو رجل الله او صاحب الحكمة بين ذلك من خلال اللحية
كان عالما بالامور الفلسفيه والحكمة وحتى وهو في فراش الموت يعلم طلابه الفلسفة والحكمة من اشارة اصبعه للسماء يعلمهم وهو في اخر انفاسه وهذا يدل على حبه لعلمه واخلاصه له

وتظهر اللوحة انه بالسجن مع زملائه وتلاميذه الذين يودعونه في اخر لحظات حياته مع الاسى الظاهر على وجوههم بسبب ماوقع على سقراط كن ظلم
وبوضح لنا ان زوجته واطفاله يودعونه من خلال الاضاءة المنبعثه من الجهة اليمنى وان اصل الاضاءة او مصدر الضوء منبعث من سقراط نفسه لايمانه الكبير وليس من الشباك

For contemporaries the scene could only call up memories of the recently abandoned attempt at reform, the dissolution of the Assembly of Notables in 1787, and the large number of political prisoners in the king's jails or in exile. David certainly intended this scene as a rebuke to cringing souls. On the eve of the Revolution, this picture served as a trumpet call to duty, and resistance to unjust authority. Thomas Jefferson was present at its unveiling, and admired it immensely. Sir Joshua Reynolds compared the Socrates with Michelangelo's Sistine Ceiling and Raphael's Stanza, and after ten visits to the Salon described it as `in every sense perfect'.

تلك اللوحة دعوة لمقاتلة الحكومة الظالمة وتغيير الوضع الراهن واشارة مقدمة من دافيد بان هناك الكثير من السجناء او في المنافي مظلومين ويجب ان تقوم الدولة بالاصلاح وتعديل الاحكام
ووضعت تلك اللوحة في الصالون لما تحمله من رسائل ودعوات قيمة وقد تم شكر دافيد على ابداعه من عدة اشخاص.



The Tennis Court Oath






The Tennis Court Oath (French: segment du jeu de Pauma) was a pivotal event during the French Revolution. The Oath was a pledge signed by 576 members out of 577 of France's Third Estate and a few members of the First Estate during a meeting of the Estates-General of 20 June 1789 in a tennis court near the Palace of Versailles. As of 17 June 1789 this group began to call themselves the National Assembly,[1] which became the name of the primary French legislative body.

تمثل تلك اللوحة ملعب التنس الذي اجتمعو فيه العامة للمطالبه بحقوقهم والانضمام لمجلس النبلاء واصبحوا يطلقون على انفسهم الجمعيه الوطنيه التي قامو باليمين على امور معينه والتي قام 576 من اصل 577


The deputies pledged to continue to meet until a constitution had been written, despite the royal prohibition. The oath was both a revolutionary act, and an assertion that political authority derived from the people and their representatives rather than from the monarch himself. Their solidarity forced Louis XVI to order the clergy and the nobility to join with the Third Estate in the National Assembly

واصر الممثلون على الاجتماع بالرغم من الاوضاع الراهنة حتى قام الملك لويس السادس باجبار رجال الدين والنبلاء على الاجتماع من الطبقة العامة وتم انشاء الجمعية الوطنيه




Portrait of Monsieur Lavoisier and His Wife








-
- Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier (1743-1794) was an eminent scientist. Elected to the Académie des Sciences at the age of twenty-five, he became the first great French chemist. In 1783, he was the first person to succeed in determining the composition of water and in synthesizing the compound from its elements. This discovery made him famous. He was also an extremely wealthy man.. His wife, Marie-Anne Paulze (1758-1836), was the daughter of a Fermier-Général. She took drawing lessons from David, and was an intelligent, cultured woman with a passion for chemistry that matched her husband's..
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انطوان لوران لافوازييه (1743-1794) كان بارزا في العالم. وانتخب لاكاديميه العلوم في سن الخمسة والعشرين ، اصبح اول الكيميائي الفرنسي العظيم. في 1783 ، وكان أول شخص على النجاح في تحديد تشكيل المياه وتوليفها في المجمع من عناصرها. هذا الاكتشاف جعلته مشهور. كما انه كان رجل ثري للغاية
- زوجته امراة مثقفه وموهوبه كانت تاخد دروس رسم من دافيد وكانت باركه وتشارك زوجها في الكيمياء







In this double portrait David has painted a happy couple--two intelligent, sensitive people who are united by tenderness for each other. Aside from his portraits of the members of his own family, David, ever the realist, did not paint many common people. Most of his models came from the aristocracy and the haute-bourgeoisie. For this painting,

لم يكن من عادة دافيد رسم الاشخاص الا النماذج منهم كالارستقراطيين والبرجوازيين
وتلك اللوحة تبين العلاقة الحميمه والسعيده بين الزوجين من خلال قربهم لبعض

The balance is achieved through its delicacy and harmony: the composition is enhanced by the dominant colors--red, black, blue, and white. David makes Madame Lavoisier's full white dress a soft, luminous mass that corresponds to the softness of her features and her gaze. Her husband's black suit takes on a kind of luster from the whites and reds around it. The warmth of the large red velvet table covering reinforces the subdued simplicity of the scene.

ويتحقق التوازن من خلال دقة والوئام : تكوين ومما يعزز المهيمنه الالوان -- الأحمر ، الأسود ، الأزرق ، والابيض. ديفيد يجعل السيدة لافوازييه الكامل اللباس الابيض لينة ، مضيءه في الكتلة ان يستجيب ليونة ولها ملامحها نظره. زوجها الاسود تناسب يأخذ على نوع من اللمعان من البيض والحمر حوله. دفء كبير من القطيفه الحمراء التي تغطي الجدول يعزز مستضعفه بساطة الى مكان الحادث.

The laboratory instruments have a shimmering quality. The distillation flask on the right has the transparency and brilliance of the finest glass, while the test tubes on the table have the flat, dense look of thick glass; each instrument has its own distinct texture and reflections play off their surfaces with a marvelous lightness. They are in the picture to bear witness to the Lavoisiers' experiments and their sole object is to serve as symbols and emblems jujst as portfolio in the left background is a reminder of Madame Lavoisier's interest in art..

وهنا يبدا دافيد بوصف ادوات المختبر وملمسها وضوئها وايضا دافيد يلجا لاستخدام الشكل الهندسي في اللوحة وهو المثلث.















.
Bonaparte Crossing the Alps





The painting depicts Bonaparte leading his army through the Alps on a mule, a journey Napoleon and his army of soldiers made in the spring of 1800, in an attempt to surprise the Austrian army in Italy

اللوحة تصور بونابرت من خلال قيادته للجيش جبال الألب على بغل ، رحلة نابليون وجيشه من الجنود في ربيع 1800 ، وذلك في محاولة لمفاجاه الجيش النمساوي في ايطاليا.

France had gone from being ruled by a monarchy to becoming a democracy. However, no one would have suspected that when Napoleon Bonaparte was put in charge of France's army in Italy that he would eventually come to claim himself Emperor of France a few years later. The convention, meanwhile, had been dissolved and replaced with the Directory in 1795: five men who were voted in each year to make the major decisions for France. Napoleon gained favor in France by winning military campaigns against Austria. He was a hero of the people. In 1799, Abbe Sieyes, one of the members of the Directory, that year helped Napoleon stage a coup of Paris. Napoleon and his military power took the city and Napoleon dissolved the Directory, replacing it with a leadership council of his choosing. Napoleon had taken France as his own.

خلال قيادة نابليون للجيش كان هناك انقلاب الحكم ضد الحكم الملكي لجعله جمهوري
وقد كان نابليون من الموافقين على ذلك الانقلاب




he planned to launch a surprise assault on the Austrian army stationed in the Cisalpine Republic. Based on the assumption that the Austrians would never expect Napoleon's large force to be able to traverse the Alps, he chose that as his route. He selected the shortest route through the Alps, the Great St Bernard Pass, which would enable him to reach his destination as quickly as possible. Although Napoleon's army was victorious, it suffered more casualties: approximately 1,100 to the Austrians’ 960.

وقال انه يعتزم شن هجوم مفاجئ على النمساويه الجيش المرابطه في جمهورية cisalpino. على أساس افتراض ان النمساويين لن نتوقع نابليون الكبيرة في القوة ان تكون قادرة على عبور جبال الألب ، انه اختار له الطريق. وقال انه اختار أقصر الطرق الممكنة عبر جبال الألب ، وسانت برنارد كبيرة من المرور ، التي من شأنها تمكينه من الوصول الى المقصد بلدة في اسرع وقت ممكن.وبالرغم من انتصار جيش نابليون الى انه خسر كثيرا من الضحايا في تلك الحرب


Napoleon is seen wearing clothing appropriate for his location: over his uniform he wears a long topcoat, which is wrapped firmly around him, in which he keeps his gloveless right hand warm. He retains a piece of his dignity in the gold-trimmed black bicorn he wears on his head. The mule Napoleon rides is undernourished, tired from its ordeal in struggling through the Alps. On the left of the mule is his guide, Pierre Nicholas Dorsaz, who must constantly push himself and the mule forward, and who leans heavily on the shaft of wood he clutches in his left hand to allow himself to continue moving forward. His clothes are weather-beaten, his face ruddy from the cold. He is not allowed the luxury of riding an animal, for he must be able to navigate independently, on the ground.
Elements of the cold, harsh environment of the Alps are apparent: distant mountains capped in snow rise up behind Napoleon and his troupe, while a steep cliff face appears on his left, and the path underfoot has a thick layer of ice.
Delaroche wanted to depict Napoleon as a credible man, who suffered and underwent human hardship too, on his most daring exploits, and felt that making him appear as he really would have been in the situation would by no means debase or diminish Napoleon's iconic status or legacy, but rather make him a more admirable person.

واضح في اللوحة لباس نابليون الذي يليق بقوته وشجاعته العناصر الباردة ، والبيئة القاسيه من جبال الألب واضحة : في البعيد جبال الثلج حد اقصى ارتفاع له وراء نابليون والفرقة ، في حين وجه منحدر حاد يظهر على يساره ، والطريق تحت القدمين قد طبقة سميكة من الجليد. واللوحة تصور مدى الجهد والمعانى التي يتحملها نابليون من اجل بلده







Along with the mass of white seen behind Napoleon, the amber sunlight glow, originating from the West of Napoleon's troupe, is the central source of lighting in the painting. It introduces contrast when coupled with shadow, and, by illumination, highlights key aspects of the scene; this is particularly seen by the light that falls across Bonaparte's pigeon chest. Napoleon and the mule he is saddled on are richly textured visually by the contrasting light and shade, as is the guide leading the mule. The ice and snow layers, also, are made whiter by the sunshine from the West, brightening the whole scene. However, the overhanging cliff on the left of Napoleon's guide and the legs of the mule both cast shadows to balance the lighting scheme of the painting.
The textural hues and schemes that Delaroche uses in this painting are quite detailed and well considered, especially in regards to the most important figures. Such aspects of the work were described as being '...rendered with a fidelity that has not omitted the plait of a drapery, the shaggy texture of the four-footed animal, nor a detail of the harness on his back'. The mule, especially its fur, was intensely textured and detailed to make it look visually rough and bristly and the mule itself weary and worn. The same techniques were applied to the red and yellow adornments draped and hung over the animal. The central detail of Napoleon is applied to his coat, in its ruffles and creases. Much detail and textural diversity is given to the guide too, most particularly to his face, his green, wind-caught tunic, and his leather boots.
Delaroche's attention to detail and literal precision in this painting evidences and demonstrates the slow but steady evolution of realism in art during the 19th century, and it shows how its popularity began to rise



والان مصدر الضوء القادم من اتصال ضوء الشمس بالغيوم البارده التي تلتقي بالوسط لتشكل مصدر الضوء على نابليون وبغله

ولقد اشار دافيد على ادق تفاصيل ثيابه من معطفه الطويل وحذائه وقبعته التي تدل على جنسيته وارتباطه بفرنسا

وحركة معطفه تدل على شدة الريح القادمة من الجهة اليسرى للبغل
والالوان الغامقه كالاحمر تدل على حماس نابليون وشجاعته في شده الالوان القاتمه والجو البارد الصعب













The Death of Socrates









‘The Death of Marat’ is an idealistic portrait painted by Jacques-Louis David, depicting the assassination of one of the leaders of the French Revolution, Jean-Paul Marat. Marat was a prominent member of a group of people called the ‘Jacobins’, and founder of a controversial newspaper publication, ‘L’Ami du Peuple’ (the Friend of the People). Through the title of his paper, he became widely acknowledged as just that. Marat used his ‘the Friend of the People’ publication frequently to call for popular violence against politicians. Marat was a part of a group of people called the ‘Sans Culottes’. The ‘Sans Culottes’ supported Marat, and Marat had an influence over them. The main target of his calls were largely a group of people called the ‘Girondins’. The Jacobins blamed the Girondins for the defeats on the battlefield and the rising prices of food.

تلك اللوحة تصور اغتيال احد قادة الثورة مارات وقد كان صديق للشعب لانه كان ينشر في الصحيفه امور تفيد الشعب ومقاومة السياسه الظالمة والعمل على مقاومة رفع اسعار الطعام








During this period, groups of citizens in every town were required to write up lists of people suspected of opposing the government. Citizens of whatever sex, age, or condition were ruthlessly executed purely for being suspected of opposing the government; “public safety” was in fact at an all time low. Marat was vocal in support of the executions, and this was what ultimately led to his demise. Marat was stabbed on July 13, while writing in his bathtub by Charlotte Corday, a supporter of the more moderate Girondist faction. She came to Paris from Normandy obsessed with the idea of killing the man she perceived as a ‘beast’, in order ‘to save France’, and got to approach him using the subterfuge of reporting traitors to the cause of the Revolution.
Subsequently, Jacques-Louis David was ‘commissioned by the convention’ to paint a portrait of Marat. The function of David’s painting was to ensure that the momentum of the revolution kept moving forward. If Marat was to be a symbol for maintaining the momentum of the revolution then David needed to portray him in the most appealing possible way, as ‘friend of the People’, a martyr. Obviously then, David could not portray Marat as old and ill. David’s aim was to indeed ‘construct images of the secular saint’. By depicting Marat in such a martyr like fashion, David ensured that Marat’s political ideologies would live on. With David’s painting displaying such sympathies towards Marat, he helped the Sans Culottes strengthen support, which in turn ensured Marat’s, and the Sans Cullotes ideals would therefore continue the momentum of the revolution moving forward.

وقد ظهرت فرقه للقبض على كل المشتبهيين بهم من القادة ضد الحكومة
























The assassination of Marat sent shockwaves through Paris. The fact that a ‘Girondin’ had infiltrated Paris, and killed a leading revolutionary figure in his own home scared many leaders (in particular Robespierre) who now feared the same could easily happen to them. They needed to ensure Marat’s death would raise sympathies with their parties and quash any future counter-revolutionary assassinations.
David had previously shown an aptitude for painting historical events. One of his most famous is that of ‘The Oath the Horatii’. In this painting, David depicts precisely what the French Revolution came to represent. The painting depicts three brothers declaring that they would fight to their death as champions of their city against that of a rival city, for the common good of the people. The subject of ‘The Oath of the Horatii’ is dedication and sacrifice.
This same theme was present in David’s portrayal of Marat. David shows a ‘Marat’ who sacrificed his life for the people of his country. In his hand, Marat holds a letter. In the letter, Corday pleads for assistance. This is an historical inaccuracy by David, showing the problems of representing the past, as this particular letter was never actually shown to Marat. It was only to be used by Corday to gain access to Marat if her first attempt to see him should fail. It is the distortion and manipulation of the facts such these that artists used to further a particular point of view or cause.

وقد تم اغتياله وهو في بيته لانه يقاوم ضد الدولة ويحمل رساله تحمل مصالح الشعب

In Marat’s right hand is the pen with which he had been writing and draped over part of the bathtub is a cloth, which serves as a desk. By attempting to paint Marat as a ‘friend of the people’, and Corday as someone who falsely appealed to his generosity at the very moment he was responding to a citizens needs

وقد يظهر مارات في اللوحه وهو في اشد فقره فبيته لا يحتوي الا على بساط وصندوق خشبي وورقه وقلم لانه يعيش من اجل الشعب ويمثل مطالب وحاجات الشعب

















Marat is slumped in the bathtub, hand outstretched, lying motionless, in a lifeless picture of tranquility and peace. Marat is portrayed in a similar pose to sculptor Michelangelo’s masterpiece Pieta, which depicts Christ, arm outstretched as David depicted Marat. The significance is the inference that Marat sacrificed himself for the good of the people, just as Christ is said to have done. Other religious elements are also prominent, the halo like turban around Marat’s head, and the heavenly light shining upon Marat’s angelic face. It was Marat’s aim to “construct images of a secular saint”
The portrayal of Marat in this way contrasts with other accounts of Marat. Marat up until the moments before his death was a violent man who totally supported the executions of all those who opposed the government. Marat was once known to have said, “In order to ensure public tranquility 200,000 heads must be cut off.”
Marat is dying. His eyelids droop, his head weighs heavily on his shoulder, and his right arm slides to the ground. His body, as painted by David

يمثل موت مارات بهدوئه وسكونه كطريقة موت وصلب المسيح لانه صلب من اجل مبدا ومارات اغتيل من اجل مصلحة الناس وحبهم
وصور مارات بوجهه الملائكي والنور الساطع منه وعمامته التي على راسه بانه رجل خير ومحب للشعب
وانحناء راسه وجسده في اللوحة يمثل الاعباء الكبيرة الواقعه عليه

When analyzing representations from the past we must recognize motivating factors behind representations. In a time when violence was, so prevalent ‘actuality’ was replaced by inaccurate images resulting in historical misrepresentations. This was partly due to the fear people experienced, partly due to sympathies people held. David supported the Jacobins and so this representation was biased, giving only the Jacobins perspective, not at all representing the views of Corday or the Girondins who particularly hated Marat. All reflections in history are biased documents. This is because the various problems experienced throughout history such as differing political viewpoints and loyalties affect the reliability and accuracy of historical representations. These differences affect peoples reflections, and afterthoughts of an event or experience, meaning what one person perceives and interprets in a certain way can be very different to another individuals point of view. Subsequently we must question representations of the past, such as David’s “The Death of Marat” and the validity of opposing views.

لاندري هل تلك الحادئه حقيقيه ام لا فقد يكون دافيد متحيز لمارات لانه على علاقه وثيقه به وتلك هي مشكلة الاحداث التاريخيه والسياسيه فقد يكون مات بسبب المرض الجلدي الذي يعاني منه







الملفات المرفقة
نوع الملف: doc analisis of the Davids' paintings.doc‏ (286.5 كيلوبايت, المشاهدات 18)
نوع الملف: doc تحليل المصادر.doc‏ (26.5 كيلوبايت, المشاهدات 15)
نوع الملف: doc Mill block 4.doc‏ (33.5 كيلوبايت, المشاهدات 12)
نوع الملف: doc French Revolution-د.فياض الأحساء.doc‏ (29.5 كيلوبايت, المشاهدات 14)
Arwa Abh غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 26-01-2010, 06:58 AM   #12
eternity eternity غير متصل
مشرف سابق
 
الصورة الرمزية eternity
افتراضي رد: Analysis paintings of David


هذا الموضوع فقط لاضافة شرح للوحات ديفيد

من لديه ملفات او معلومات اضافية ارجو ارفاقها

الرجاء عدم اضافة ردود الشكر او الاستفسارات هنا

اي ردود خارجة عن الموضوع سوف تحذف

وذلك ليسهل الوصول للمعلومات المهمة

شاكرة لكم حسن تعاونكم

eternity غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 02-06-2012, 07:11 AM   #13
Eiroka Eiroka غير متصل
مشرفة سابقة
 
الصورة الرمزية Eiroka
افتراضي رد: Analysis paintings of David-part 2



موضوع رائع

تمـ رفعه للفائدة ^_^

و جزا الله خيراً من قامت بكتابته : )



Eiroka غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 02-06-2012, 07:16 AM   #14
A5tnaq A5tnaq غير متصل
طالب جديد

 










افتراضي رد: Analysis paintings of David-part 2


بتحوشني جلطة

كل هذا منو بيحفظه

يالله دخيلك
A5tnaq غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
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