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قديم 21-05-2012, 03:03 AM   #1
malak14 malak14 غير متصل
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الصورة الرمزية malak14
افتراضي .•:*ღ*:• final exam discussion .•:*ღ*:•A123b.•:*ღ*:•




سيكون هذالموضوع مخصص بمشيئه الله لمناقشه الفاينل



الامتحان هيكون wednesday
6-6-2012




وهذا جدول الفاينل

http://www.arabou.edu.kw/files/ksa/e...second-new.pdf

التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة malak14 ; 21-05-2012 الساعة 03:08 AM
malak14 غير متصل  
قديم 21-05-2012, 03:28 AM   #2
malak14 malak14 غير متصل
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الصورة الرمزية malak14
افتراضي


نماذج فاينل


أسئلة عام 2010



أسئله الإختبآر

بآرت a : تعريف 6 مصطلحآت من أصل 9

paternalism
particular will
plural voting
exposision
interpretation
turning point
monarchy
( form ( in painting
thought experiment - هذي مو متأكده منها

بآرت b : منآقشه سؤآل وآحد من أصل سؤآلين

السؤآل الثآني كآن عن مسرحيه pygmalion ..
و المطلوب - على حسب اللي فهمته - منآقشه موقف الرجل على المرأه , و وضع المرأه بذآك العصر , مع كتآبه أمثله من المسرحيه

السؤآل الثآلث كآن عن smiles و نظريآته بـ كتآب الـ self-help

بآرت c : منآقشه سؤآل وآحد من أصل سؤآلين

السؤآل الرآبع كآن عن rousseau to democracy و الفرق بينهم

السؤآل الخآمس كآن عن رسمه 39 " brutus " .. و المطلوب التحليل الفني ( الألوآن و الضوء )



الحين , كل وحده تقول رأيها بـ الإختبآر

و اللي متذكره كيف كآنت صيغه الأسئله .. أتمنى تكتبها

مع الشكر ,


:
بواسطة p!nk flower


التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة malak14 ; 21-05-2012 الساعة 03:44 AM
malak14 غير متصل  
قديم 21-05-2012, 04:15 AM   #3
malak14 malak14 غير متصل
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الصورة الرمزية malak14
افتراضي رد: .•:*ღ*:• final exam discussion .•:*ღ*:•A123b.•:*ღ*:•


The final exam of A123B 2011



Part A, Question 1


Definitions: Answer about six terms from nine: (Obligatory)



1- Republic


2- Plural suffrage


3- Convention


4- Dénouement


5- Political reforms


6- Will of all


7- Authority


8- Imitation


9- Historical looking (In art)



Part B
Question 2: Discuss how Barnard Shaw used the myth to show the theme of his play Pygmalion, give real examples about that



Question3: Discuss Mill's account about "True democracy"



Part C

Question 4: Rousseau says "Might not equal Right" . Explain



Question5: Look at the plate "41" The death of Socrates, Discuss how David's used of art language, how he used the lights and colors ?



Good Luck, pray for my our dears

صاحبة الرد: الاخت زهراء






[size="4"][center]
عام 2007


http://www.aoua.com/vb/showpost.php?...06&postcount=2

هذه اجابات 2007 final exam

http://www.aoua.com/vb/showpost.php?...44&postcount=3






Second Semester 2005/2006




الإختبار مع الـ answer key في المرفقـات






أسئلة .. 2006


hello guys,
how are you?? Adha mobarak to all of you and i want to inform you about the final exam questions type..

They are four questions
1-rousseau(social contract)
2-david( bring the illustration book)
3-mill( true democracy and bentham's ultra democracy
4-shaw( pygmalion)

what you are supposed to do is to choose three of these mentioned above and study them very well..

The answer in the final exam must be an essay form and not more than 400 words by topic.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
the exam is on wednesday 1 february 2006----(lebanon branch : Room 601 @ 17:00)

prepare well!!


wish you the best

بواسطة : flower_84




وللامانه نماذج الفاينل من تجميع اختي ام محمد


الملفات المرفقة
نوع الملف: doc final exam 2005 - 2006.doc‏ (512.5 كيلوبايت, المشاهدات 115)
malak14 غير متصل  
قديم 21-05-2012, 04:18 AM   #4
malak14 malak14 غير متصل
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الصورة الرمزية malak14
افتراضي رد: .•:*ღ*:• final exam discussion .•:*ღ*:•A123b.•:*ღ*:•


مناقشه الفاينل 2010

http://www.aoua.com/vb/showthread.php?t=213186
malak14 غير متصل  
قديم 22-05-2012, 08:24 AM   #5
اسامه الشراب اسامه الشراب غير متصل
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الصورة الرمزية اسامه الشراب
افتراضي رد: .•:*ღ*:• final exam discussion .•:*ღ*:•A123b.•:*ღ*:•


شكرا.....الاسئله السابقه مفيده ممكن بتكرر بعضها وتعطيك فكره عن طبيعت الاسئله

التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة اسامه الشراب ; 22-05-2012 الساعة 08:26 AM
اسامه الشراب غير متصل  
قديم 22-05-2012, 09:27 AM   #6
PylsaN PylsaN غير متصل
مشرفة سابقة
 
الصورة الرمزية PylsaN
افتراضي رد: .•:*ღ*:• final exam discussion .•:*ღ*:•A123b.•:*ღ*:•


يعطيكـِ العافية .. : )



التوقيع

بِقَدر ما نَرتفعْ وَنعلو


نَبدو صغاراً
للذينَ لا يَعرفون أن يَطيروا ..!
فريديريك نيتشه .،

PylsaN غير متصل  
قديم 22-05-2012, 06:32 PM   #7
Eiroka Eiroka غير متصل
مشرفة سابقة
 
الصورة الرمزية Eiroka
افتراضي رد: .•:*ღ*:• final exam discussion .•:*ღ*:•A123b.•:*ღ*:•



أختي malak ربي يعطيكي العافية

جُوزيتي خيراً : )



Eiroka غير متصل  
قديم 23-05-2012, 12:02 AM   #8
غايتي جنتي غايتي جنتي غير متصل
طالب فعال
افتراضي رد: .•:*ღ*:• final exam discussion .•:*ღ*:•A123b.•:*ღ*:•


جزاج الله خير أختي ملاك

وهذي مشـآركة مني لكم

موضوع نقاشنآآ في فاينال سنة2010-2011

http://www.aoua.com/vb/showthread.php?t=269518


ياليت اللي يستفيد من أي مشاركة فيها, يقتبسها ويحطها هني , وينقلها بعد..

الله يوفقكم يارب وفالكم الـ A



التوقيع



يـا الله رِضـَـــآاكـ وَ آلْـ جَ ــنًّـه ..!
+
تخرّجت ولله الحمد ^_^| كل من عرف "غايتي جنتي" واستفآد منهـآ يدعو لي بالتوفيق , حللوني وأنتم بحل , جمعنا الله في الجنة .. أستودعكم الله الذي لا تضيع ودائعه (F)
غايتي جنتي غير متصل  
قديم 23-05-2012, 09:40 AM   #9
اسامه الشراب اسامه الشراب غير متصل
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الصورة الرمزية اسامه الشراب
افتراضي رد: .•:*ღ*:• final exam discussion .•:*ღ*:•A123b.•:*ღ*:•


الوحده 26
اهم النقاط
http://www.aoua.com/vb/showthread.php?t=216415&page=2

التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة اسامه الشراب ; 23-05-2012 الساعة 09:42 AM
اسامه الشراب غير متصل  
قديم 23-05-2012, 09:46 AM   #10
اسامه الشراب اسامه الشراب غير متصل
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الصورة الرمزية اسامه الشراب
افتراضي رد: .•:*ღ*:• final exam discussion .•:*ღ*:•A123b.•:*ღ*:•


Units 22,23,24,25.doc‏
http://www.aoua.com/vb/showthread.php?t=315663
اسامه الشراب غير متصل  
قديم 23-05-2012, 09:57 AM   #11
ema_ameen ema_ameen غير متصل
طــالب

 











افتراضي رد: .•:*ღ*:• final exam discussion .•:*ღ*:•A123b.•:*ღ*:•


Thanks to all for this effort



التوقيع


قف دون رأيك في الحياة مجاهـ ـ ـدا إن الحياة عقيدة وجهاد
وما نيل المطالــب بالتمني ولكن تؤخــذ الدنيا غِلابــا
وما استعصى على قوم منال إذا الإقدام كان لهم ركاب
ema_ameen غير متصل  
قديم 23-05-2012, 06:51 PM   #12
اسامه الشراب اسامه الشراب غير متصل
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الصورة الرمزية اسامه الشراب
افتراضي رد: .•:*ღ*:• final exam discussion .•:*ღ*:•A123b.•:*ღ*:•


UNITS 18 & 19 ROUSSEAU & DEMOCRACY
This unit is divided into three parts:

Part One: is trying to understand Rousseau argument not criticizing it.

Part Two: Look more closely at the argument.

Part Three: How Rousseau's argument can be applied to the kind of democratic politics today.

Part One:

What is philosophy?

The analysis of reasons and arguments is a particular province of philosophy. In fact, in as much as philosophy has a distinctive method it is this: the construction, criticism and analysis of arguments.


Rousseau and the French revolution:

In 1789 the National Constituent Assembly published the ' Declaration of the rights of man and the citizen'. The first paragraph of the declaration begins

"Men are born, and always continue, free and equal in respect of their rights. Civil distinctions, therefore, can be founded only on public utility."


What does this mean men are born, and always continue, free and equal in respect of their rights?

If we read men as including both male and female than it means that people have equal rights from their birth until they die.

What does a right mean?

Rights tell us what we are allowed to do, or what others are allowed to do to us, both as people and as members of society. The claim of the declaration is only that, whatever rights we have, we have them equally.

To revolutionaries, it was a rejection (refuse) the claim that one particular person, the king, had more rights than anyone else. In particular it was a rejection of the claim that the king, just because he was the king, had the right to rule. If the claim about equal rights were true, the king had no right to be up there, he was just another person.
"Civil distinctions, therefore, can be founded only on public utility."

Distinctions are based on who deserve to be in that position, the best one to take that position. For example an excellent teacher would be the head of the department. It would not make sense for anyone to be put in charge because their father was. (King)

Rousseau's Social contract was published in 1762, which was some years before the French revolution began. The first chapter begins with

"Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains."

Rousseau did not mean that chains are a bad thing and freedom is a good thing, but what Rousseau means by being 'in chains' is living in a society, to have some laws and regulations. He does not want us to escape our chains by escaping living in society, but rather to consider how it can be right for us to live in the chains of society when our natural state to be free. The answer he will give is that, if the society is properly run, the chains it puts on us are not really chains at all.

What bothered Rousseau was how we could have it both ways: how can we think ourselves as free and also as obliged to obey the law?

Rousseau seems to be presenting us with a choice: either we should think of ourselves as free or we should think of ourselves as being obliged to obey the law. In other words, we can not both be free and subject to the law of the state. This is the argument for the rest of part one that Rousseau argues that as we are naturally free people, we are right to obey the state only if it does not take our freedom. There is a way in which we can obey the state which allows us to keep our freedom.

Proving the point:

Please read p.66 ,67,68,69.

Rousseau says all what we have to do is to find a way of structuring the state such that while it may appear to be commanding us we are in fact commanding ourselves.

Rousseau's simple formula, that we can be both free and ruled only if we rule ourselves.

The particular will, the will of all and the general will:

What Rousseau needs to show is this: in obeying the state, individuals obey only themselves.

What is the meaning of Will?

It means a goal or a desire.

What is particular will?

It is the particular desires of a person.


What is will of all?

Will of all what you get when you add together the particular will of each person. It is a collection of different goals and desires, some which we will agree with each other and others will not.

What is general will?

The general will of a group concerns that which is in the best interests of the group taken as a whole rather than as a collection of individuals.

An example :

We will be applying them to a question asked by the captain of a sports team, Who is to be captain?

Each player wants to be captain: that is each of them has a particular will to be captain. Particular Will.


The sum total of all of these; that is each and everyone of the players should be captain. Will of all.


The best interests of the team, is that there should be just one captain for example the best one who does the job effectively. General will


The general will of the state is that which is best for the state as a whole; we can express this by saying it is what the state wants. Hence, if individuals put aside their particular wills and think instead according to the general will, then what the individuals want and what the state wants will be the same.



From the state of nature to the civil state:

General will is contrasted with particular will.
Civil state is contrasted with state of nature.

Rousseau tells us why the individuals should think according to the general will and not according to their particular will. He said because in obeying the state, individuals are obeying only themselves (that is, they are obeying the general will which they have freely chosen). Rousseau thought that we should obey the general will because:

The particular will is a product of appetite.

The general will is a product of reason.

To act on appetite is slavish and bad.

To act on reason is noble and good.

We should be noble and good.

So, we should obey the general will.

Roussseau gives advantages that a person has in the civil state with disadvantages that they would have had in the state of nature.

In civil state the person's behavior and actions are given a moral quality. His ideas are broadened. He is transformed from stupid, limited animal ( state of nature ) into an intelligent being and a man.(state of civil state ). Here Rousseau is contrasting the various great qualities given to us by living in a civil state with various rather animal like, base qualities we would have if we live in the state of nature.

What man loses in the civil state is his unlimited right to everything that tempts him and that he can acquire.

What he gains is civil liberty and the proprietary owenership of all he possesses.

What is natural liberty?
Natural liberty is which is limited only by the force of the individual involved.

What is civil liberty?
It is which is limited by the general will

What is possession?
Which is merely the effect or force or right of the first occupant.

What is proprietary ownership?
Which is based solely on a positive title.Please read bottom of p.76 and p.77

Moral Liberty:

Rousseau gives the solution to the problem of why an individual should act on a general will rather than on particular will. A remarkable change happens when a person moves from the state of nature to a civil state. In state of nature a person acts on instinct and appetite while in civil state they act on according to justice and possess moral liberty.( An example of the one who loves chocolate,p.78).

Rousseau thinks that there is something wrong with people who are always driven by their own desires. They are not acting in a way that is fitting them as human beings.

The remarkable change is that in joining the civil state we escape the slavery of appetite and fulfill ourselves as human beings. (Please read the comparison between state of nature and civil state on p.79)
The social contract:

Being a member of a civil state gives us plenty of opportunities which we would not have outside it for example a chocolate man ( the example mentioned before).Please look at example p.82 and summary p.83.

Part Two: Investigating the argument:

The remarkable change in man:

If everyone adopts the general will, nobody would be subject to a will that is not their own.

Coming to live in a civil state produces quite a remarkable change in man.

The individual will be improved in a civil state.

The civil state if it is run properly will change and improve our nature.

The person is affected by the state he lives in.

People who think as slaves because of the way they are treated.

Rousseau thought people would act according to the general will and develop their true natures only if they lived in a properly run state.

The author went to South Africa, only white were allowed the vote. In 1994 the first truly democratic elections were held and he wanted to see if people's attitudes will change towards themselves or towards one another. Please read the examples of what he finds out bottom of p.87 and 88.

In ****** of general Will:

Rousseau believed that a state has one and only one general will, it is the single correct answer to the question of what is in the best interests of the state.
Look again at Rousseau reasons why we should obey the general will p 4 so to be a citizen of a civil state you should escape the slavery of appetite and think according to reason.

What is reason?
It is to think in a clear headed and rational manner about what would be the best of the state.

If we assume that there is only one right answer than, anyone who is consulting his reason (which is thinking in a clear headed and rational manner) will come up with the same answer.

There is a single correct answer to the question of what is in the best interests of the state, but what if someone was wrong.

Rousseau needs an error free method for discovering the general will. Rousseau has chosen to take a vote, so the best thing to do is to take a vote in order to determine the right answer.

A) People vote according to what they take to be the general will, rather than their particular wills.

The best way to discover the general will is to consult our reason.

B) p.91
If there is a small group they have to be as equal as possible in order to get less chance they have of corrupting the vote.

C) p.92

No one to be so rich so as to buy the poor. No one to be so poor.

Please read the summary on p.93


Forced to be free: Rousseau and Totalitarianism p94:

Please read from the book.

A simple mistake:

We will look at an example where everyone has a meeting to discover the general will. It was about where we can build a stadium. We have Jane who after the vote she discovered that she was wrong because everybody else wanted to build the stadium in somewhere else. What Jane should do?

Here if Jane is a follower of Rousseau she should abandon her private opinion and adopt the opinion which the result of the vote showed to be the general will. (Please look at the example of the train p.95)

The irresponsible citizen:

Citizen who is corrupt and wants to act to his particular will. Rousseau said that he should be forced to obey the general will. Liberty is found in prisons so it is fine and just because punishing people for not obeying the general will is giving them liberty.

Honourable disagreement:

In a case where sarah still insists that she is right. Rousseau offered three options for that,

1. She is right and everyone else is wrong.
2. She should be forced to obey the general will.
3.There might be a range of views on any question, and something to be said for all of them.

Let's now examine the options:

Option one Rousseau can not say this because he believes that the vote to discover the general will is better than any thoughts of a single voter. Without some procedure for discovering the general will, we would not know whose view to adopt.

Option two It would be difficult nowadays to accept that it was all right to force Sarah with which she did not agree. It was all right to force Charles. It was also all right to force Fred because he was irresponsible, but Sarah is honest and holds a view which does not agree with the rest.

Option three the other two options have proven unsatisfactory. If we abandon the method of finding the general will, we will never know what it is. However, if we stick to the method, we end up persecuting people who do not agree with the general will regardless of how reasonable they are in their beliefs. Please read bottom of p.99 till 103.
Part Three:
From Rousseau to Democracy:

If we reject Rousseau's idea we need to find another solution, so we are going to divide Rousseau's problem in two parts:

1. The issue of the people being sovereign. How can we run the state so that authority comes from the people themselves and is not imposed from outside?
2. Each member of the state must be accounted for with nobody left out. Rousseau solved this by insisting that each person should act according to the general will, whether voluntarily or being forced to.

Pluralism:

What is Pluralism?

It is doctrine that the political system should take different views on a single issue into account.

Which different views ought pluralism to take into account? Let us start by considering taking all views into account and call this 'broad Pluralism'
What is broad Pluralism?

That is the doctrine that the political system should take every different view on a single issue into account. Please look at example on top of p.106

What is narrow Pluralism?

That is the doctrine that the political system should take every reasonable view on a single issue into account.

Pluralism and democracy:

The broad idea of democracy is something like this. People who have similar ideas on how a state should be run form themselves into groups (political parties). These parties then each put forward their ideas. Each person in the state then votes according to which ideas they want to see put into practice. The party which gets the most votes wins, and its ideas are put into practice. In short democracy is like a marketplace for people to sell their ideas to the electorate. Please read p.108.


Please read from p.109 to p.118 , please study the Glossary p.118 to120

http://www.aoua.com/vb/showthread.php?t=263157

التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة اسامه الشراب ; 23-05-2012 الساعة 07:07 PM
اسامه الشراب غير متصل  
قديم 23-05-2012, 07:16 PM   #13
اسامه الشراب اسامه الشراب غير متصل
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الصورة الرمزية اسامه الشراب
افتراضي رد: .•:*ღ*:• final exam discussion .•:*ღ*:•A123b.•:*ღ*:•


Comparing between Rousseau and Democracy in will of state and voting:

The will of the state by Rousseau: the will of state is general will. It is what is in fact in best interest of the state. If individual is clear-headed and thinking according to reason, they will adopt the general will. If not, they be forced to do so by the state.

The will of state by democracy: abandons the idea that there is an interest of the state which is independent of people's actual views. The will of the state is the actual view of the majority of the people.
The use of voting by Rousseau: voting is the way of finding out what the general will is, in the same way that doing a sum is the way of finding out what the answer to a math's problem is.

The use of voting by democracy: voting is a way of discovering what the view of the majority is. It is finding out what people want, not finding out what they think the answer to a problem is. In democratic system, the system lives according to the will of others, but according to Rousseau the minority in this case is not free
اسامه الشراب غير متصل  
قديم 24-05-2012, 07:23 PM   #14
اسامه الشراب اسامه الشراب غير متصل
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الصورة الرمزية اسامه الشراب
افتراضي رد: .•:*ღ*:• final exam discussion .•:*ღ*:•A123b.•:*ღ*:•


هذا مختصر

Rousseau's argument that might does not equal right:

Is it legitimate for the state to get its authority by exercising naked force?

- The strongest is never strong enough to be master all the time, unless he transforms force into right and obedience into duty.
- Its not wrong to disobey someone simply because they are more powerful than us.
- The spruce of the authority of the state is not simply its power.
Conclusion: the source of the authority of the state is not simply its power

التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة اسامه الشراب ; 24-05-2012 الساعة 07:26 PM
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