العودة   منتديات طلاب الجامعة العربية المفتوحة > منتدى كليات الجامعة العربية المفتوحة > منتدى قسم الإنجليزي > E301B

إضافة رد
 
أدوات الموضوع انواع عرض الموضوع

قديم 05-06-2014, 04:47 AM   #1
Eman_Mohammed Eman_Mohammed غير متصل
طــالب
 
الصورة الرمزية Eman_Mohammed

 










TMA واجبي لـ e301 b | 2013 - 2014 |الفصل الثاني


السلام عليكم

هادا الواجب اللي قدمته هالفصل
اخدت فيه درجة
18.5 / 20
الحمد لله
ما بعرف شو الاخطاء اللي عندي


TMA Question:

How is ‘turn’ managed in Drama? USING YOU OWN WORDS, discuss this topic with reference to Turn-grabs, Turn allocation, Turn order, and Turn size and texture. (Write each under a separate sub-title).

Managing Turn-Talking in Drama



In this essay I will discuss turns-talking patterns in drama. Literary dramatic text describes possible movements which characters could act it on stage, and express these movements via dialogues which present traits of characters. The dialogue is a verbal exchange of ideas between two or more persons, and it is a basic feature in drama. Dramatist authors tend to use elements in their dramatic works such as: overlaps, gaps, pauses, interruptions, etc. But they organize and control these elements during dialogues in order to highlighting the arrangement of turns that are taken by dramatis persona.

Analyzing dialogues or (Conversation Analysis) is the study of people's daily spoken interaction; which occurs naturally within formal and informal languages. CA is concerned about how the participants start conversations, close conversations, or keep the smoothness of conversations and how they accept or reject things. CA is a good principle to analyze dialogues in plays.

Turn-talking pattern revolves on managing smoothness of speech between characters, preventing clutter and multi interactions while preserving continuity of speech. Thus, turns are distributed in a particular sequence in order to reflect importance of dialogue and hints of characters. Vimala Herman (1998) founded four types of turn-talking: turn grab, turn allocation, turn order and turn size and texture. I will be detailing each of them separately bellow with illustrative examples from Othello play by Shakespeare.


• Turn size and texture:
The text that one character should perform is longer than the other characters. The character uses this pattern in order to intensify his/her idea by using many clauses, prolonging his / her speech and trying to provide directories and proofs.

Example:

RODERIGO
Thou told'st me thou didst hold him in thy hate.

IAGO
Despise me, if I do not. Three great ones of the city,
In personal suit to make me his lieutenant,
Off-capp'd to him:—and, by the faith of man,
I know my price, I am worth no worse a place:—
But he, as loving his own pride and purposes,
Evades them, with a bumbast circumstance
Horribly stuff'd with epithets of war:
And, in conclusion, nonsuits
My mediators: for, "Certes," says he,
"I have already chose my officer."
And what was he?
Forsooth, a great arithmetician,
One Michael Cassio, a Florentine,
A fellow almost damn'd in a fair wife;
That never set a squadron in the field,
Nor the division of a battle knows
More than a spinster; unless the bookish theoric,
Wherein the toged consuls can propose
As masterly as he: mere prattle, without practice,
Is all his soldiership. But he, sir, had the election:
And I,—of whom his eyes had seen the proof
At Rhodes, at Cyprus, and on other grounds,
Christian and heathen,—must be belee'd and calm'd
By debitor and creditor, this counter-caster;
He, in good time, must his lieutenant be,
And I—God bless the mark! his Moorship's ancient.

RODERIGO
By heaven, I rather would have been his hangman.

IAGO
Why, there's no remedy; 'tis the curse of service,
Preferment goes by letter and affection,
And not by old gradation, where each second
Stood heir to the first. Now, sir, be judge yourself
Whether I in any just term am affin'd
To love the Moor.

RODERIGO
I would not follow him, then.
(Othello, penguin Shakespeare series, 2005, p: 6)


In this section in the beginning of Othello, Iago expresses his hatred of Othello because he (Othello) had not chosen him as lieutenant despite his achievements in Rhodes and Cyprus. He tries to elucidate to Roderigo that the vengeance may be by friendship, not only by force. Additionally, Iago uses longer sentences to explain his opinion about Othello and to proof it.



• Turn grabs:
Where one character intervenes himself/herself in a dialogue and taking the right of someone's turn swiftly in order to promote his/her or someone's idea.

Example:

OTHELLO
Hold your hands,
Both you of my inclining and the rest:
Were it my cue to fight, I should have known it
Without a prompter.—Where will you that I go
To answer this your charge?

BRABANTIO
To prison; till fit time
Of law and course of direct session
Call thee to answer.

OTHELLO
What if I do obey?
How may the duke be therewith satisfied,
Whose messengers are here about my side,
Upon some present business of the state,
To bring me to him?

FIRST OFFICER
'Tis true, most worthy signior;
The duke's in council, and your noble self,
I am sure, is sent for.

BRABANTIO
How! the duke in council!
In this time of the night!—Bring him away:
Mine's not an idle cause: the duke himself,
Or any of my brothers of the state,
Cannot but feel this wrong as 'twere their own;
For if such actions may have passage free,
Bond slaves and pagans shall our statesmen be.
( Othello, penguin Shakespeare series ,2005 , p:15 )



Here, the first officer infixes himself to this dialogue between Othello and Barbantio in order to prove the validity of what Othello had said. Thus, taking Barbantio's right to answer Othello's question.  



• Turn order:
The text which sorts to be as turn order concentrates on certain character rather than the others. All other characters address their speech to him/her, and build their speech on what he/ she say.

Example:

DUKE
There is no composition in these news
That gives them credit.

FIRST SENATOR
Indeed, they are disproportion'd;
My letters say a hundred and seven galleys.

DUKE
And mine a hundred and forty.

SECOND SENATOR
And mine two hundred:
But though they jump not on a just account,—
As in these cases, where the aim reports,
'Tis oft with difference,—yet do they all confirm
A Turkish fleet, and bearing up to Cyprus.

DUKE
Nay, it is possible enough to judgement:
I do not so secure me in the error,
But the main article I do approve
In fearful sense.

SAILOR
[Within.] What, ho! what, ho! what, ho!

FIRST OFFICER
A messenger from the galleys.
[Enter a Sailor.]
DUKE
Now,—what's the business?

SAILOR
The Turkish preparation makes for Rhodes;
So was I bid report here to the state
By Signior Angelo.

DUKE
How say you by this change?
( Othello, penguin Shakespeare series ,2005 , p:16 )



This is clear how the Duke is controlling the dialogue, and the senators directing their views to the duke and waiting for his response.



• Turn allocation:
Turn allocation means choosing the next speaker by the current speaker, thus he/ she allocate and distribute turns.
Example:

IAGO
There's none so foul and foolish thereunto,
But does foul pranks which fair and wise ones do.

DESDEMONA
O heavy ignorance!—thou praisest the worst best. But what praise couldst thou bestow on a deserving woman indeed,—one that, in the authority of her merit, did justly put on the vouch of very malice itself?

IAGO
She that was ever fair and never proud;
Had tongue at will and yet was never loud;
Never lack'd gold and yet went never gay;
Fled from her wish, and yet said, "Now I may";
She that, being anger'd, her revenge being nigh,
Bade her wrong stay and her displeasure fly;
She that in wisdom never was so frail
To change the cod's head for the salmon's tail;
She that could think and ne'er disclose her mind;
See suitors following and not look behind;
She was a wight, if ever such wight were;—

DESDEMONA
To do what?

IAGO
To suckle fools and chronicle small beer.

DESDEMONA
O most lame and impotent conclusion!—Do not learn of him, Emilia, though he be thy husband.—How say you, Cassio? is he not a most profane and liberal counsellor?

CASSIO
He speaks home, madam: you may relish him more in the soldier than in the scholar.
( Othello, penguin Shakespeare series ,2005 , p:36-37 )


In this extract the dialogue between Iago and Desdemona was smooth but Desdemona disliked what Iago was saying so she transferred her speech to Cassio in an attempt to prevent Iago from continuing.

Finally, I summarize that turn-talking management helps us to understand the dialogue's style and the characters' personality and status. For example: silent character may be related to a wise persona, interrupted character may be related to a weaker persona and the character who prolongs his/her speech may be related to a philosopher or cultured persona, and so on. Each text differs from the other; because of its own circumstances and its own purposes, all information that is involved in a text has its certain purposes. Additionally, the audience receive information within different levels of understanding, and they try to link these information with their own experiences to make it effective. 








References:
1. Goodman, O'Halloran,2006, The art of English : literary creativity
2. Penguin Shakespeare series ,2005, Othello
3. Anssi Peräkylä, 2008, conversation analysis
http://blogs.helsinki.fi/perakyla/fi...lysis_08l1.pdf
4. Culpeper, Short and Verdonk,1998, Exploring the Language of Drama, Available from: Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2002
http://www.8pic.ir/images/57vqwydnlzss3s509mo.pdf
5. Surjit and Brojen, 2013, Significance of the Correlation in Turn-taking Dialogues https://ufal.mff.cuni.cz/pbml/99/art-singh-singh.pdf
الملفات المرفقة
نوع الملف: docx Eman's TMA.docx‏ (25.9 كيلوبايت, المشاهدات 9)



التوقيع

اللهمـ سددني لدراسة ما ينفعني لديني ودنياي
Eman_Mohammed غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 05-06-2014, 06:16 PM   #2
فيحاء العسل فيحاء العسل غير متصل
مشرفة سابقة
 
الصورة الرمزية فيحاء العسل
افتراضي رد: واجبي لـ e301 b | 2013 - 2014 |الفصل الثاني


يسلمو *_^

حلو مستواكي باللغه بشكل عام بس عندك بعض الملاحظات البسيطه جدا بعد الاختبار بقولك عليها

موفقه حبيبتي وبموازين حسناتك يارب



التوقيع

الحمدلله
فيحاء العسل غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
إضافة رد

مواقع النشر (المفضلة)

أدوات الموضوع
انواع عرض الموضوع

تعليمات المشاركة
لا تستطيع إضافة مواضيع جديدة
لا تستطيع الرد على المواضيع
لا تستطيع إرفاق ملفات
لا تستطيع تعديل مشاركاتك

BB code is متاحة
كود [IMG] متاحة
كود HTML معطلة

الانتقال السريع


الساعة الآن 05:13 AM.


Powered by vBulletin® Version 3.8.1, Copyright ©2000 - 2018, Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd. TranZ By Almuhajir
جميع المواضيع والمشاركات تعبر عن وجهة نظر أصحابها
ولا تعبر باي شكل من الاشكال عن وجهة نظر منتديات AOUA
تصميم وتطوير : التكنولوجيا الماسية