العودة   منتديات طلاب الجامعة العربية المفتوحة > منتديات المشرفين والمنتديات المساعدة > أرشيف المواد والمواضيع القديمة > A123b

موضوع مغلق
 
أدوات الموضوع انواع عرض الموضوع

قديم 13-04-2009, 10:34 AM   #1
بنت الشرق بنت الشرق غير متصل
طــالب

 










افتراضي مراجعه للميد تيرم part 2


خلونا نبدا مراجعه وتحضير للميد تيرم

هنا سأضع بعض الملخصات التي اراها كافيه و وافيه وقد تغني عن الكتاب
طبعا هذي الملخصات تجميع وليست جهدي الشخصي
وممكن تكون ناقصه فالي عنده زياده ياريت يفيدنا فيها


بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
نبدا بيونت 16-17


There are six major questions you need to ask whenever studying a primary source. These questions are important in proving the primary source’s authenticity or true value.(pg 10-12)



a. Date of the event: What date is it, and how close is it to the date of the described event? The document about any event should be written on the same date when the event takes place or on a very close date where the memory of whatever happened is still fresh.
b. Type of the source: What kind of source is it? Different types of sources, depending on what they are being used for, have different strengths and weaknesses in describing an event, such as private or general, formal or informal, letter or official report.
c. Purpose of the source: How did the source come into existence and for what purpose, and who created the source? When a person involved in a certain event describes what happened, how it happened, and why it happened, he provides us with an important event that must be studied carefully. This study gives us a clear idea about the reason an event happened.
d. Providing a reliable source: How far is the originator of the source really in a good position to provide any reliable information on the particular topic that interests the historian? There are many accounts of a certain event, but the evidence presented by the person who actually took part in the happening of an event will be the most accurate and reliable source. Direct knowledge is always the best way to document an event.
e. Meaning of the Source: What did the source mean to contemporaries? Most historians usually try to infer conclusions relevant to their own line of re******, but it is important to understand an event before trying to interpret or explain it. It is not always easy to understand a document, especially when it is in a foreign spoken, written, or even drawn language.
f. Primary or Secondary source: How is the source related to the obtained knowledge from other primary and secondary sources? Historians must have a considerable knowledge of the text or document they are studying in order to interpret it honestly and logically
.


Exercise, Page 14 (national Assembly)
قرأت ال ديسكجن الموجود بصفحة 15 أعتقد مهم وهو مثال عن البرايمري سورس ويتحدث عن بداية الثوره الفرنسيه

Witting Testimony and Unwitting Testimony (pg 16-17)

‘Witting’ means ‘deliberate’ or ‘intentional’; ‘unwitting’ means ‘unaware’ or ‘unintentional’. ‘Testimony’ means ‘evidence’.
‘witting testimony’ is the deliberate or intentional message of a document or other source,
‘unwitting testimony’ is the unintentional evidence that it contains about the attitudes and values of the author or about the ‘culture’ to which he/she belongs

Explain what a Primary Source is;
Primary sources, or the basic ‘raw material’ of history, are the sources that came into existence within the period being investigated. The articles and books written up later by historians, drawing upon these primary sources, converting the raw material into history, are secondary sources
Elucidate; word or phrases need to be explained

Facts in History (25)

Name the historical facts mentioned on (pg 25).
 The storming of the Bastille on July 14, 1789
 The guillotining of Louis XVI on January 21, 1793

Should we discuss the nature of Historical Facts? What is the reason? (pg 25)

There is no point in discussing the nature of historical facts, because the important matter is not to say whether it is a fact, but to determine whether this fact is a reliable evidence

ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ


Classicism is a philosophy of art and life that emphasizes order, balance, and simplicity. The ancient Greeks were the first great classicists. Later, the Romans, French, English, and others produced classical movements.

Romanticism Classicism contrasts with the philosophy of art and life

ــــــــــــــــــــ
Explain the 8 phases of the French History, 1750 - 1815 (pg 29 - 49).


a. Introduction: The French Revolution was a period of major political and social change in the political history of France and Europe as a whole. The revolution, which lasted from 1789 to 1799, also had far-reaching effects on the rest of Europe. It introduced democratic ideals to France but did not make the nation a democracy. However, it ended supreme rule by French kings and strengthened the middle class. After the revolution began, no European kings, nobles, or other privileged groups could ever again take their powers for granted or ignore the ideals of liberty and equality. For the next 75 years, France would be governed as an empire, a dictatorship, a kingdom, a constitutional monarchy, and a republic.
b. Background: The revolution began with a government financial crisis but quickly became a movement of reform and violent change. In one of the early events, a crowd in Paris captured the Bastille, a royal fortress and hated symbol of oppression. A series of elected legislatures then took control of the government. King Louis XVI and his wife, Marie Antoinette, were executed. Thousands of others met the same fate in a period called the Reign of Terror. The revolution ended when Napoleon Bonaparte, a French general, took over the government. Various social, political, and economic conditions led to the revolution. These conditions included dissatisfaction among the lower and middle classes, interest in new ideas about government, and financial problems caused by the costs of wars. Legal divisions among social groups that had existed for hundreds of years created much discontent. According to law, French society consisted of three groups called estates. Members of the clergy made up the first estate, nobles the second, and the rest of the people the third. The peasants formed the largest group in the third estate. Many of them earned so little that they could barely feed their families. The third estate also included the working people of the cities and a large and prosperous middle class made up chiefly of merchants, lawyers, and government officials. The third estate resented certain advantages of the first two estates. The clergy and nobles did not have to pay most taxes. The third estate, especially the peasants, had to provide almost all the country's tax revenue. Many members of the middle class were also troubled by their social status. They were among the most important people in French society but were not recognized as such because they belonged to the third estate. The new ideas about government challenged France’s absolute monarchy. Under this system, the king had almost unlimited authority. He governed by divine right--that is, the monarch’s right to rule was thought to come from God. There were checks on the king, but these came mainly from a few groups of aristocrats in the parliaments (high courts). During the 1700’s, French writers called philosophes and philosophers from other countries raised new ideas about freedom. Some of these thinkers, including Jean-Jacques Rousseau, suggested that the right to govern came from the people.

c. The Financial Crisis: The financial crisis developed because the nation had gone deeply into debt to finance fighting in the Seven Years’ War (1756-1763) and the Revolutionary War in America (1775-1783). By 1788, the government was almost bankrupt. The Parliament of Paris insisted that King Louis XVI could borrow more money or raise taxes only by calling a meeting of the Estates-General. This body was made up of representatives of the three estates, and it had last met in 1614. Unwillingly, the king called the meeting.
d. The Revolution Begins: The Estates-General opened on May 5, 1789, at Versailles, near Paris. Most members of the first two estates wanted each of the three estates to take up matters and vote on them separately by estate. The third estate had as many representatives as the other two estates combined. It insisted that all the estates be merged into one national assembly and that each representative have one vote. The third estate also wanted the Estates-General to write a constitution. The king and the first two estates refused the demands of the third estate. In June 1789, the representatives of the third estate declared themselves the National Assembly of France. They gathered at a tennis court and pledged not to disband until they had written a constitution. This vow became known as the Oath of the Tennis Court. Louis XVI then allowed the three estates to join together as the National Assembly, but he began to gather troops to break up the Assembly. Meanwhile, the masses of France also took action. On July 14, 1789, a huge crowd of Parisians rushed to the Bastille. They believed they would find arms and ammunition there for use in defending themselves against the king's army. The people captured the Bastille and began to tear it down. At the same time, leaders in Paris formed a revolutionary city government. Massive peasant uprisings against nobles also broke out in the countryside. A few nobles decided to flee France, and many more followed in the next five years. These people were called émigrés because they emigrated. The uprisings in town and countryside saved the National Assembly from being disbanded by the king.
e. The National Assembly: In August 1789, the Assembly adopted the Decrees of August 4 and the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. The decrees abolished some feudal dues that the peasants owed their landlords, the tax advantages of the clergy and nobles, and regional privileges. The declaration guaranteed the same basic rights to all citizens, including "liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression" as well as representative government. The Assembly later drafted a constitution that made France a limited monarchy with a one-house legislature. France was divided into 83 regions called departments, each with elected councils for local government. However, the right to vote and hold public office was limited to citizens who paid a certain amount of taxes. The Assembly seized the property of the Roman Catholic Church. The church lands amounted to about a tenth of the country's land. Much of the church land was sold to rich peasants and members of the middle class. Money from the land sales was used to pay some of the nation's huge debt. The Assembly then reorganized the Catholic Church in France, required the election of priests and bishops by the voters, and closed the Church's monasteries and convents. Complete religious tolerance was extended to Protestants and Jews. The Assembly also reformed the court system by requiring the election of judges. By September 1791, the National Assembly believed that the revolution was over. It disbanded at the end of the month to make way for the newly elected Legislative Assembly.

f. The Legislative Assembly: The new Assembly, made up mainly of representatives of the middle class, opened on Oct. 1, 1791. It soon faced several challenges. The government's stability depended on cooperation between the king and the legislature, but Louis XVI remained opposed to the revolution. He asked other rulers for help in stopping it, and plotted with aristocrats and émigrés to overthrow the new government. In addition, public opinion became bitterly divided. The revolution's religious policy angered many Catholics. Other people demanded stronger measures against opponents of the revolution. The new government also faced a foreign threat. In April 1792, it went to war against Austria and Prussia. These nations wished to restore the king and émigrés to their positions. The foreign armies defeated French forces in the early fighting and invaded France. Louis XVI and his supporters clearly hoped for the victory of the invaders. As a result, angry revolutionaries in Paris and other areas demanded that the king be dethroned. In August 1792, the people of Paris took custody of Louis XVI and his family and imprisoned them. Louis's removal ended the constitutional monarchy. The Assembly then called for a National Convention to be chosen in an election open to nearly all French males age 21 or older, and for a new constitution. Meanwhile, French armies suffered more military defeats. Parisians feared that the invading armies would soon reach the city. Parisians also feared an uprising by the large number of people in the city's prisons. In the first week of September, small numbers of Parisians took the law into their own hands and executed more than 1,000 prisoners. These executions, called the September Massacres, turned many people in France and Europe against the revolution. On September 20, French forces defeated a Prussian army in the Battle of Valmy. This victory, which prevented the Prussians from advancing on Paris, helped end the crisis.
g. The National Convention: The king's removal led to a new stage in the revolution. The first stage had been a liberal middle-class reform movement based on a constitutional monarchy. The second stage was organized around principles of democracy. The National Convention opened on Sept. 21, 1792, and declared France a republic. The republic's official slogan was "Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity." Louis XVI was placed on trial for betraying the country. The National Convention found him guilty of treason, and a slim majority voted for the death penalty. The king was beheaded on the guillotine on Jan. 21, 1793. The revolution gradually grew more radical--that is, more open to extreme and violent change. Radical leaders came into prominence. In the Convention, they were known as the Mountain because they sat on the high benches at the rear of the hall. Leaders of the Mountain were Maximilien Robespierre, Georges-Jacques Danton, and Jean-Paul Marat. Their bitter opponents were known as the Gironde because several came from a department of that name. The majority of the deputies in the Convention, known as the Plain, sat between the two rival groups. The Mountain dominated a powerful political club called the Jacobin Club. Growing disputes between the Mountain and the Gironde led to a struggle for power, and the Mountain won. In June 1793, the Convention expelled and arrested the leading Girondists. In turn, the Girondists' supporters rebelled against the Convention. Charlotte Corday, a Girondist sympathizer, assassinated Jean-Paul Marat in July 1793. In time, the Convention's forces defeated the Girondists' supporters. The Jacobin leaders created a new citizens' army to fight rebellion in France and a war against other European nations. A military draft provided the troops, and rapid promotion of talented soldiers provided the leadership for this strong army.
h. Terror and Equality: The Jacobin government was dictatorial and democratic. It was dictatorial because it suspended civil rights and political freedom in the emergency. The Convention's Committee of Public Safety took over actual rule of France, controlling local governments, the armed forces, and other institutions. The committee governed during the most terrible period of the revolution. Its leaders included Robespierre, Lazare Carnot, and Bertrand Barere. The Convention declared a policy of terror against rebels, supporters of the king or the Gironde, and anyone else who publicly disagreed with official policy. Hundreds of thousands of suspects were jailed. Courts handed down about 18,000 death sentences in what was called the Reign of Terror. Paris became used to the rattle of two-wheeled carts called tumbrels carrying people to the guillotine. Victims included Marie Antoinette, widow of Louis XVI. The Jacobins, however, also followed democratic principles and extended the benefits of the revolution beyond the middle class. Many workers participated in political life for the first time. The Convention authorized free primary education, public assistance for the poor, price controls to protect consumers from rapid inflation, and taxes based on income. It also called for the abolition of slavery in France's colonies, but most of these reforms were never fully carried out because of later changes in the government.
i. The Revolution Ends: In time, the radicals began to struggle for power among themselves. Robespierre succeeded in having Danton and other former leaders executed. Many people in France wished to end the Reign of Terror, the Jacobin dictatorship, and the democratic revolution. Robespierre's enemies in the Convention finally attacked him as a tyrant on July 27 (9 Thermidor by the French calendar), 1794. He was executed the next day. The Reign of Terror ended after Robespierre's death. Conservatives gained control of the Convention and drove the Jacobins from power. Most of the democratic reforms of the past two years were abolished in what became known as the Thermidorian Reaction. The Convention replaced the democratic constitution it had adopted in 1793 with a new one in 1795. The government formed under this new constitution was called the Directory, referring to the five-man executive directory that ruled along with a two-house legislature. France was still a republic, but once again only citizens who paid a certain amount of taxes could vote. Meanwhile, France was winning victories on the battlefield. French armies had pushed back the invaders and crossed into Belgium, Germany, and Italy. The Directory began meeting in October 1795, but it was troubled by war, economic problems, and opposition from supporters of monarchy and former Jacobins. In October 1799, a number of political leaders plotted to overthrow the Directory. They needed military support and turned to Napoleon Bonaparte, a French general who had become a hero in a military campaign in Italy in 1796 and 1797. Bonaparte seized control of the government on Nov. 9 (18 Brumaire in the revolutionary calendar), 1799, ending the revolution.
Conclusion: The French Revolution brought France into opposition with much of Europe. The monarchs who ruled the other nations feared the spread of democratic ideals. The revolution left the French people in extreme disagreement about the best form of government for their country. By 1799, most were probably weary of political conflict altogether. However, the revolution created the long-lasting foundations for a unified state, a strong central government, and a free society dominated by the middle class and the landowners





اسباب الثوره الفرنسيه جدا مهمه ودائما تتكر بالإختبارات
وهذي سرد ونقاط

The three main causes of the French Revolution were political, social, and financial. The government was inefficient, unjust and corrupt. There were too many government departments, different laws in different parts of the country and different officials. Many people became angry about the way France was being goverened and could do nothing to change it. The French parliament was called the Estates-General. It was made up of the first Estate-churchmen or clergy, the second Estate-nobility, and the third Estate-commoners.


The causes of the French Revolution;
A large gap in wealth between rich and poor
An irresponsible aristocracy a legacy of the reign of Louis xiv
Depression in the 1789, shortages of food , soaring food prices, unemployment in Paris and over population in Paris
Development of middle class which lacked political power
Financial crisis
Idea of the enlightenment and the ease of distributing the written word



اتمنى انكم تستفيدو منهم وانتظرو البقيه
بنت الشرق غير متصل  
قديم 13-04-2009, 11:32 AM   #2
aaa aaa غير متصل
طالب جديد
 
الصورة الرمزية aaa

 











افتراضي رد: مراجعه للميد تيرم


شكرا كتير الك والله ييسر النا الامور
aaa غير متصل  
قديم 14-04-2009, 11:08 AM   #3
G_MadLoL G_MadLoL غير متصل
طــالب
 
الصورة الرمزية G_MadLoL

 











افتراضي رد: مراجعه للميد تيرم


مشكووورة يا بنت الشرق


هل تعتقدون ان بالميدتيرم راح يجيبون مراحل الثورة الفرنسية؟؟ الميدتيرم مدته ساعة و في تقريبا 6 أسئلة .. ما أعتقد انه في وقت لمثل هذا السؤال؟ و الا شرايكم؟؟
أعتقد أسبابها أكيد تجي و يمكن شرح للناشيونال أسيمبلي أو الكونفكشن

انزين شنو تتوقعون يجي من روسو؟ السوشيال كونتراكت و الجنرال ويل؟
و ديفد؟؟ شرح لوحة بس و الا في شي ثاني؟؟
G_MadLoL غير متصل  
قديم 14-04-2009, 03:53 PM   #4
هيبة ملك هيبة ملك غير متصل
يتطلب التنشيط من بريدك

 











افتراضي رد: مراجعه للميد تيرم


بنت الشرق مشكوره على الاهتمام والطرح الجيّد,, والشكر لكل من شارك
لنــآ عودة بإذن الله,,, وبالتوفيق
هيبة ملك غير متصل  
قديم 14-04-2009, 05:00 PM   #5
بنت الشرق بنت الشرق غير متصل
طــالب

 










افتراضي رد: مراجعه للميد تيرم


اقتباس:
المشاركة الأصلية كتبت بواسطة g_madlol مشاهدة المشاركة
مشكووورة يا بنت الشرق


هل تعتقدون ان بالميدتيرم راح يجيبون مراحل الثورة الفرنسية؟؟ الميدتيرم مدته ساعة و في تقريبا 6 أسئلة .. ما أعتقد انه في وقت لمثل هذا السؤال؟ و الا شرايكم؟؟
أعتقد أسبابها أكيد تجي و يمكن شرح للناشيونال أسيمبلي أو الكونفكشن

انزين شنو تتوقعون يجي من روسو؟ السوشيال كونتراكت و الجنرال ويل؟
و ديفد؟؟ شرح لوحة بس و الا في شي ثاني؟؟
انا زيك ما أظن انه يطلبون نحكي عن مراحل الثوره بشكل عام

لكن ممكن يطلبون تكتبي عن بدايات الثوره واسبابها
او تتكلمي عن الناشونال اسيمبلي أو الليجميت اسيمبلي
بنت الشرق غير متصل  
قديم 14-04-2009, 05:13 PM   #6
بنت الشرق بنت الشرق غير متصل
طــالب

 










افتراضي رد: مراجعه للميد تيرم


في نهاية بعض اليونتتات موجود ال Glossary هذول مهمين احفظوهم

يونت 18-19

THE FUNDEMENTAL PROBLEM

The social contract has its solution in the social contract.

People living in a state must still obey themselves to remain as free as before. He believes it's possible to have both freedom & legitimate authority.

The state should be planned in such a way that when it appears to command the people, the people are the real commanders. So, the state does what the individuals want it to do. This sometimes could be then lead to 'totalitarian' rule.

Resolution: according to Rosseau people can be both free & ruled IF only they rule themselves.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

THE PROBLEM OF LIGITAMCY
People are born free but are in chains everywhere & they should try to escape the chains. The change from slavery to freedom has taken place but the means & the legitimacy of this change s still unknown 'Rosseau'.

People will be living in society but they should be able to live in the 'chains' within rules & laws of society with justification. He wants to say that if the society is properly managed, the 'chains' put on its citizens are not really chains.

Rousseau's conclusion to how one should live freely under the rule of someone, & still have to follow the rules & laws, is that we should not have to choose between both freedom & authority

ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ ـــــــــــــــــــ

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) was a Swiss philosopher, writer, political theorist, and self-taught composer of the Age of enlightenment, Rousseau’s political ideas influenced the French revolution, the development of socialist theory, and the growth of nationalism. His legacy as a radical and revolutionary is perhaps best demonstrated by his most famous life, from his most important work, The social contract. “Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains”

The social contract, which outline the basis for a legitimate political order was published in 1762. It became one of the most influential works of abstract political thought in the Western tradition. According to Rousseau a person or institution only has authority if they are able to command others. E.g in our society only the police have authority to stop traffic. Rousseaus call this legitimate authority. Rousseau’s idea of the state is any group of people that are controlled by a set of law that outline their behavior or conduct. This could be compared to a school where students are governed by a set of rules or laws that allow only a certain type of conduct. if there laws, are broken, penalties are imposed.
We can agree that living in a civil state gives us plenty of advantages and opportunities which we would not have outside it. He wants us not to be selfish. We should not be primarily concerned with our own individual aspirations and goals but act in the greater interest of the state. We can occasionally act according to our particular will for as long as their actions did not affect anyone. However, if the will concerns other people then it does matter. Rousseau calls the particular desires of an individual their particular will which he thinks is mostly going to be concerned with our own advantage. He also claims that the will of all is what you get if you add together the particular will of each person. He also refers to the general will. He thought that if many individuals were acting as a group, then questions would arise which required an answer from the group as a whole. This could apply to any group eg. A sports group, a social club, etc. Rousseau talks about the general will as the will of a group. Part of joining a sports team (or any team for that matter) is that you agree to act as a member of the team when the situation demands it. You do not act as an individual. The team does not work unless each individual acts as a member of the team. The same goes for living in a civil state.

Rousseau's ideas were influential at the time of the French Revolution although since popular sovereignty was exercised through representatives rather than directly, it cannot be said that the Revolution was in any sense an implementation of Rousseau's ideas. Subsequently, writers such as Benjamin Constant and Hegel sought to blame the excesses of the Revolution and especially the Reign of Terror on Rousseau, but the justice of their claims is a matter of controversy.

Criticism of the Social Contract
Some philosophers did not fully agree with Rousseau’s Social Contract , such as Lysander Spooner and Ronald Dworkin. They said that in a contract both parties must have the capacity to understand the terms of the contract they are entering into. Eg. A contract with minor children and the mentally disabled is considered void.
It is important that both parties must have some obligation to fulfil to the other. The Social Contract does not specify roles and obligations that individuals and states fulfil to each other. Citizens usually act on moral principles than knowing individual laws in most cases. Thus the mutual obligations are often not adhered to. Both parties should have an equal right to remedy upon breach of the terms by the other party.

Democracy;

Democracy is a form of government , a way of life . agoal, or ideal and apolitical philosophy.
The term also refers to a country that has a democratic form of government
The world democracy means rule by the people
Most voting decisions in democracies are based on majority rule that more than half the votes cast
A majority of the votes in some countries elections to legislative bodies are conducted according to proportional representation.
The features of democracy vary from one country to another, but certain basic features are more or less the same in all democratic nations. Free elections give the people a chance to choose their leaders and express their opinions on issues.

Democracies have various arrangements to prevent any person or branch of government from becoming too powerful.
Comparing between Rousseau and Democracy in will of state and voting:


The will of the state by Rousseau: the will of state is general will. It is what is in fact in best interest of the state. If individual is clear-headed and thinking according to reason, they will adopt the general will. If not, they be forced to do so by the state.

The will of state by democracy: abandons the idea that there is an interest of the state which is independent of people’s actual views. The will of the state is the actual view of the majority of the people.
The use of voting by Rousseau: voting is the way of finding out what the general will is, in the same way that doing a sum is the way of finding out what the answer to a math’s problem is.

The use of voting by democracy: voting is a way of discovering what the view of the majority is. It is finding out what people want, not finding out what they think the answer to a problem is. In democratic system, the system lives according to the will of others, but according to Rousseau the minority in this case is not free.

Rousseau: On passage from the state of nature to the civil state.
A remarkable change in man’s behavior and mind occur when shifting from natural state to civil state. There are in the state of nature unlimited liberty, natural instinct, act of appetite, physical impulse, pushing people to behave in stupid way like animals. On the other hand, living in a civil state has several advantages like moral quality, the voice of duty, justice and right, on personal level, the man’s capabilities are developed, his ideas are broadened. He will be transformed from stupid limited animal into intelligent being and a man who has reason and clear moral thinking.
The Civil State

Man changes considerably as he moves from the state of nature to the civil state.
Previously man was instinctive and was concerned with particular will. Now in a civil state man considers all factors concerning the state first, then his own personal gain. However man loses by the social contract his natural liberty but acquires moral liberty. Man is born free in the State of Nature- it is society, government, life that are the corruptive forces.Without these, Rousseau says that man will exist in peaceful co-habitation.
The ideal contract for Rousseau will demand that an individual gives up all his rights on entering the contract with the understanding that he will get them back from the Government or Sovereign. For him, only SOCIETY AS A WHOLE has the right to govern.

Rousseau’s idea is that living in the civil state is like signing a contract in which one agrees to abide or follow the general will and not one’s particular will. This is why he called his book THE SOCIAL CONTRACT. Like any contract, the social contract too is to do with gains and losses.Therefore Rousseau expects each individual in a civil state to commit themselves to behave as a full member of the state
بنت الشرق غير متصل  
قديم 14-04-2009, 07:08 PM   #7
بنت الشرق بنت الشرق غير متصل
طــالب

 










افتراضي رد: مراجعه للميد تيرم


يونت 20

بالنسبه ل ديفيد كل وحده تتكلم عنه على حسب ماكتبت بواجبها
وبالنسبه لعلاقة ديفيد بـ روسو

, both David and Rousseau promoted patriotism in different ways-one in his writings and the other in his paintings. Both promoted patriotism and loyalty to the state and tried to spread the spirit of commitment and sacrifice instead of agreed and selfishness. Both emphasized the need for the general will instead of the particular will. Both appealed to people’s conscience to do the morally right thing that benefits the majority of the people in a civil state. There was no place for selfishness, personal desire and ambition. This was replaced by greater concerns.

اما بالنسبه للصوره فكل الصور الي مطالبين فيهم الي لهم علاقه بالثوره الفرنسيه
واذا قرأتو تاريخ الثوره الفرنسيه مجرد قرأه حتعرفو تحللو الصور الي ممكن انها تجينا

[left]
colour plate 39

David created The Lictors Bring to Brutus the Bodies of His Sons, the Roman leader, grieving for his sons. Brutus's sons had attempted to overthrow the government and restore the monarchy, so the father ordered their death to maintain the republic. Thus, Brutus was the heroic defender of the republic, at the cost of his own family

The main character, Brutus, is placed in the extreme left, plunged into deep shadow. His body is tense ( not relaxed) and uncomfortable as he thinks hard over the consequences of his act. He holds the death warrant in his left hand and clenches his feet one across the other. On the right hand side of the painting we see the inconsolable women, crying and in grief for what has happened. These women are well lit by a source of light that is focussed on them. The grief and suffering is well-lit or brightly illuminated .The spotlight effect on the suffering female figures is very noticeable. Even the vanishing point of the perspective lines meet around the head of the mother-again taking the viewer’s attention to the suffering. The painting has a wide tonal range from very dark on the left to very bright on the right. Light and shade, the folds of the drapery, the shadows on the hands serve to show the three-dimensional effect of depth and volume. This technique is often used by David to bring the viewers attention to the sufferings some people are prepared to endure all because of their love and loyalty to their state. Colours are brighter on the right hand side, ranging from bright reds and oranges offset by white, of the women, table-cloth and empty chair. Colours are repeated on both sides.

The mother and her two daughters are in extreme, intense pain suffering the loss of their sons and brothers. These three figures are in a tightly knit group, roughly triangular in outline. Their poses, expressions, gestures shows their awareness of this tragic event. In the dark sits the ‘hero.’ His features are harsh and he contains his pain bravely. He sits in the shadow of the Roma, the symbol of the state to which this sacrifice is made. Once again, the entire event looks like a stage or theatrical scene. Pictorial space is thus limited and cut off by the background columns . The column in the middle ground seems to separate the painting into the dark section and the illuminated section. The colours again are essentially flesh tones, tonal variations of browns, grays, and an economical use of reds and blues. These colures are somber and serve to heighten the grief. Again David chose the most dramatic and intense moment when the dead bodies are just being returned to the family and captures their spontaneous reactions.



The expressions on those faces are so revealing. Men keep on serious expressions of determination and loyalty as contrasted to the ladies and children who seem to be weeping, sad and very worried. Men are majestic and as strong as the arches in the background while the women are more worried that their husbands may not return alive.
The background darkness also adds to the seriousness of the event.

This painting certainly served to promote the spirit of loyalty, the rejection of selfishness and spread unity so that more men will be prepared to fight for their state. It gives a clear and precise message in visual terms. This source was perhaps more effective than
Rousseau’s writings to those who were illiterate. [/LEFT
]


colour plate 40

David worked hard and in the history of French painting. It was this painting occupies an extremely important place in the body of David's work and in the history of French painting. It was commissioned by the Administrator of Royal Residences in 1784 and exhibited at the 1785 Salon under the title The Oath of the Horatii, between their Father's Hands. The story was taken from Titus-Livy. We are in the period of the wars between Rome and Alba, in 669 B.C. It has been decided that the dispute between the two cities must be settled by an unusual form of combat to be fought by two groups of three champions each. The two groups are the three Horatii brothers and the three Curiatii brothers. The drama lay in the fact that one of the sisters of the Curiatii, Sabina, is married to one of the Horatii, while one of the sisters of the Horatii, Camilla, is betrothed to one of the Curiatii. Despite the ties between the two families, the Horatii's father exhorts his sons to fight the Curiatii and they obey, despite the lamentations of the women.


David succeeded in ennobling these passions and transforming these virtues into something sublime. Corneille and Poussin had already used this same subject and treated it as a sentimental and aristocratic game. Unlike these, David decided to treat the beginning, rather than the denouement of the action, seeing that initial moment as being charged with greater intensity and imbued with more grandeur. And, it was he who chose the idea of the oath (it is not mentioned in the historical accounts), transforming the event into a solemn act that bound the wills of different individuals in a single, creative gesture. He was not the first painter to do so, but certainly the first to do it in such a stirring manner.

The viewer's eye spontaneously grasps two superimposed orders-that of the figures and that of the decor. The first is striking because it is organized into three different groups, each with a different purpose. To the appeal of the elder Horatius in the center, the reply on the left is the spontaneous vigor of the oath, upheld loudly and with a show of strength, while on the right it is a tearful anguish, movement turned in upon It self, compressed into emotion. The distance between the figures accentuates this contrast. To the heroic determination of the men the canvas opposes the devastated grief of the women and the troubled innocence of the children.
The decor is reduced to a more abstract order, that of architectural space--massive columns, equally massive arches, opening out onto a majestic shadow. The three archways loosely correspond to the three groups. The contemplative atmosphere is softened by shades of green, brown, pink, and red, all very discreet. Instead of opening his painting out onto a landscape or an expanse of sky, David closes it off to the outside, bathes it in shadow. As a result, the light in this setting takes on a brick-toned reflection, which encircles his figures with a mysterious halo.

Through David's rigorous and efficient arrangement, the superior harmony of the colors, and the spiritual density of the figures, this sacrifice, transfigured by the oath, becomes the founding act of a new aesthetic and moral order. He onsciously intended it to be a proclamation of the new neoclassical style in which dramatic lighting, ideal forms, and gestural clarity are emphasized. Presenting a lofty moralistic (and by implication patriotic) theme, the work became the principal model for noble and heroic historical painting of the next two decades. It also launched David's personal popularity and awarded him the right to take on his own students.
بنت الشرق غير متصل  
قديم 14-04-2009, 07:13 PM   #8
بنت الشرق بنت الشرق غير متصل
طــالب

 










افتراضي رد: مراجعه للميد تيرم


colour plate 42

‘The Death of Marat’ is an idealistic portrait painted by Jacques-Louis David, depicting the assassination of one of the leaders of the French Revolution, Jean-Paul Marat. Marat was a prominent member of a group of people called the ‘Jacobins’, and founder of a controversial newspaper publication, ‘L’Ami du Peuple’ (the Friend of the People). Through the title of his paper, he became widely acknowledged as just that. Marat used his ‘the Friend of the People’ publication frequently to call for popular violence against politicians. Marat was a part of a group of people called the ‘Sans Culottes’. The ‘Sans Culottes’ supported Marat, and Marat had an influence over them. The main target of his calls were largely a group of people called the ‘Girondins’. The Jacobins blamed the Girondins for the defeats on the battlefield and the rising prices of food
Subsequently, Jacques-Louis David was ‘commissioned by the convention’ to paint a portrait of Marat. The function of David’s painting was to ensure that the momentum of the revolution kept moving forward. If Marat was to be a symbol for maintaining the momentum of the revolution then David needed to portray him in the most appealing possible way, as ‘friend of the People’, a martyr. Obviously then, David could not portray Marat as old and ill. David’s aim was to indeed ‘construct images of the secular saint’. By depicting Marat in such a martyr like fashion, David ensured that Marat’s political ideologies would live on. With David’s painting displaying such sympathies towards Marat, he helped the Sans Culottes strengthen support, which in turn ensured Marat’s, and the Sans Cullotes ideals would therefore continue the momentum of the revolution moving forward.

In Marat’s right hand is the pen with which he had been writing and draped over part of the bathtub is a cloth, which serves as a desk. By attempting to paint Marat as a ‘friend of the people’, and Corday as someone who falsely appealed to his generosity at the very moment he was responding to a citizens needs, David clearly displays bias. This however contrasts to other representations of the event, as it was said at the trial of Corday that her decision to stab Marat depended upon the response of Marat upon hearing of the opposition. Marat’s reaction to hearing of the opposition was “Good, in a few days I will have them all guillotined.”
Further inaccuracies by David are evident. The appalling skin disease is not apparent. Instead, we are faced with an image of a young healthy man. The old wooden crate, and the white sheet, which covers his head, complete with a patch, they are all aimed at drawing attention to the poverty and inglorious surroundings in which Marat lived. Furthermore, the painting’s background is dull; the walls are undecorated and scant of any color. In reality the walls of Marat’s “were decorated with elegant wallpaper and decorations to beautify the interior”
Marat is slumped in the bathtub, hand outstretched, lying motionless, in a lifeless picture of tranquility and peace. Marat is portrayed in a similar pose to sculptor Michelangelo’s masterpiece Pieta, which depicts Christ, arm outstretched as David depicted Marat. The significance is the inference that Marat sacrificed himself for the good of the people, just as Christ is said to have done. Other religious elements are also prominent, the halo like turban around Marat’s head, and the heavenly light shining upon Marat’s angelic face. It was Marat’s aim to “construct images of a secular saint”

Marat is dying. His eyelids droop, his head weighs heavily on his shoulder, and his right arm slides to the ground. His body, as painted by David, is that of a healthy man, still young. The scene inevitably calls to mind a rendering of the ‘Descent from the Cross’. The face is marked by suffering, but is also gentle and suffused by a growing peacefulness as the pangs of death loosen their grip. David has surrounded Marat with a number of details borrowed from his subject's world, including the knife and Charlotte Corday's petition, attempting to suggest through these objects both the victim's simplicity and grandeur, and the perfidy of the assassin. The petition, “My great unhappiness gives me a right to your kindness,” the assignat Marat was preparing for some poor unfortunate “you will give this assignat to that mother of five children whose husband died in the defense of his country.” The make shift writing-table and the mended sheet are the means by which David discreetly bears witness to his admiration and indignation.

The face, the body, and the objects are suffused with a clear light, which is softer as it falls on the victim's features and harsher as it illuminates the assassin's petition. David leaves the rest of his model in shadow. In this sober and subtle interplay of elements can be seen, in perfect harmony with the drawing, the blend of compassion and outrage David felt at the sight of the victim.

colour plate 43

The painting depicts Bonaparte leading his army through the Alps on a mule, a journey Napoleon and his army of soldiers in an attempt to surprise the Austrian army in Italy

Napoleon is seen wearing clothing appropriate for his location: over his uniform he wears a long topcoat, which is wrapped firmly around him, in which he keeps his gloveless right hand warm. He retains a piece of his dignity in the gold-trimmed black bicorn he wears on his head. The mule Napoleon rides is undernourished, tired from its ordeal in struggling through the Alps. On the left of the mule is his guide, Pierre Nicholas Dorsaz, who must constantly push himself and the mule forward, and who leans heavily on the shaft of wood he clutches in his left hand to allow himself to continue moving forward. His clothes are weather-beaten, his face ruddy from the cold. He is not allowed the luxury of riding an animal, for he must be able to navigate independently, on the ground.
Elements of the cold, harsh environment of the Alps are apparent: distant mountains capped in snow rise up behind Napoleon and his troupe, while a steep cliff face appears on his left, and the path underfoot has a thick layer of ice.
Delaroche wanted to depict Napoleon as a credible man, who suffered and underwent human hardship too, on his most daring exploits, and felt that making him appear as he really would have been in the situation would by no means debase or diminish Napoleon's iconic status or legacy, but rather make him a more admirable person.


الي عنده اي اضافات ياريت يفيدنا
بنت الشرق غير متصل  
قديم 15-04-2009, 10:05 AM   #9
AouaGirl AouaGirl غير متصل
طالب فعال
 
الصورة الرمزية AouaGirl
افتراضي رد: مراجعه للميد تيرم


مشكوووووووووووووورة (بنت الشرق ) على الجهد...و انتمنى لج التوفيق يارب
و للجميـــــع ..آميــــــــــن...

و اتوقع ان راح يجي سؤال عن اليونت الاول من بلووكـ 4...و عن الشخصيات اللي فيه ( ميل....إلخ..)..و شنو قالو بالديمقراطية...و راح يكون مثل الاسـسـي..(essay)..وان لازم ننذكر فيه نبذة جدا مختصرة عن الشخصية..و بعدين نذكر آراءه بالموضوع المطلوب....و بالتوفيق ....

التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة AouaGirl ; 15-04-2009 الساعة 10:07 AM
AouaGirl غير متصل  
قديم 16-04-2009, 08:05 PM   #10
بنت الشرق بنت الشرق غير متصل
طــالب

 










افتراضي رد: مراجعه للميد تيرم


يونت 22- 23

working classes

Mill was a famous figure in Britain, was a great intellect who writes many articles such as “system of logic, principle of political economy and the probable future of the working class.

Mills mentioned two theories of the social position of manual workers
The first theory is that there is a natural dependence of working people on those who employed them. Similar to that of children on their parents, according to this theory there are appropriate duties on each side, workers should be obedient and grateful, and the employers should protect their worker’s interests.

The other theory, is that of self-dependence which allow workers to be the judges of their own intersects and to relate to their employers on the basis of equality

Mill preferred the second theory, he regard the distinction of classes as having ‘no necessary or permanent’ status and certainly as without any morals basis, he stresses that the paternal theory was increasingly out of touch with social realities. There was no reason for working men to regard their employers as ‘protectors’ while their employers needed to be protected. The poor would refuse to be deferring to the rich as education was spread amongst them.

Mill sees the extension of franchise (the right to vote) as an expected consequence of the greater self-dependence of the working class. He is cautious about how soon the vote should be given. It could be given to early, but it is something that will come and mill is broadly optimistic about the outcomes. Assuming that the independence is matched by education.

Mills theory representing his view point only, paternal view which mill opposed was still widely held by aristocracy and social hierarchy.
Mill never doubted that the paternal view was entirely appropriate to ordering of British dependencies.
For mill, self-dependence was a fruit of social progress and depended critically on improvement in education. A paternal view will never be justified only under special circumstance.

Improvement without reform

Samuel Smile author of (Self Help) believe in developing qualities of working class without any consequential change in either the industrial or the political organization
Self-Help was based on a series of lecture to young working men.
Smile see that by practicing the virtues of industry, frugality, temperance and honesty is the best way to maintain the good represent of a worker or to develop a worker.
The virtues of industry, frugality, temperance and honesty, had enable the middle class to achieve happiness and independence.
Smile supported the view of Bright who suggested that the conduction of the working class could be improved by political action or legislative reform.

The qualities of English men which smiles claims to be justly a matter of national pride is what he calls “ strong individual” individual freedom and energy of action by self help and self reliance.
The picture of Victorian society is stable class structure, smiles is recommending acceptance and perhaps a positive a approval of this class temptation to ease and self-indulgence.

Smiles express a high degree of skepticisms about what can achieved through reforms , he reject the view that freedom is something that could be achieved by changing national institution.
Smiles held that the function of government is negative and restrictive active, being resolvable principally into protection, protection of life, liberty and property.


The conception of Government

To what extent are form of government a matter of choice?

For Mills, consideration on representative government
All peculations concerning form of government bear the impress conflicting conception of what political institution are.
By some mind, forms of government are assimilated to any other expedients for the attainment of human object (being made by man)
Government according to this conception is a problem to be worked like any other business. First step to define the purposes which governments required to promote. Second, the inquire what form of government best fitted to fulfuit the purpose.
The second conception, form of government are not a matter of choice, they are now made but grow. A fundamental political institution of people is considered by this school as a sort of organic growth from the nature and life of people.

The second view of government is closed to Smiles, according to which the fundamental political institution of people are a sort of organic growth form the nature and life of the people. Close to smile's remark "in the order of nature the collective character of a nation will as surely find its befitting results in the law and government.
Mills own position is more complex one; his view of society is a mechanistic one. A society is nothing more than the happiness of the individual that make it up. Social institution would seem to be conventional rather than natural and to be judged according to whether they are instrumental in promoting the greatest happiness of greatest number.
Mill regarded these two conceptions of government as corresponding to the respective of political creeds of the liberal and conservative parties. The liberals holding the instrumental or mechanistic view of government and the conservatives the view that the fundamental political institutions are a sort of organic growth from the nature and life of people.
Mill try to find way of incorporeity of the best two competing ideas. He agreed with liberals as we might expect utilitarian to do. Government is a means to an end and the best form of government is one that best serves that end. But mill didn’t think form of government should be decided in the abstract in this he agreed with the conservative.
Mill thoughts that the society develop in an organic way so that the political institutions that were appropriate of one time and place might not be so at other.


w0men and reform

1. Many of the historical changes that characterized the Victorian period motivated discussion and argument about the nature and role of women- what called the “Woman Question”.

2. This essay explores the arguments of male writers who concerned with the issues of “ Women and Reform” such as John Stuart Mills, John Ruskin in addition to female writers who defends women’s right “to the last drop of blood “such as Barbra Smith, Harriet Taylor Mill and Florence Nightingale finally my personal opinion about such arguments.


3. There were wide issues that discussed women's right in granting greater freedom as regarded the ownership of property, the opportunity to work, to receive a decent education and finally the right to vote.
ــــــــــــــــــــــــ
1. In the Victorian period social ******s as well as law tended to confine women to the roles of motherhood and wife. Women still had no independent economic status, married women had no right to own property or to keep any money they earned, working women are socially degraded, they couldn’t receive a decent education, the right to vote is extremely impossible.

2. The majority of women whose status was being debated were from the middle-section of British society. The arguments about women's "proper sphere " pertained almost exclusively to the condition of middle class women in which most working-class women lived required that their energies be spent almost wholly on earning a living to help keeping themselves and families. They had neither leisure nor means to expressed their need as women

3. Ruskin assumes that woman's essential difference from man requires that she have a separate role, Mill on the other hand, work from the assumption that, despite their sexual differences, men and women are nevertheless equal as individual human being and it must follow from this that women deserve to enjoy all rights granted to men.

4. Mill has taken no account of difference of sex. He considers it to be as entirely irrelevant especially to political rights.

5. All human being have the same interested in good government, the welfare of all is a like and affected by it, and they have equal need of a vote in it to secure their share of its benefits.

6. He claims that if there be any difference, women require it more than men, since being physically weaker, they are more dependent on law and society for protection.
7. He against the argument that women should be in personal servitude, that they should have no thought, wish or occupation, but to be the domestic drudges of husband, father or brother. He considers that it is proper than women should think, write and be a teacher.
8. For Mill, It is right that women should have the suffrage as it is wrong that women should be subordinate class, confined to domestic occupations and subject to domestic authority. They need suffrage to secure themselves from the abuse of the authority.

 Harriet Taylor Mill had a particular interest in women's right through her essay "Enfranchisement of women"
 She accuses those who insist that women's 'proper sphere' is private, of opining the question, that is they define the sphere in term of sex they believe should inherent them? Rather than showing that there are reasons inherent in each sex which dictated that each should belong exclusively to one sphere.
 She also assert that the proper sphere of all human being is the largest and highest which they are able to attain to, and that this achievement is impossible for some human being e.g women, because they denied the freedom and opportunities needed for discovering what the highest and largest might be?
 She also argument that the limits sits on women's activates produce the very deficiencies which are then cited as the reason why women are consider inherently unworthy of the equality they seek

 Also the essay 'Cassandra' by Florence Nightingale, consider one of the most passionate written documents bearing witness to the mental and spiritual deprivation suffered by women.

 She argues that women deny their passion and this effect the spiritually, she also discuss the dangers of fantasy as a substitute for the 'want of interest in women's life'

 She suggests that women have the same potential desire and capacities as men, especially for intellectual activity, but the very structure of their lives prevents the development, woman want the same sense of active purpose that is open to men the dream of a ' great sphere of steady' not sketchy benevolence.. For which they can be trained and fitted.
 She gives detailed evidence of the nature of the ‘Idleness’ (Women and Work) refers to, in which women’s time is supposed to be at the disposal of everyone except themselves.
 She also discusses the reason why the relationship between women and men cannot be enough as ‘the true career of women’ because there is no shared interest or activities. Even in courtship men and women meet to be idle. Marriage is referred to as the only events of women’s lives and yet their lives are so circumscribed that they have little opportunity to meet and know a husband with whom ‘real communion’ is possible.

Her cousin Barbra Leigh- smith also makes published her own study entitled “Women and Work”. She makes the following four points:

1. Amusement things that fill up much of life, in fact, they are killing to the soul.

2. Women want work for both the health of their mind and their bodies for all reason that men want work.

3. Due to the Idleness amongst women in Britain, disease is rife amongst them, one terrible disease, hysteria,

4. Work will not take the place of love in life.

Women began to organize activates for improving their work and education opportunities, property rights and finally suffrage.




Divorce and property rights.

 Political reform concentrated mainly on extending rights of citizenship to middle-class and certain working-class men with specific property qualifications.
 The Divorce Act of 1857,a central significance as liberal legislation lay in its taking divorce away form the jurisdiction of the church. But its terms actually favored men, who could sue for divorce reason of adultery alone.

 Reform of the property laws relating to married women was initiated by Barbra leigh-Smith resulting in petition being presented to Parliament. After almost fifteen year of failed attempts to secure legislation, the first Married Women Property Act was passed in 1870, entitling a wife to hold as her own property any earnings and property she had obtained. Although a husband still retained ownership over certain categories of his wife’s property.

Work

 .The issue of women of the middle classes however, becomes a matter of open debate. The 1851 census revealed in statistical form the fact that the female population actually outnumbered the male, and it became a matter of urgency for many of those women who were hitherto not expected to work to find a means of supporting themselves by independent and respectable means.

 A group of women respond to the growing need for middle-class unmarried women to find work by starting The Englishwomen’s Jounal , it debated the ‘Women question’, and especially the issues regarding women and work, publicizing the need of women to find suitable employment.

 Moreover, the factory system and technological change at the beginning of the nineteenth century helped to ‘create in new female workforce in industry’

Education

 The one thing there was general agreement about was the need for improved education for girls, even those who did not urgently require training in order to work, and those who remained convinced that women place was home. Ruskin, who believed that women needed a more serious education to fit them for their daunting role as spiritual and moral center of the household.
 The urgent need for women seeking work and education led to the foundation of establishments in London such as Queen’s College for Women and Bedford College.

Suffrage

 Attempts to achieve the ultimate recognition of women’s statues as equal citizens, represented by the right to vote, and was continually frustrated. Organized campaigns and petitions for the vote, including John Stuart Mill’s request that female suffrage be included.

 When viewing the history of female suffrage, we can see the perception of two different arguments leading to women being granted the vote in 1918. one can argue, simply, that the nation finally was persuaded that the sexes are and should be treated as essentially equal, but there is also the argument, which emanated from those who believed in separate sphere that women should vote, not on the basis of their equality, but because it was a logical conclusion of the separate sphere theory.

 Women fighting for female suffrage on the basis of their equality with men would have to be joined by others before they could succeed. And beside the e ntire male population, there were still many publicly active and influential women who held that the vote was neither necessary nor beneficial for women, they maintained Ruskin’s argument that, however far women’s activates might range beyond the home, their influence and power was still intended to affect
the private, domestic sphere of life.

democracy as a utilitarian ideal


The word democracy is a tricky one and it is important to bear in mind that it meant different things to different people in the nineteenth century just as it does today
Mill as we shall see was not an unqualified enthusiast for greater democracy his ideal of true democracy would not be realized simply by allowing the vote to all adults . bentham on the other hand , was an advocate of ultra-democracy and here as in matters

Utilitarians believe that what makes an act morally right is the fact that it leads to the best consequences. In contrast, according to most traditional codes, such as the Ten Commandments, acting morally involves following certain principles, even when doing so leads to bad effects. Utilitarians wanted to replace such a strict attachment to rules with a flexible code that allowed people to perform whatever act would have the best results.
Some utilitarians differ in their beliefs about what makes results good or bad. Bentham believed that only pleasure or happiness is good in itself, while pain or unhappiness is the only basic evil. The right act produced the greatest happiness for the greatest number. Other utilitarians claim that other things besides pleasure are good, such as knowledge, love, and freedom.
بنت الشرق غير متصل  
قديم 17-04-2009, 07:41 PM   #11
me power me power غير متصل
طالب جديد

 










افتراضي رد: مراجعه للميد تيرم


اقتباس:
اقتباس:
بنت المشرق يسلموا حبيبتي والله كلك ذوق الله يوفقك ويوفق الجميع
me power غير متصل  
قديم 02-05-2009, 09:46 AM   #12
ALOMAR ALOMAR غير متصل
طالب جديد

 











افتراضي رد: مراجعه للميد تيرم


بنت الشرق - الله يعطيك العافية - مجهود أكثر من رائع
بالتوفيق ان شاء الله لك وللجميع
ALOMAR غير متصل  
قديم 13-05-2009, 03:56 PM   #13
Batalat Batalat غير متصل
طــالب
 
الصورة الرمزية Batalat

 










افتراضي رد: مراجعه للميد تيرم


بارك الله فيكي أختي بنت الشرق
Batalat غير متصل  
قديم 29-07-2009, 03:54 PM   #14
فضة فضة غير متصل
طالب جديد
 
الصورة الرمزية فضة

 











افتراضي رد: مراجعه للميد تيرم


مرحبا
فضة غير متصل  
موضوع مغلق

مواقع النشر (المفضلة)

أدوات الموضوع
انواع عرض الموضوع

تعليمات المشاركة
لا تستطيع إضافة مواضيع جديدة
لا تستطيع الرد على المواضيع
لا تستطيع إرفاق ملفات
لا تستطيع تعديل مشاركاتك

BB code is متاحة
كود [IMG] متاحة
كود HTML معطلة

الانتقال السريع


الساعة الآن 06:08 AM.


Powered by vBulletin® Version 3.8.1, Copyright ©2000 - 2019, Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd. TranZ By Almuhajir
جميع المواضيع والمشاركات تعبر عن وجهة نظر أصحابها
ولا تعبر باي شكل من الاشكال عن وجهة نظر منتديات AOUA
تصميم وتطوير : التكنولوجيا الماسية