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E301B The Art of ENGLISH Literary Creativity Chapter 1 Literature and creativity in English

Literary creativity - The second part of the course looks at texts designed for public consumption, including poetry, plays and novels, picture books, performance art, e-literature and adverts. What distinguishes some of these texts as high quality Literature while others are dismissed as short-lived and of little lasting value?* How are new types of technology*enabling*or even challenging our understanding of literary creativity and its forms?*

This section of the course explores the idea that more short-lived texts make creative use of a shared literary and cultural heritage. In addressing such issues, it provides a lively introduction to stylistic, semiotic and multimodal analysis drawing on work in literature, performance studies, linguistics,*anthropology, translation theory and cognitive psychology.* It also explores social and ideological issues, and the influence of historical processes and different cultural contexts on what counts as literary language and how this is understood.


Chapter 1
Literature and creativity in English

This chapter aims to expose :
Different inherency, sociocultural and cognitive approaches to define literature.
The significance of such patterns as deviation and parallelism in poetic language.
The influence of cultural and technological changes on verbal art in English.


The chapter also spotlights at:
The inherency approach that treats artistry (creativity) as residing/existing within creative uses of language within the text.

The sociocultural approach that explores social and ideological factors .

The cognitive approach that focuses on readers response.


1.2 Creativity as inherent in the text
This approach focuses on the writers skill in manipulating the linguistic form of the text like sounds and phrases as related to creativity. language is referring partly to itself and not simply to entities in the external world that are the object of discussion. This relationship dated back to Aristotle as he applied the scientific method of analysis to literary works. This was developed later and laid the foundation of stylistics by the Russian Formalists and the Prague school. They viewed literary texts as self-contained aesthetic objects. Focus was mainly on the form of literary language to produce defamilarization as our regular view of things is disrupted.


1 The inherency approach sees literariness as embedding in certain formal properties of language: literary language is regarded as distinct from more practical uses of language in that language itself is highlighted. Roman Jakobson (1960) perceives this as the poetic function of language, where there is a focus on the message for its own sake. This property of language may also be termed as self-referential, where language is referring partly to itself and not simply to entities in the external world that are the object of discussion. While the poetic function is evident in many examples of language use, the re******er of this paper would argue that it is the dominant, determining function of verbal art.

2 The sociocultural approach sees literariness as socially and culturally determined; for example, drawing attention to the fact that conceptions of literature vary historically and culturally. According to Terry Eagelton (1996) , there is nothing distinctive about literary language; any text can be seen as literature if it is defined as such by institutions or if people read it as such. Anthropological studies of literary performances in various cultural contexts also tend to take a sociocultural view on literariness.

Many studies focus on performance in its traditional literary or theatrical sense, to include public displays of artistic activity that are responded to aesthetically by an audience, such as story-telling, song, dance or drama. Yet, the notion is frequently extended to more everyday activity in recognition of the fact that there are parallels between everyday and literary performance explores social and ideological factors around the concept of literature.


3 The cognitive approach relates literary language to mental processes. Deborah Tannens (1989) suggests on that linguistic repetition derives from a basic human drive to repeat is a kind of cognitive argument. Cook (1994) argues that literary texts have an effect on the mind, helping us think in new ways and refreshing and changing our mental representations of the world. Such benefits are not, however, confined to established literature; Cook (2000) has similar things to say about everyday creativity or play with language. Similarly, Gibbs (1994) claims that human language and human understanding are often ****phorical, and that literary ****phor carries on and extends everyday ****phorical notions.


Through the work of the central figure in both Formalism and the Prague School ,Roman Jakobson , the Formalists were concerned with the poetic function of language. They saw this as closely connected to literariness, which they defined as the special properties of language that could be located in literary texts. Roman Jakobson [1960, p. 356] developed an influential typology of language functions:


1 The referential function is associated with the context of the message. It focuses on conveying information about the world beyond the communicative event itself .
2 The emotive or expressive function is associated with the speaker/ writer. It focuses on their attitude toward what they are speaking about, which may be expressed through a particular choice of words, grammar, or tone of voice.



3. The conative function is associated with the hearer/reader. It is concerned with aspects of language designed to affect or influence the hearer/reader in some way. This function may be expressed through features such as requests and commands.

4. The phatic function is associated with the contact. It is fulfilled by language which is addressed at initiating sustaining or closing the channel of communication, e.g. Well, here we are chatting away at last or by ritualized formulas, e.g. Lend me your ears.


5. The ****lingual function is associated with the language code itself. An utterance performs a ****lingual function when it refers to the code and how the code works.
6. The poetic function is associated with the message. It focuses on the message for its own sake, emphasizing the linguistic qualities of words themselves rather than any other factors in the situation. According to Roman Jakobson (1960, p. 356), poetic function is the dominant function of poetry. The poetic function involves the language drawing attention to its own form in some way; it then becomes especially prominent and is therefore foregrounded in the mind of the reader.

Deviation occurs when words, phrases and grammatical structures deviate from expected meaning , in terms of phonology, grammar or meaning. It leads to unexpected irregularity.

Graphological deviation is related to the phonological one when using unusual forms of writing to provide information about how something sounds when spoken aloud as in freeeeeeeeefrong or dis life no easy


The grammatical structure is also unexpected
Deviation of words and meaning include rare dialect or foreign words or strange usage of figurative language
Genre deviation when using a typical type of speech or writing in another genre as writing an ad in sonnet form (intertextuality)
Deviation is a term used to describe spelling and pronunciation of a word or a sentence structure which does not conform to a norm .Deviation implies variants of norm; when a literary text , such as a poem is deviant, it is noticeable , or perceptually prominent; and this is what is called foregrounding. There are many ways in which poets or writers can produce it and hence foregrounding.


A- Lexical Deviation:
The most obvious examples of lexical deviation are where a poet makes up a word which did not previously exist. This is called neologism or the invention of new words
My heart in hiding
Stirred for a bird-the achieve of, the mastery of the thing
Here, Hopkins takes the verb (achieve) and uses it as a noun, in spite of the fact that English already has a noun, achievement derived from that verb.
B- Semantic Deviation
Semantic deviation can mean non-sense or absurdity [Leech, 1969]. It is important to deal with what Leech calls tropes [foregrounding or irregularities of content]. According to him, they are classified largely into three sections:

A- Semantic Oddity
Semantic oddity means semantic bizarreness of expression. There are five types of semantic oddity:
pleonasm, periphrasis, and tautology have semantic redundancy, and oxymoron and paradox have semantic absurdity, which entail opposing of meaning or reference.
B- Transference of Meaning
According to Leechs classification, transference of meaning is classified into four types of figurative language: synecdoche, metonymy, ****phor and simile.



C. Honest Deception
Leech classifies the term honest deception into three types:
1) Hyperbole(Exaggeration)
2) Litotes (understatement)
3) Irony.
As per Leech, these types are all connected in a sense that they misrepresent the truth: Honest deception means these three types of semantic deviance misrepresent the truth for the sake not of deception, but of literary purpose.

C- Grammatical Deviation
One important feature of grammatical deviation is the case of ungrammaticality as in I does not like him. The most obvious examples of grammatical deviations are where a poet or a writer uses the double negative, the double comparative and the double superlative :Twill never do nothing no more [Brook, 1977] Similarly, writers or poets deviate from grammatical rules by combining two ways of expressing comparison: the addition of suffixes and the use of the separate words (more) and (most). Thus Shakespeare, for example, could combine unkindest and most unkind . Likewise, grammatical deviation, is often a result of faults analogy. Foreign learners of English language make faults analogy by applying regular forms for irregular forms such as: goed, seed, knowed, etc.


D- Phonological Deviation
To a large extent, the implicit phonology is determined by choice of words and structure at the syntactic level, where it can be regarded as an important ingredient of stylistic value .However, since the writing system is in many respects a system for representing the sound pattern of speech, a further source of phonological effect is graphology. It is worth mentioning that phonological deviation as phonetic behavior is determined by individual and a reasonable conformity to a norm and will function as a sort of standard in all speech communities[ educated speakers of English all over the world form such a speech community.


E-Graphological Deviation
Graphological deviation is a relatively minor and superficial part of style, concerning such matters as spelling, capitalization , hyphenation, italization and paragraphing. Such matters are determined conventionally by syntax and become noticeable only when a writer makes graphological choice which is marked or unconventional, such as a deliberate misspelling [Leech ,1981].


F- Morphological Deviation
Morphemes are the building blocks for words, bookshelf, for instance, consists of two morphemes (book) and (shelf). One way of producing deviation at a morphological level is by adding an ending to a word not normally be added to for example: perhapless mystery of paradise. Another way of producing foregrounding through the use of lexical deviation is by the use of an invented morpheme. For example museryroom. In fact, there is no such word as a museyroom .

Parallelism is unexpected regularity involving prominent patterns of repetition at the level of sound, grammatical structure or meaning.

Phonological parallelism is the combining of the same or similar sounds. Alliteration results from the repetition of word-initial consonants; the repetition of similar vowel sounds produces assonance. Rhyme is present when similar syllables are repeated, and the repetition of rhythmic patterns produces metre.


Grammatical parallelism is the repetition of phrase and/or clause structure.

Semantic parallelism involves the repetition and sometimes extension of the meaning of words, phrases and images. We also find repetition of individual words, and many of these repetitions occur in parallel structures:


1.3 A sociocultural approach to Literature
While Jakobson stressed the poetic uses of language, Terry Eagleton highlighted the sociocultural view of literature. He started by confirming that 17th &18th centuries literature simply meant polite writing, comprising essays, sermons, philosophy and history. While not all literature is imaginative, neither is all imaginative writing literature.


He argued that we have to consider social and ideological factors to understand the role of literature in society. This sociocultural approach explains why some historical or philosophical writings can be ranked as literature after a while.

Thus, his concept of literature is tightly related to social needs and values. Still, some works of art are universal and have lived across history.


(Reading A) exposes his concept of literature as tightly related to times and social needs. Literature, thus, embodies social values and aids to disseminate them. In the 18th century , for example, polite manners pervaded literature as binded middle and upper classes after the civil war. In the 19th century, ideas about literary creativity spread as a reaction to rising industrial capitalism. The true concept of literature emerged out of the revolutionary Romantic period , while in Victorian times, religion was in control and impacted literature as was full of moral ideas.

1.4 Literature in the mind of the reader
The Formalists defined literature in terms of textual features related to specific language patterns like parallelism and deviation. Jakbson stressed the poetic function of the literary text. The sociocultural approach defined literature as an ideological approach with a certain political purpose.
The cognitive approach is based on the recognition of text type that motivates the way of reading it in the readers mind. It relates literary language to mental processes . Social, cultural and institutional factors plus other contextual factors determine features of the language like the level of formality, structure and the like.


In (Reading B), Widdowson confirmed the enclosure of literature. He relied on Paul Grices maxims ; all conversation is founded on the co-operative principle or the unspoken argument between the participants. Speakers abide by quantity, quality, relation or relevance and manner or clarity. With non-literary texts, we use language as such as related to external reality. In literature, meaning is based on interaction with the readers mind to create their imaginary context or vision of the text itself.


Widdowson mainly focused on poetry as generating such enclosing impact to explain the individual act of reading. Still, some texts like critical theories happen to be read for an academic purpose or as an institutional practice, related to certain values. Thus, his main concern is not the writers meaning, but rather the texts meaning to the reader. He is interested in the construction of individual readings or what happens in peoples heads on reading literature, cognitive poetics.


In (Reading C), Elena Semio started by defining cognitive poetics as an approach to study literature to spotlight the relation between language and readersresponse. She, then, stressed Guy Cooks concept of discourse deviation to distinguish literature, rather than linguistic deviation. Readers approach literary texts with certain background and expectations , disrupted by literary discourse that challenges readers schemata to produce schema refreshment. Accordingly, literary discourse refers to language patterns and text structure as well as the world created within the literary text. The interaction between the readers worldwide view and the language of the text is stressed.

Semio, on discussing Sylvia Plaths Tulip, highlighted discourse deviation in reversing normal expectations that results in schema refreshment. In non-literary texts, linguistic deviations is never challenging. Still, Jeffries is against schema refreshment as may vary from one reader to another.

Foregrounding
It is a term usually used in art, having opposite meaning to background. The Prague School linguists consider foregrounding, which confers unexpectedness, unusualness and uniqueness on literary texts, as the differentiating factor between poetic and non-poetic language." They consider the maximization of foregrounding as the function of poetic language. Foregrounding has its origin with the Czech theorist Jan Mukarovský and refers to the range of stylistic effects that occur in literature, whether at the phonetic level (e.g., alliteration, rhyme), the grammatical level (e.g., inversion, ellipsis), or the semantic level (e.g., ****phor, irony).

As Mukarovský pointed out, foregrounding may occur in normal, everyday language, such as spoken discourse or journalistic prose, but it occurs at random with no systematic design. In literary texts, on the other hand, foregrounding is structured: it tends to be both systematic and hierarchical. That is, similar features may recur, such as a pattern of assonance or a related group of ****phors, and one set of features will dominate the others Foregrounding is the psychological effect a literary reader has as s/he is reading a work of literature in the sense that foregrounding in literary texts strikes readers as interesting and captures their attention.


1.5 Creativity, hybridity and new language arts
Canon can be defined as that body of authoritative great works of writing in English. For Jakbson, poetic language is not only confined to high art as literature lacks special intrinsic quality. It is rather composed of works valued for historical and ideological reasons.

On the other hand, Feminists attacked male dominance on most literary genres. This canon has been described as elitist and based on criteria of gender and class. F. R. Leavis called for looking to the past for great uses of English language and true literary value can only be appreciated by a small cultural elite.


Postcolonial writers challenged the traditional canon of English Literature. Some of them even decoupled the language from its past associations or abandoned it , in the context of movements of their national independence.

In the 21th century, the increasing use of English language in global communication loosened the connection between English language, literature and England as a nation. Technology as well as hybrid cultural practices out of migration are producing new, creative practices in English and new kinds of literary and creative texts.


In (Reading D), Pennycook suggests that the global spread of English is swallowing up local languages and cultures or causing adaptation to finally have Indian English, Singaporean English, and so on. He is particularly interested in the cultural dynamics of popular verbal forms in global youth culture.
In his article, he used hip-hop as an example of how creative language form cannot be understood in terms of either linguistic or cultural homogenization or linguistic and cultural adaptation. Though using English language, artists produced new cultural forms and meanings to express a new identity within a rapidly changing, culturally hybrid world.

The popularity of these new forms among young people globally may gradually reduce reading English Literature and lead to its demise. Pennycook described the multimodel form where a poem or song may be combined with music and dance , which mixes different verbal, visual , sound and movement modes. Outside literature, this high culture art exists , based on intertextuality to be more effective.
In 2004, Bruce Naumans, the American artist, exhibition Raw Materials included 24 spoken texts from his previous sound and video piece taken from 18 parallel pairs of speakers. Levels of voices were adjusted to produce a sound sculpture , mingled with new sounds of visitors. The selection was based on rhythm and emotional content rather than the original meaning.


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E301B The Art of ENGLISH Literary Creativity Chapter 2 POETIC LANGUAGE

Chapter 2 POETIC LANGUAGE

More focus on Russian Formalism.

Introducing Stylistics.

The role of both form and content in the literary analysis.


Jakobson argues, a work of art is a message in which the poetic or aesthetic function dominates. According to Jakobson poetry is a function of the two axes which Saussure terms the paradigmatic and syntagmatic and which he himself respectively calls the ****phoric pole (the axis of selection) and the metonymic pole (the axis of combination). Along the paradigmatic axis, Jakobson is saying, each sign in a given sequence is selected by virtue of its equivalence (that is, its similarity to some and difference from other signs in the sign system). Along the syntagmatic axis, the signs chosen in this way are combined with other signs according to the rules of syntax in order to form the sequence of signs which comprise the utterance in question.

What precisely distinguishes poetry in general from other verbal messages is the predominance of the poetic function. What distinguishes poetry from other forms of literature (e.g. prose narrative) is that, in Jakobsons famous formula, the poetic function projects the principle of equivalence from the axis of selection into the axis of combination. In other words, poetry is distinguished from other speech acts by the way in which the principle of equivalence which is usually synonymous with the axis of selection (the paradigmatic axis or ****phoric pole) is superimposed on the axis of combination (the syntagmatic axis or metonymic pole) which is normally subject only to the principle of syntactical contiguity. This equivalence manifests itself in two principal ways: in terms of prosody (metre) and sound (rhyme).

It is a type of language commonly associated with poetry. It is mainly concerned with form and meaning. Still, not all poetic texts are good or effective. Also, the poetic impact is liable to change over time.

The key function for discussion of poetic language is poetic function to stress the linguistic properties of words. The Swiss linguist Saussures concept of paradigm and syntagm can clarify the role of parallelism in poetic language.

He believed that we have two ways of meaning being created when speech unfolds in time. The first is where signs create meaning related to their place in a syntagm, a rule-governed combination of signs.
Example: she likes me - I like her
We have different syntagmatic meaning as combinations of signs are different because of different rule of SVO in each.


A second way of creating meaning is paradigm. It means a group of words that have something in common.
Example: (prefer= support= like ) belong to the same paradigm.

Also, a sign gets meaning because of what it is not the other signs in the relevant paradigm. Thus, the paradigmatic meaning in (I like her) is not the one when using (prefer or support).

These concepts laid the foundation for structuralism to explore structural patterns of literary texts.

For Jakbson, what makes a poem so is when the poetic function dominates over other language functions, self-referentiality. His ideas on literariness in the text itself also laid the foundations for stylistics to differentiate between literary and non-literary reading of a text.

Saussures concepts of paradigm and syntagm are worthwhile in clarifying the role of parallelism in the poetic function. For him as speech unfolds in ��me, there are two ways of meaning being created. The first is where signs create meaning in relation to their place in a syntagm. A syntagm is a rule-governed combination of signs. Ike likes me and I like Ike are different syntagms in the sense that they follow the rule of subject-verb-object order.


Because the combination of signs is different, we have different syntagmatic meanings for like(s) in these two examples.
The second way of creating meaning is in relation to a paradigm. A paradigm is a group of words which have something in common, words which potentially can be selected for the same slot in a syntagm. For example, 'prefer or 'support' could he selected instead of like in the syntagm, I like Ike. Prefer, favour and like can thus be seen as belonging to the same paradigm . For Saussure, a sign also gets meaning because of what it is not, i.e. it is not the other signs in the relevant paradigm. So in addition to syntagmatic meaning, like gets paradigmatic meaning in I like Ike because it is not favour, prefer, etc.




The ideas of paradigm and syntagm, as well as others in Saussure (1915), laid the foundation for an approach to studying literature known as structuralism, which reached a peak in the 1960s. In structuralism, interest focuses not so much on evaluating literary texts but rather on exploring their structural patterns. Structuralism was influenced by both Russian and Prague School Formalism and so Jakobsons work provides a kind of bridge between these traditions.

Nash , in The lyrical game / reading (A), finds in sound, rhythm, grammar and meaning elements to support his belief that the persona in the poem moves from talkative hesitation to reassured harmony . Her analysis proves Jakobson's idea of the variant interpretations of a poem as well as the stylistic analysis of it.
Mukarivsky is another Russian Formalist. He differentiated between poetic and non-poetic language. The former deviates from the standard or conventional language usage. It is usually dominated by foregrounding, too.



Still, deviation has some problems. Norms change and differ in literary genres. Sometimes, a change in grammar and lexis is essential. Moreover, deviant language may be used in non-literary texts like ads and newspapers. Nowadays, we have database or corpus of words and phrases to check their regularity.


Building on Formalism, Carter in Reading (B) , tried to determine degrees of literariness between literary and non-literary texts. He based his argument on a cline of literariness. He claims six elements in literature: medium, independence, genre-mixing, polysemy, displaced interaction , text patterning as well as high semantic density in interaction of linguistic levels. Aside from such formal features, he also highlighted the indirect meaning of a text.


A prototypically literary text would include more of these features than a non-literary text. Carter indicates that Iiterariness is not just about formal features but also how these set up oblique or indirect meanings, the texts unstated content, or how a text reinforces content. The text requires the reader not just to skim the surface of a text but to involve themselves in the generation of such indirect meanings. And for this to happen effectively, literariness in the text needs to be achieved skillfully by the author.

1-Medium dependence The concept of medium dependence means that the more literary a text, the less it will be dependent for its reading on another medium or media, for instance, abbreviations, illustrations and pictorial supplements. In this respect, the speech is dependent only on itself for its reading whereby it generates a world o internal references and relies only on its own capacity to project. Yet, this is not to suggest that it cannot be determined by external political or social or biographical influences. No text can be completely autonomous that it refers only to itself nor so rich that a readers own experience of human rights it refers to.


2- Genre-mixing
Genre is a French term derived from the Latin genus, generis, meaning "type," "sort," or "kind." It designates the literary form or type into which works are classified according to what they have in common, either in their formal structures or in their treatment of subject matter, or both. Genres such as legal language or the language of instructions are recognized by the neat fit between language form and specific function; but any language can be used to literary effect by the process of genre-mixing, that is, no single word or stylistic feature or genre is prohibited from admission to a literary context. Genre-mixing recognizes that the full, unrestricted resources of the language are open to exploitation for literary ends.


3- Semantic density
Semantics is the study of meaning, it focuses on the relation between signifiers, like words, phrases, signs, and signified / symbols, and what they stand for. The semantic density of something is the measure of how much information it conveys in relation to its size or duration. The higher the semantic density, or the more semantically dense something is, the more information it packs into the given space or time. By "something" I mean a phrase or sentence, a set of instructions, a whole book, a training course, or any other context where information is being transmitted. A text that is perceived as resulting from the additive interaction of several linguistic levels is recognized as more literary than a text where there are fewer levels at work or where they are present but do not interact as densely.

4- Polysemy
A polysemy is a word or symbol that has more than one meaning. In order to be considered a polysemy, a word has to have separate meanings that can be different, but related to one another. The meanings and the words must have the same spelling and pronunciation and they must have the same origin. The existence of more than one meaning for a single word, such as table. There are many polysemous (having many senses) in the English Language.
The verb 'Fix' = 1.attach, 2.arrange 3.get ready (food or drinks) 4.repair 5. punish, 6.set right (the hair)
The verb Accept = 1-take willingly, 2-receive as suitable, 3-agree, 4-admit (responsibility), 5-to believe that something is true


5- Displaced interaction
A displaced interaction in a text allows meanings to emerge indirectly and obliquely. What we traditionally regard as literary is likely to be a text in which the context-bound interaction between author and reader is displaced.

6- Text patterning
At the level of text, effects can be located which can help us further differentiate degrees of literariness. In the speech, patterning at the level of text appears by virtue of repetition of the particulars of the avenue is shown below:
Go back to Mississippi, go back to Alabama, go back to South Carolina, go back to Georgia.
The above is also an example of parallel structure which is found commonly in literary texts. The main effect of cross-sentential repetition here, reinforced by repeated syntactic patterns of clauses and tenses, is to represent the lingering presence and progress of the movement as if the readers were actually engaged in a journey.


In Reading (C), Bradford applies stylistic analysis to judge literary values. Any literary text should be valued according to the relation between literary and non-literary form and content. The balance between the two forms his concept of the double pattern. He argues that it is possible to use stylistic analysis to enable judgments as to why one text carries more literary value than the other.

In order to assess a literary work, Bradford seeks out the double-pattern in it : the relationship between its literary form on the one hand and its non-literary form and content on the other. Bradford argues that the quality of a literary work should be judged in relation to the balance between these two dimensions. There are connections with Carters cline of literariness in Bradfords argument.

Clearly, for Bradford there is no such thing as a literary language; literary texts are composed of both literary elements and elements that non-literary texts possess. The notion of the double-pattern also links to Carters criterion of genre-mixing, where a non-literary genre can be mixed in with a literary text for particular effects.



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E301B Unit 3
Plot & Characterisation
3-Plot & Characterisation
Introduction
This chapter looks into narratives and precisely characterization, i.e. how characters are set up and developed also it deals with plot, i.e. how the actions and events are clarified. It explores how plot and characterization are configured for literary effect, the relationship between them and their literary value.

1-Plot
Plot refers to what happens in the story - events and thoughts which make up the story's basic structure. The plot is usually composed of an introduction, rising action, a climax, falling action and an ending that ties the story together. All plots contain a conflict: a struggle between two or more opposing forces. The conflict may be internal (person vs. self) or external (person vs. person, person vs. nature, person vs. society, or person vs. fate).

Exploring plot in narratives implies ******ing what is the story about? What are the main events in the story, and how are they related to each other? Are the main events of the story arranged chronologically, or are they arranged in another way?

For Michael Toolan, plot is primarily about change over time. He employs in part a concept from traditional grammar labeled : finiteness. Verbs in finite form, such as she stands carry, in part, information about time (present or past tense). Verbs in non-finite form such as She saw Frank standing on the quayside do not carry information about time. In view of Toolan, the use of finite verb forms in the past may indicate moments of a narrative which are crucial to plot. This is because finite verb forms when used in the past can indicate change over time. However, change over time can be indicated in other ways.

2- Characters
Characters in fiction refers to people's external appearance and behavior and also their inner emotional, intellectual, and moral qualities. A character is the person who populates the literary work, and an author uses characterization to show the character to the reader. The main character in a story is called the protagonist [hero or heroine], and the character or characters who oppose the protagonist are called the antagonist. Characters are usually the driving forces behind some plots, and the plots would simply collapse or become non-existent without them.

3-Characterization
Thus characterization is the method used by a writer to develop a character, and this method includes:
(1) showing the character's appearance, (2) displaying the character's actions, (3) revealing the character's thoughts,
(4) letting the character speak, and (5) getting the reactions of others

3.1-Vladimir Propp Characterization
In "Morphology of the Folktale" [1928] Vladimir Propp asserted that fairy tales could be studied and compared by examining their most basic plot components. The formalist Propp developed an analysis that reduced fairy tales to a series of actions performed by the dramatis personae (identities or personalities) in each story. Propp argued that all fairy tales were constructed of certain plot elements, which he called functions, and that these elements consistently occurred in a uniform sequence. Based on a study of one hundred folk tales, Propp devised a list of 31 generic (basic) functions, proposing that they encompassed all of the plot components from which fairy tales were constructed.

Vladimir Propp concluded that all the characters could be resolved into 7 broad character types or [Dramatis Personae]

1. The villain (the anti-hero or the bad man character) struggles against the hero.
2. The dispatcher (he is the person who controls the movements of the hero) character who makes the lack known and sends the hero off.
3. The (magical) helper helps the hero in his quest mission or journy.

4. The princess or prize the hero deserves her throughout the story but is unable to marry her because of an unfair evil, usually because of the villain. The hero's journey is often ended when he marries the princess, thereby beating the villain.
5. The donor (giver or supporter) prepares the hero or gives the hero some magical object.
6. The victim/seeker hero reacts to the donor and tries to wed (marry) the princess.
7. False hero takes credit for the heros actions or tries to marry the princess.

For Vladimir Propp, a function represents the fundamental deep structure of narrative. He lists thirty-one functions from which actions follow in Russian fairy-tales. The same act can have a different function depending on the narrative: killing the King can be seen either as an unforgiveable murder, or an act of release for an oppressed people, and each tale takes the following sequence of 31 functions:

1. ABSENTATION: A member of a family leaves the security of the home environment. This may be the hero or some other member of the family that the hero will later need to rescue. This division of the cohesive family injects initial tension into the storyline. The hero may also be introduced here, often being shown as an ordinary person.
2. INTERDICTION: An interdiction is a prohibition (forbidden things) addressed to the hero ('don't go there', 'don't do this'). The hero is warned against some action (given an 'interdiction').

3. VIOLATION of INTERDICTION
The interdiction is violated (villain enters the tale). This generally proves to be a bad move and the villain enters the story, although not necessarily confronting the hero. Perhaps the villains are just a lurking (waiting) presence or perhaps they attack the family whilst the hero is away.

4. RECONNAISSANCE (investigation): The villain makes an attempt at reconnaissance (either villain tries to find the children/jewels etc.; or intended victim questions the villain). The villain (often in disguise) makes an active attempt at seeking information, for example ******ing for something valuable or trying to actively capture someone. They may speak with a member of the family who innocently reveals information. They may also seek to meet the hero, perhaps knowing already the hero is special in some way.

5. DELIVERY:
The villain gains information about the victim. The villain's seeking now pays off and he or she now acquires some form of information, often about the hero or victim. Other information can be gained, for example about a map or treasure location.

6. TRICKERY: The villain attempts to deceive the victim to take possession of victim or victim's belongings (trickery villain disguised tries to win confidence of victim). The villain now presses further, often using the information gained in seeking to deceive the hero or victim in some way, perhaps appearing in disguise. This may include capture of the victim, getting the hero to give the villain something or persuading them that the villain is actually a friend and thereby gaining collaboration.

7. COMPLICITY (involvement):
Victim taken in by deception, unwittingly (innocently) helping the enemy. The trickery of the villain now works and the hero or victim naively acts in a way that helps the villain. This may range from providing the villain with something (perhaps a map or magical weapon) to actively working against good people (perhaps the villain has persuaded the hero that these other people are actually bad).

8. VILLAINY or LACK: Villain causes harm/injury to family member (by kidnapping, theft of magical agent, spoiling crops, spoils in other forms, causes a disappearance, expels someone, casts spell (magic) on someone, substitutes child etc., commits murder, imprisons/detains someone, threatens forced marriage, provides nightly irritations); Alternatively, a member of family lacks something or desires something (magical potion (liquid or medicine etc.). There are two options for this function, either or both of which may appear in the story.

In the first option, the villain causes some kind of harm, for example carrying away a victim or the desired magical object (which must be then be saved). In the second option, a sense of lack or absence is identified, for example in the hero's family or within a community, whereby something is identified as lost or something becomes desirable for some reason, for example a magical object that will save people in some way.

9. MEDIATION (resolution):
Misfortune or lack is made known, (hero is dispatched, hears call for help etc./ alternative is that victimized hero is sent away, freed from imprisonment). The hero now discovers the act of villainy or lack, perhaps finding their family or community devastated or caught up in a state of suffering and grief.

10. BEGINNING COUNTER-ACTION:
Seeker agrees to, or decides upon counter-action. The hero now decides to act in a way that will resolve the lack, for example finding a needed magical item, rescuing those who are captured or otherwise defeating the villain. This is a defining moment for the hero as this is the decision that sets the course of future actions and by which a previously ordinary person takes on the mantle (veil or covering) of heroism.

11. DEPARTURE: Hero leaves home;
12. FIRST FUNCTION OF THE DONOR: Hero is tested, interrogated, attacked etc., preparing the way for his/her receiving magical agent or helper (donor);
13. HERO'S REACTION: Hero reacts to actions of future donor (withstands/fails the test, frees captive, performs service, uses enemy's powers against him);

14. RECEIPT OF A MAGICAL AGENT: Hero acquires use of a magical agent (directly transferred, located, purchased, prepared, spontaneously appears, eaten/drunk, help offered by other characters);
15. GUIDANCE: Hero is transferred, delivered or led to whereabouts position or location of an object of the ******;
16. STRUGGLE: Hero and villain join in direct combat or battle;

17. BRANDING: Hero is branded (marked with something) (e.g. wounded/marked, receives ring or scarf);
18. VICTORY: Villain is defeated (killed in combat, defeated in contest, killed while asleep, banished);
19. LIQUIDATION: Initial misfortune or lack is resolved (object of ****** distributed, spell broken, murdered person revived or refreshed, captive or imprisoned freed);
20. RETURN: Hero returns;

21. PURSUIT (chase, hunt): Hero is pursued (pursuer tries to kill, eat, undermine the hero);
22. RESCUE: Hero is rescued from pursuit (obstacles delay pursuer, hero hides or is hidden, hero transforms unrecognizably, hero saved from attempt on his/her life);
23. UNRECOGNIZED ARRIVAL: Hero unrecognized, arrives home or in another country;
24. UNFOUNDED CLAIMS (rights) : False hero presents unfounded claims;
25. DIFFICULT TASK: Difficult task proposed to the hero (trial or test by suffering, riddles, test of strength/endurance, or any other other tasks);

26. SOLUTION: Task is resolved;
27. RECOGNITION: Hero is recognized (by mark, brand, or thing given to him/her);
28. EXPOSURE: False hero or villain is exposed;
29. TRANSFIGURATION: Hero is given a new appearance (is made whole, handsome, new garments etc.);
30. PUNISHMENT: Villain is punished;
31. WEDDING: Hero marries and ascends the throne (is rewarded/promoted).
3.2- Greimasian Characterization
Characters are so crucial to the plot in narratives. Some characters are the driving forces behind some plots, and the plots would simply collapse or become non-existent without them; and regarding plots without characters is impossible. According to Vladimir Propp , character is very much subordinate or secondary/minor to analysis of events; and in view of Julius Greimas (1983) analytical scheme in Structural Semantics, events are subordinate to character.

Like Propp, Greimas is another investigator of the deep structures of narrative, i.e. from an inherency perspective Greimas [1983] coined the term actant as a way of classifying types of 'deep narrative agent , equivalent to Propp's 'dramatis personae'. In view of Greimas there are six actants : subject, object, sender, receiver, helper, and opponent. (Propp's equivalents are: hero, sought-for-person, dispatcher, helper, donor, and false-hero.

However, an actant is not the same as a character, since an actant can be constructed out of a number of characters. Because Greimas focus was characters, he wanted also to make his scheme less restrictive than Propps character roles, such as Propps use of HERO or VILLAIN. As a result, Greimas introduced more generic roles such as SUBJECT and OBJECT. Another reason for doing this was to account for character perspectives more richly than that of HERO.

A-Relationship of desire
Greimas'actant ,SUBJECT , is not to be confused with the grammatical subject of a clause . The same applies for the actant and the grammatical object . In fact, OBJECT then in Greimas scheme is not necessarily a person; it can be a thing which is desired. The more generic role of OBJECT allows more flexibility in accounting for the narrative.
SUBJECT OBJECT

B-Relationship of power
HELPER SUBJECT OPPONENT
C-Relationship of communication
SENDER OBJECT RECEIVER

Greimasian analysis of characters in a narrative can be schematized or arranged as follows :


Relationship of communication
SENDER OBJECT RECEIVER
Relationship of
desire
HELPER SUBJECT OPPONENT

Relationship of power

3.3 Halliday Characterization: Transitivity Analysis
Functional grammar , which was developed by Halliday [1960], is concerned with linguistic functions in clauses. In other words, while accounting for the structure of language, a functional approach to grammar places emphasis on describing words or groups of words according to their function within a clause. As for transitivity analysis, it implies the analysis of clauses in terms of process types and their associated participants as well as circumstances.

The Process centers on that part of the clause that is realized by the Verbal Group. Process as a technical term in Systemic Functional grammar has a slightly different meaning from its everyday usage. It is used in two senses: (i) to refer to what is going on in the whole clause, and (ii) to refer to that part of the proposition encoded in the Verbal Group. Processes can be subdivided into different types: Material Process, Mental Process and Verbal Process.

The Participants are the entities involved in the Process, they are mostly humans, but gender, age and nationality are less important for the particular Processes involved than the fact that they are human, or at least animate. For example : The boy broke the window glass. Regarding the circumstances, they mean the words which relate to adverbs of place , time and manner: He goes to the gym at night.

A-Material Process
The prototypical (ideal) action-type clause in traditional school grammars is classified in Systemic Functional Grammar as a Material Process clause. Actually, Material Processes involve 'doing words'. In an action-oriented narrative, such Processes tend to occur frequently, though they are by no means the only type. Consider the following sentence : Jerry took the money, picked up a hat from the table and walked out. This sentence contains 4 clauses and each clause includes a Material Process.

A-1 Actor and Goal
In clause 1 Jerry is explicitly the performer of the action described by the Process took. Therefore, Jerry is labeled as
Actor: Jerry did something to the money, i.e. he took it. It is Jerry who performs the action and the money undergoes the action. As a result, the money in this clause is labeled Goal. A similar analysis applies to Example (2); the elliptical Subject Jerry is Actor; and a hat is Goal; and from the table is a Circumstance. However, examples (1) and (2) differ grammatically from (3) and (4) in one important respect.

Basically, in (3) and (4) we have again a Material Process, but this time there is only one Participant in each: the elliptical Jerry in (3) and he in (4), but there is no Goal involved in the Process. The Process realized by the verb returned is not extended from the Actor he to any other entity. Therefore, the verbs in [3] and [4] are intransitive.


B-Process , Actor & Goal in passive clauses

B-Mental Process
Some processes involve not material action but phenomena which refer to states of mind or psychological events. Therefore, these processes are labeled Mental Processes. Mental Processes tend to be realized through the use of verbs like think, know, feel, smell, hear, see, want, like, hate, please, repel, admire, enjoy, fear, frighten. Consider the following example: He knew what speed was.

We cannot interpret the Process as an action, so we can deduce that it is not a Material Process. In other words, the clause which could not serve as an answer to the question What did I/ you/ he /she /we /they do? includes a mental Process :
(1) He didn't recognize me
(2) We heard an explosion.
(3) I didn't know your phone number. Mental
Processes
(4) She doesn't want to study.
(5) They dislike their arrogant manger.

In all these examples the Subject is the one who experiences the Process. For obvious reasons, this Participant is labeled Senser. What is experienced is given the label Phenomenon. The examples cited all have the same Participant roles in the same order: Senser, Mental Process, Phenomenon, It happens that in all these examples the Senser is realized as Subject and the Phenomenon as Complement, but this is not always the case. Firstly, even with the same verbs, a change of voice would make the Phenomenon the Subject.

Active Voice
S / V / C
He / didn't recognize / me
We / Heard / an explosion
I / didn't know / your phone number
Senser / Mental Process / Phenomenon

Passive Voice
S / V /A circumstance
An explosion / was heard / by us
your phone number / wasn't known / by me
The exam / was studied hard for / by she
Their arrogant manager / is disliked / by them
Phenomenon / Mental Process / Senser

C-Verbal Process
Speaking is certainly a kind of action, and to some extent it would not be unreasonable to treat it as Material Process. But has some features of Mental Process, especially if we believe that verbalization of thoughts is a kind of inner speech. Consider the example below : (1) He said, 'If I'm free, I'll pass by later this evening"

In this example, we have the person who produces the utterance, to whom we give the self-explanatory title of Sayer; the Verbal Process itself, realized here as said; and the representation of the words actually spoken, which in this context we label Quoted. The function Quoted is realized as Direct Speech. The wording is identical to that initially uttered by the Sayer, or at least, it is presented as though it were identical.

On the other hand, there is a Verbal Process where the words of the Sayer are transposed in line with the perspective of the speaker or writer who is reporting the speech. This involves Indirect (Reported) Speech, such as in: ( 2) I said I wanted to relax for a while. Here I is Sayer and I wanted to relax for a while is Reported. It is worthwhile to remember that the Reported element itself contains clauses and so it could be further analyzed in terms of Process and Participant. There are various ordering possibilities with this type of Process, particularly with the direct speech form. The most neutral or unmarked ordering is Sayer-Process-Quoted,

Sayer / Verbal Process / Quoted
He / said / 'If I'm free, I'll pass by later this evening" [ Direct Speech]
I / said / " I wanted to relax for a while."
[ Indirect Speech]
but we can have Sayer following Quoted, as in the examples below :
(3) "'If I'm free, I'll pass by later this evening"
he said
(4)" I wanted to relax for a while" I said.

Quoted / Sayer / Verbal Process
"If I'm free, I'll pass by later this evening"
[ Direct Speech] / He / said
I wanted to relax for a while. [ Indirect Speech]/ I / said
Quoted / Verbal Process / Sayer
"If I'm free, I'll pass by later this evening
[ Direct Speech] / said / He

D- Relational Process
Relational Processes are typically realized by the verb be or some verbs of the same class known as copular verbs, such as seem, become, appear , for example : She appeared cheerful or sometimes by verbs such as have, own, possess. They typically have a Subject and an Intensive Complement. Relational Processes include: Attributive (modifying) & Identifying Processes: Attributive Process assigns an attribute to some entity as in : (1) She was hungry again.

S / V / C [intensive]
She / was / hungry again
The guests / looked / excited at the party yesterday
Carrier / Relational Process / Attribute

According to Martin Montgomery, Hallidayan functional grammar can precisely reveal ambiguity of characterization in a literary short story. If traditional grammar is to a large extent concerned with linguistic form as Michael Toolan stylistic analysis reveals through his use of a traditional grammatical term, finiteness. Finiteness is a formal property of a verb whether a verb carries endings which signal tense (e.g. she plays/ played) or not (e.g. she saw him playing).

Functional grammar is, on the other hand, much more concerned with linguistic function. It is concerned with how grammatical form works or functions to make meaning. To illustrate this idea, consider the following:
Eveline continued to sit by the window.
This clause includes two verbs, continued and to sit.

At the level of linguistic form, we can say that continued is finite, and to sit is non-finite. But how are these verb forms functioning in the sentence to lead us to make meaning in our heads?
If we imagine Eveline here we do not think of two different actions, continuing and sitting, that she is performing. In understanding the meaning here, we think instead of one process. In the functional grammar devised by Michael Halliday, this would be referred to as one process realized by two verb forms :

FUNCTION PROCESS
(Eveline) continued to sit
FORM verb 1 verb 2

The process continued to sit refers to as a material action process. These are processes which involve physical activity and are concerned with who or what does an action and to whom. In Hallidays grammar, processes are accompanied by different roles which have different functions. Consider the examples below:
1-He chased the burly girlies
2- He was slashed by the burly girlies

Basically, these two clauses have different forms and functions . The subject, he, is the same. It is the third-person, masculine subject pronoun. In other words, the subject has the same grammatical form in both these clauses. If they have two functions , it is because in the first sentence above, he is doing the chasing; the grammatical form of the masculine subject pronoun is realizing the role of AGENT as illustrated below:

Function Agent
He (chased the burly girlies)
Form masculine
subject pronoun
But he has a different function in the second sentence as illustrated below:
Function Affected
He (was slashed by the burly girlies)
Form masculine
subject pronoun

In the second clause the subject He is not the AGENT , but 'the burly girlies' are. He is being done to and is thus functioning as a different role, the role of AFFECTED.
Roles such as AGENT and AFFECTED which function at the level of the clause are known in Hallidayan functional grammar as participant roles. There are other types of participant role for other processes which are related to Transitivity.

Actually, transitivity analysis is usually performed on clauses in texts rather than just single clauses; and this analysis has parallels with Greimasian analysis of the relationships between actants. Greimasian analysis, being at the level of plot, is a macro-level analysis of relationships between characters in a narrative. When focusing on characters, Hallidayan transitivity analysis of narrative is a micro-level analysis of relationships between characters in a clause.

[Reading C]
Martin Montgomery initially produces a Greimasian actant representation of characters in the Hemingway story. This is a macro-level representation, at the level of plot, of relationships between the revolutionist and other characters in the story. However with Hallidays functional grammar he is able to produce a participant role analysis which is both qualitative and quantitative.

It is qualitative in that it reveals particular types of participant role for the revolutionist. Since it is also quantitative, we can compare different numbers of participant roles. As a result, we are able to see that the revolutionist is a SENSER and a SAYER in roughly equal proportions to instances where he is an AGENT With the functional grammatical analysis, and thus micro-level of analysis of narrative, it becomes clear that Hemingway has produced a reasonably balanced set of participant roles.

He has produced an ambiguous character Unlike an obvious hero in a plot-driven narrative such as Goldflnger who would automatically slot into SUBJECT position on Greimas scheme, Montgomery shows that it is difficult to assign the actant of SUBJECT to the revolutionist. Because Greimas actants are organized dynamically along axes, we are able to think of these axes as continua (ranges). So the revolutionist can be placed between SUBJECT and OBJECT on the axis of desire.

Thus, Montgomery shows that Greimas scheme is usefully synthetic (artificial) in that it nicely accommodates ambiguity in characterization. The ambiguity of characterization here could not be accommodated in Propps scheme. From a Formalist poetic point of view , the Hemingway story is seemingly not so interesting. There is little use of poetic literariness.

Literariness instead derives from the choice of participant roles, which create ambiguity of character. But for there to be successful literariness for a reader and thus for a reader to ascribe value to a story, he or she needs to be fascinated, in part, by the characterization, spending time for instance in trying to resolve any ambiguity. From a physical perspective, the boy is a revolutionist, in the sense of revolving, since he is being passed from one set of people to another. This seems to reflect that he is still reeling from the brutality he has suffered at such a young age under Horthy. His psychological damage means he fails to realize himself as a man of action in keeping with the title.

Conclusion
This chapter has explored characterization and plot in a number of different narratives. It has highlighted the limitations with Propps framework for dealing with subtle linking of plot and characterization. To capture this subtlety, Greimas framework analysis at clause level was introduced. Likewise, it has been underscored that finest conditions for literariness in relation to plot and characterization have some interdependency.

To show such interdependency, inherency perspective was implemented. This chapter has also indicated how a sociocultural perspective could be used. In addition, a purely grammatical focus is unlikely to reveal plot and characterization comprehensively. This chapter has also stressed that stylistic analysis of narrative can draw on a number of tools for studying linguistic form and function, and that these tools are useful for helping to articulate how a good literary writer draws a reader into a story through tensions, indeterminacies and ambiguities in plot and characterization.




    
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E301B The Art of ENGLISH Literary Creativity Chapter 1 Literature and creativity in English

Literary creativity - The second part of the course looks at texts designed for public consumption, including poetry, plays and novels, picture books, performance art, e-literature and adverts. What distinguishes some of these texts as high quality Literature while others are dismissed as short-lived and of little lasting value?* How are new types of technology*enabling*or even challenging our understanding of literary creativity and its forms?*

This section of the course explores the idea that more short-lived texts make creative use of a shared literary and cultural heritage. In addressing such issues, it provides a lively introduction to stylistic, semiotic and multimodal analysis drawing on work in literature, performance studies, linguistics,*anthropology, translation theory and cognitive psychology.* It also explores social and ideological issues, and the influence of historical processes and different cultural contexts on what counts as literary language and how this is understood.


Chapter 1
Literature and creativity in English

This chapter aims to expose :
Different inherency, sociocultural and cognitive approaches to define literature.
The significance of such patterns as deviation and parallelism in poetic language.
The influence of cultural and technological changes on verbal art in English.


The chapter also spotlights at:
The inherency approach that treats artistry (creativity) as residing/existing within creative uses of language within the text.

The sociocultural approach that explores social and ideological factors .

The cognitive approach that focuses on readers response.


1.2 Creativity as inherent in the text
This approach focuses on the writers skill in manipulating the linguistic form of the text like sounds and phrases as related to creativity. language is referring partly to itself and not simply to entities in the external world that are the object of discussion. This relationship dated back to Aristotle as he applied the scientific method of analysis to literary works. This was developed later and laid the foundation of stylistics by the Russian Formalists and the Prague school. They viewed literary texts as self-contained aesthetic objects. Focus was mainly on the form of literary language to produce defamilarization as our regular view of things is disrupted.


1 The inherency approach sees literariness as embedding in certain formal properties of language: literary language is regarded as distinct from more practical uses of language in that language itself is highlighted. Roman Jakobson (1960) perceives this as the poetic function of language, where there is a focus on the message for its own sake. This property of language may also be termed as self-referential, where language is referring partly to itself and not simply to entities in the external world that are the object of discussion. While the poetic function is evident in many examples of language use, the re******er of this paper would argue that it is the dominant, determining function of verbal art.

2 The sociocultural approach sees literariness as socially and culturally determined; for example, drawing attention to the fact that conceptions of literature vary historically and culturally. According to Terry Eagelton (1996) , there is nothing distinctive about literary language; any text can be seen as literature if it is defined as such by institutions or if people read it as such. Anthropological studies of literary performances in various cultural contexts also tend to take a sociocultural view on literariness.

Many studies focus on performance in its traditional literary or theatrical sense, to include public displays of artistic activity that are responded to aesthetically by an audience, such as story-telling, song, dance or drama. Yet, the notion is frequently extended to more everyday activity in recognition of the fact that there are parallels between everyday and literary performance explores social and ideological factors around the concept of literature.


3 The cognitive approach relates literary language to mental processes. Deborah Tannens (1989) suggests on that linguistic repetition derives from a basic human drive to repeat is a kind of cognitive argument. Cook (1994) argues that literary texts have an effect on the mind, helping us think in new ways and refreshing and changing our mental representations of the world. Such benefits are not, however, confined to established literature; Cook (2000) has similar things to say about everyday creativity or play with language. Similarly, Gibbs (1994) claims that human language and human understanding are often ****phorical, and that literary ****phor carries on and extends everyday ****phorical notions.


Through the work of the central figure in both Formalism and the Prague School ,Roman Jakobson , the Formalists were concerned with the poetic function of language. They saw this as closely connected to literariness, which they defined as the special properties of language that could be located in literary texts. Roman Jakobson [1960, p. 356] developed an influential typology of language functions:


1 The referential function is associated with the context of the message. It focuses on conveying information about the world beyond the communicative event itself .
2 The emotive or expressive function is associated with the speaker/ writer. It focuses on their attitude toward what they are speaking about, which may be expressed through a particular choice of words, grammar, or tone of voice.



3. The conative function is associated with the hearer/reader. It is concerned with aspects of language designed to affect or influence the hearer/reader in some way. This function may be expressed through features such as requests and commands.

4. The phatic function is associated with the contact. It is fulfilled by language which is addressed at initiating sustaining or closing the channel of communication, e.g. Well, here we are chatting away at last or by ritualized formulas, e.g. Lend me your ears.


5. The ****lingual function is associated with the language code itself. An utterance performs a ****lingual function when it refers to the code and how the code works.
6. The poetic function is associated with the message. It focuses on the message for its own sake, emphasizing the linguistic qualities of words themselves rather than any other factors in the situation. According to Roman Jakobson (1960, p. 356), poetic function is the dominant function of poetry. The poetic function involves the language drawing attention to its own form in some way; it then becomes especially prominent and is therefore foregrounded in the mind of the reader.

Deviation occurs when words, phrases and grammatical structures deviate from expected meaning , in terms of phonology, grammar or meaning. It leads to unexpected irregularity.

Graphological deviation is related to the phonological one when using unusual forms of writing to provide information about how something sounds when spoken aloud as in freeeeeeeeefrong or dis life no easy


The grammatical structure is also unexpected
Deviation of words and meaning include rare dialect or foreign words or strange usage of figurative language
Genre deviation when using a typical type of speech or writing in another genre as writing an ad in sonnet form (intertextuality)
Deviation is a term used to describe spelling and pronunciation of a word or a sentence structure which does not conform to a norm .Deviation implies variants of norm; when a literary text , such as a poem is deviant, it is noticeable , or perceptually prominent; and this is what is called foregrounding. There are many ways in which poets or writers can produce it and hence foregrounding.


A- Lexical Deviation:
The most obvious examples of lexical deviation are where a poet makes up a word which did not previously exist. This is called neologism or the invention of new words
My heart in hiding
Stirred for a bird-the achieve of, the mastery of the thing
Here, Hopkins takes the verb (achieve) and uses it as a noun, in spite of the fact that English already has a noun, achievement derived from that verb.
B- Semantic Deviation
Semantic deviation can mean non-sense or absurdity [Leech, 1969]. It is important to deal with what Leech calls tropes [foregrounding or irregularities of content]. According to him, they are classified largely into three sections:

A- Semantic Oddity
Semantic oddity means semantic bizarreness of expression. There are five types of semantic oddity:
pleonasm, periphrasis, and tautology have semantic redundancy, and oxymoron and paradox have semantic absurdity, which entail opposing of meaning or reference.
B- Transference of Meaning
According to Leechs classification, transference of meaning is classified into four types of figurative language: synecdoche, metonymy, ****phor and simile.



C. Honest Deception
Leech classifies the term honest deception into three types:
1) Hyperbole(Exaggeration)
2) Litotes (understatement)
3) Irony.
As per Leech, these types are all connected in a sense that they misrepresent the truth: Honest deception means these three types of semantic deviance misrepresent the truth for the sake not of deception, but of literary purpose.

C- Grammatical Deviation
One important feature of grammatical deviation is the case of ungrammaticality as in I does not like him. The most obvious examples of grammatical deviations are where a poet or a writer uses the double negative, the double comparative and the double superlative :Twill never do nothing no more [Brook, 1977] Similarly, writers or poets deviate from grammatical rules by combining two ways of expressing comparison: the addition of suffixes and the use of the separate words (more) and (most). Thus Shakespeare, for example, could combine unkindest and most unkind . Likewise, grammatical deviation, is often a result of faults analogy. Foreign learners of English language make faults analogy by applying regular forms for irregular forms such as: goed, seed, knowed, etc.


D- Phonological Deviation
To a large extent, the implicit phonology is determined by choice of words and structure at the syntactic level, where it can be regarded as an important ingredient of stylistic value .However, since the writing system is in many respects a system for representing the sound pattern of speech, a further source of phonological effect is graphology. It is worth mentioning that phonological deviation as phonetic behavior is determined by individual and a reasonable conformity to a norm and will function as a sort of standard in all speech communities[ educated speakers of English all over the world form such a speech community.


E-Graphological Deviation
Graphological deviation is a relatively minor and superficial part of style, concerning such matters as spelling, capitalization , hyphenation, italization and paragraphing. Such matters are determined conventionally by syntax and become noticeable only when a writer makes graphological choice which is marked or unconventional, such as a deliberate misspelling [Leech ,1981].


F- Morphological Deviation
Morphemes are the building blocks for words, bookshelf, for instance, consists of two morphemes (book) and (shelf). One way of producing deviation at a morphological level is by adding an ending to a word not normally be added to for example: perhapless mystery of paradise. Another way of producing foregrounding through the use of lexical deviation is by the use of an invented morpheme. For example museryroom. In fact, there is no such word as a museyroom .

Parallelism is unexpected regularity involving prominent patterns of repetition at the level of sound, grammatical structure or meaning.

Phonological parallelism is the combining of the same or similar sounds. Alliteration results from the repetition of word-initial consonants; the repetition of similar vowel sounds produces assonance. Rhyme is present when similar syllables are repeated, and the repetition of rhythmic patterns produces metre.


Grammatical parallelism is the repetition of phrase and/or clause structure.

Semantic parallelism involves the repetition and sometimes extension of the meaning of words, phrases and images. We also find repetition of individual words, and many of these repetitions occur in parallel structures:


1.3 A sociocultural approach to Literature
While Jakobson stressed the poetic uses of language, Terry Eagleton highlighted the sociocultural view of literature. He started by confirming that 17th &18th centuries literature simply meant polite writing, comprising essays, sermons, philosophy and history. While not all literature is imaginative, neither is all imaginative writing literature.


He argued that we have to consider social and ideological factors to understand the role of literature in society. This sociocultural approach explains why some historical or philosophical writings can be ranked as literature after a while.

Thus, his concept of literature is tightly related to social needs and values. Still, some works of art are universal and have lived across history.


(Reading A) exposes his concept of literature as tightly related to times and social needs. Literature, thus, embodies social values and aids to disseminate them. In the 18th century , for example, polite manners pervaded literature as binded middle and upper classes after the civil war. In the 19th century, ideas about literary creativity spread as a reaction to rising industrial capitalism. The true concept of literature emerged out of the revolutionary Romantic period , while in Victorian times, religion was in control and impacted literature as was full of moral ideas.

1.4 Literature in the mind of the reader
The Formalists defined literature in terms of textual features related to specific language patterns like parallelism and deviation. Jakbson stressed the poetic function of the literary text. The sociocultural approach defined literature as an ideological approach with a certain political purpose.
The cognitive approach is based on the recognition of text type that motivates the way of reading it in the readers mind. It relates literary language to mental processes . Social, cultural and institutional factors plus other contextual factors determine features of the language like the level of formality, structure and the like.


In (Reading B), Widdowson confirmed the enclosure of literature. He relied on Paul Grices maxims ; all conversation is founded on the co-operative principle or the unspoken argument between the participants. Speakers abide by quantity, quality, relation or relevance and manner or clarity. With non-literary texts, we use language as such as related to external reality. In literature, meaning is based on interaction with the readers mind to create their imaginary context or vision of the text itself.


Widdowson mainly focused on poetry as generating such enclosing impact to explain the individual act of reading. Still, some texts like critical theories happen to be read for an academic purpose or as an institutional practice, related to certain values. Thus, his main concern is not the writers meaning, but rather the texts meaning to the reader. He is interested in the construction of individual readings or what happens in peoples heads on reading literature, cognitive poetics.


In (Reading C), Elena Semio started by defining cognitive poetics as an approach to study literature to spotlight the relation between language and readersresponse. She, then, stressed Guy Cooks concept of discourse deviation to distinguish literature, rather than linguistic deviation. Readers approach literary texts with certain background and expectations , disrupted by literary discourse that challenges readers schemata to produce schema refreshment. Accordingly, literary discourse refers to language patterns and text structure as well as the world created within the literary text. The interaction between the readers worldwide view and the language of the text is stressed.

Semio, on discussing Sylvia Plaths Tulip, highlighted discourse deviation in reversing normal expectations that results in schema refreshment. In non-literary texts, linguistic deviations is never challenging. Still, Jeffries is against schema refreshment as may vary from one reader to another.

Foregrounding
It is a term usually used in art, having opposite meaning to background. The Prague School linguists consider foregrounding, which confers unexpectedness, unusualness and uniqueness on literary texts, as the differentiating factor between poetic and non-poetic language." They consider the maximization of foregrounding as the function of poetic language. Foregrounding has its origin with the Czech theorist Jan Mukarovský and refers to the range of stylistic effects that occur in literature, whether at the phonetic level (e.g., alliteration, rhyme), the grammatical level (e.g., inversion, ellipsis), or the semantic level (e.g., ****phor, irony).

As Mukarovský pointed out, foregrounding may occur in normal, everyday language, such as spoken discourse or journalistic prose, but it occurs at random with no systematic design. In literary texts, on the other hand, foregrounding is structured: it tends to be both systematic and hierarchical. That is, similar features may recur, such as a pattern of assonance or a related group of ****phors, and one set of features will dominate the others Foregrounding is the psychological effect a literary reader has as s/he is reading a work of literature in the sense that foregrounding in literary texts strikes readers as interesting and captures their attention.


1.5 Creativity, hybridity and new language arts
Canon can be defined as that body of authoritative great works of writing in English. For Jakbson, poetic language is not only confined to high art as literature lacks special intrinsic quality. It is rather composed of works valued for historical and ideological reasons.

On the other hand, Feminists attacked male dominance on most literary genres. This canon has been described as elitist and based on criteria of gender and class. F. R. Leavis called for looking to the past for great uses of English language and true literary value can only be appreciated by a small cultural elite.


Postcolonial writers challenged the traditional canon of English Literature. Some of them even decoupled the language from its past associations or abandoned it , in the context of movements of their national independence.

In the 21th century, the increasing use of English language in global communication loosened the connection between English language, literature and England as a nation. Technology as well as hybrid cultural practices out of migration are producing new, creative practices in English and new kinds of literary and creative texts.


In (Reading D), Pennycook suggests that the global spread of English is swallowing up local languages and cultures or causing adaptation to finally have Indian English, Singaporean English, and so on. He is particularly interested in the cultural dynamics of popular verbal forms in global youth culture.
In his article, he used hip-hop as an example of how creative language form cannot be understood in terms of either linguistic or cultural homogenization or linguistic and cultural adaptation. Though using English language, artists produced new cultural forms and meanings to express a new identity within a rapidly changing, culturally hybrid world.

The popularity of these new forms among young people globally may gradually reduce reading English Literature and lead to its demise. Pennycook described the multimodel form where a poem or song may be combined with music and dance , which mixes different verbal, visual , sound and movement modes. Outside literature, this high culture art exists , based on intertextuality to be more effective.
In 2004, Bruce Naumans, the American artist, exhibition Raw Materials included 24 spoken texts from his previous sound and video piece taken from 18 parallel pairs of speakers. Levels of voices were adjusted to produce a sound sculpture , mingled with new sounds of visitors. The selection was based on rhythm and emotional content rather than the original meaning.


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2


E301B The Art of ENGLISH Literary Creativity Chapter 2 POETIC LANGUAGE

Chapter 2 POETIC LANGUAGE

More focus on Russian Formalism.

Introducing Stylistics.

The role of both form and content in the literary analysis.


Jakobson argues, a work of art is a message in which the poetic or aesthetic function dominates. According to Jakobson poetry is a function of the two axes which Saussure terms the paradigmatic and syntagmatic and which he himself respectively calls the ****phoric pole (the axis of selection) and the metonymic pole (the axis of combination). Along the paradigmatic axis, Jakobson is saying, each sign in a given sequence is selected by virtue of its equivalence (that is, its similarity to some and difference from other signs in the sign system). Along the syntagmatic axis, the signs chosen in this way are combined with other signs according to the rules of syntax in order to form the sequence of signs which comprise the utterance in question.

What precisely distinguishes poetry in general from other verbal messages is the predominance of the poetic function. What distinguishes poetry from other forms of literature (e.g. prose narrative) is that, in Jakobsons famous formula, the poetic function projects the principle of equivalence from the axis of selection into the axis of combination. In other words, poetry is distinguished from other speech acts by the way in which the principle of equivalence which is usually synonymous with the axis of selection (the paradigmatic axis or ****phoric pole) is superimposed on the axis of combination (the syntagmatic axis or metonymic pole) which is normally subject only to the principle of syntactical contiguity. This equivalence manifests itself in two principal ways: in terms of prosody (metre) and sound (rhyme).

It is a type of language commonly associated with poetry. It is mainly concerned with form and meaning. Still, not all poetic texts are good or effective. Also, the poetic impact is liable to change over time.

The key function for discussion of poetic language is poetic function to stress the linguistic properties of words. The Swiss linguist Saussures concept of paradigm and syntagm can clarify the role of parallelism in poetic language.

He believed that we have two ways of meaning being created when speech unfolds in time. The first is where signs create meaning related to their place in a syntagm, a rule-governed combination of signs.
Example: she likes me - I like her
We have different syntagmatic meaning as combinations of signs are different because of different rule of SVO in each.


A second way of creating meaning is paradigm. It means a group of words that have something in common.
Example: (prefer= support= like ) belong to the same paradigm.

Also, a sign gets meaning because of what it is not the other signs in the relevant paradigm. Thus, the paradigmatic meaning in (I like her) is not the one when using (prefer or support).

These concepts laid the foundation for structuralism to explore structural patterns of literary texts.

For Jakbson, what makes a poem so is when the poetic function dominates over other language functions, self-referentiality. His ideas on literariness in the text itself also laid the foundations for stylistics to differentiate between literary and non-literary reading of a text.

Saussures concepts of paradigm and syntagm are worthwhile in clarifying the role of parallelism in the poetic function. For him as speech unfolds in 􀆟me, there are two ways of meaning being created. The first is where signs create meaning in relation to their place in a syntagm. A syntagm is a rule-governed combination of signs. Ike likes me and I like Ike are different syntagms in the sense that they follow the rule of subject-verb-object order.


Because the combination of signs is different, we have different syntagmatic meanings for like(s) in these two examples.
The second way of creating meaning is in relation to a paradigm. A paradigm is a group of words which have something in common, words which potentially can be selected for the same slot in a syntagm. For example, 'prefer or 'support' could he selected instead of like in the syntagm, I like Ike. Prefer, favour and like can thus be seen as belonging to the same paradigm . For Saussure, a sign also gets meaning because of what it is not, i.e. it is not the other signs in the relevant paradigm. So in addition to syntagmatic meaning, like gets paradigmatic meaning in I like Ike because it is not favour, prefer, etc.




The ideas of paradigm and syntagm, as well as others in Saussure (1915), laid the foundation for an approach to studying literature known as structuralism, which reached a peak in the 1960s. In structuralism, interest focuses not so much on evaluating literary texts but rather on exploring their structural patterns. Structuralism was influenced by both Russian and Prague School Formalism and so Jakobsons work provides a kind of bridge between these traditions.

Nash , in The lyrical game / reading (A), finds in sound, rhythm, grammar and meaning elements to support his belief that the persona in the poem moves from talkative hesitation to reassured harmony . Her analysis proves Jakobson's idea of the variant interpretations of a poem as well as the stylistic analysis of it.
Mukarivsky is another Russian Formalist. He differentiated between poetic and non-poetic language. The former deviates from the standard or conventional language usage. It is usually dominated by foregrounding, too.



Still, deviation has some problems. Norms change and differ in literary genres. Sometimes, a change in grammar and lexis is essential. Moreover, deviant language may be used in non-literary texts like ads and newspapers. Nowadays, we have database or corpus of words and phrases to check their regularity.


Building on Formalism, Carter in Reading (B) , tried to determine degrees of literariness between literary and non-literary texts. He based his argument on a cline of literariness. He claims six elements in literature: medium, independence, genre-mixing, polysemy, displaced interaction , text patterning as well as high semantic density in interaction of linguistic levels. Aside from such formal features, he also highlighted the indirect meaning of a text.


A prototypically literary text would include more of these features than a non-literary text. Carter indicates that Iiterariness is not just about formal features but also how these set up oblique or indirect meanings, the texts unstated content, or how a text reinforces content. The text requires the reader not just to skim the surface of a text but to involve themselves in the generation of such indirect meanings. And for this to happen effectively, literariness in the text needs to be achieved skillfully by the author.

1-Medium dependence The concept of medium dependence means that the more literary a text, the less it will be dependent for its reading on another medium or media, for instance, abbreviations, illustrations and pictorial supplements. In this respect, the speech is dependent only on itself for its reading whereby it generates a world o internal references and relies only on its own capacity to project. Yet, this is not to suggest that it cannot be determined by external political or social or biographical influences. No text can be completely autonomous that it refers only to itself nor so rich that a readers own experience of human rights it refers to.


2- Genre-mixing
Genre is a French term derived from the Latin genus, generis, meaning "type," "sort," or "kind." It designates the literary form or type into which works are classified according to what they have in common, either in their formal structures or in their treatment of subject matter, or both. Genres such as legal language or the language of instructions are recognized by the neat fit between language form and specific function; but any language can be used to literary effect by the process of genre-mixing, that is, no single word or stylistic feature or genre is prohibited from admission to a literary context. Genre-mixing recognizes that the full, unrestricted resources of the language are open to exploitation for literary ends.


3- Semantic density
Semantics is the study of meaning, it focuses on the relation between signifiers, like words, phrases, signs, and signified / symbols, and what they stand for. The semantic density of something is the measure of how much information it conveys in relation to its size or duration. The higher the semantic density, or the more semantically dense something is, the more information it packs into the given space or time. By "something" I mean a phrase or sentence, a set of instructions, a whole book, a training course, or any other context where information is being transmitted. A text that is perceived as resulting from the additive interaction of several linguistic levels is recognized as more literary than a text where there are fewer levels at work or where they are present but do not interact as densely.

4- Polysemy
A polysemy is a word or symbol that has more than one meaning. In order to be considered a polysemy, a word has to have separate meanings that can be different, but related to one another. The meanings and the words must have the same spelling and pronunciation and they must have the same origin. The existence of more than one meaning for a single word, such as table. There are many polysemous (having many senses) in the English Language.
The verb 'Fix' = 1.attach, 2.arrange 3.get ready (food or drinks) 4.repair 5. punish, 6.set right (the hair)
The verb Accept = 1-take willingly, 2-receive as suitable, 3-agree, 4-admit (responsibility), 5-to believe that something is true


5- Displaced interaction
A displaced interaction in a text allows meanings to emerge indirectly and obliquely. What we traditionally regard as literary is likely to be a text in which the context-bound interaction between author and reader is displaced.

6- Text patterning
At the level of text, effects can be located which can help us further differentiate degrees of literariness. In the speech, patterning at the level of text appears by virtue of repetition of the particulars of the avenue is shown below:
Go back to Mississippi, go back to Alabama, go back to South Carolina, go back to Georgia.
The above is also an example of parallel structure which is found commonly in literary texts. The main effect of cross-sentential repetition here, reinforced by repeated syntactic patterns of clauses and tenses, is to represent the lingering presence and progress of the movement as if the readers were actually engaged in a journey.


In Reading (C), Bradford applies stylistic analysis to judge literary values. Any literary text should be valued according to the relation between literary and non-literary form and content. The balance between the two forms his concept of the double pattern. He argues that it is possible to use stylistic analysis to enable judgments as to why one text carries more literary value than the other.

In order to assess a literary work, Bradford seeks out the double-pattern in it : the relationship between its literary form on the one hand and its non-literary form and content on the other. Bradford argues that the quality of a literary work should be judged in relation to the balance between these two dimensions. There are connections with Carters cline of literariness in Bradfords argument.

Clearly, for Bradford there is no such thing as a literary language; literary texts are composed of both literary elements and elements that non-literary texts possess. The notion of the double-pattern also links to Carters criterion of genre-mixing, where a non-literary genre can be mixed in with a literary text for particular effects.



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3


E301B Unit 3
Plot & Characterisation
3-Plot & Characterisation
Introduction
This chapter looks into narratives and precisely characterization, i.e. how characters are set up and developed also it deals with plot, i.e. how the actions and events are clarified. It explores how plot and characterization are configured for literary effect, the relationship between them and their literary value.

1-Plot
Plot refers to what happens in the story - events and thoughts which make up the story's basic structure. The plot is usually composed of an introduction, rising action, a climax, falling action and an ending that ties the story together. All plots contain a conflict: a struggle between two or more opposing forces. The conflict may be internal (person vs. self) or external (person vs. person, person vs. nature, person vs. society, or person vs. fate).

Exploring plot in narratives implies ******ing what is the story about? What are the main events in the story, and how are they related to each other? Are the main events of the story arranged chronologically, or are they arranged in another way?

For Michael Toolan, plot is primarily about change over time. He employs in part a concept from traditional grammar labeled : finiteness. Verbs in finite form, such as she stands carry, in part, information about time (present or past tense). Verbs in non-finite form such as She saw Frank standing on the quayside do not carry information about time. In view of Toolan, the use of finite verb forms in the past may indicate moments of a narrative which are crucial to plot. This is because finite verb forms when used in the past can indicate change over time. However, change over time can be indicated in other ways.

2- Characters
Characters in fiction refers to people's external appearance and behavior and also their inner emotional, intellectual, and moral qualities. A character is the person who populates the literary work, and an author uses characterization to show the character to the reader. The main character in a story is called the protagonist [hero or heroine], and the character or characters who oppose the protagonist are called the antagonist. Characters are usually the driving forces behind some plots, and the plots would simply collapse or become non-existent without them.

3-Characterization
Thus characterization is the method used by a writer to develop a character, and this method includes:
(1) showing the character's appearance, (2) displaying the character's actions, (3) revealing the character's thoughts,
(4) letting the character speak, and (5) getting the reactions of others

3.1-Vladimir Propp Characterization
In "Morphology of the Folktale" [1928] Vladimir Propp asserted that fairy tales could be studied and compared by examining their most basic plot components. The formalist Propp developed an analysis that reduced fairy tales to a series of actions performed by the dramatis personae (identities or personalities) in each story. Propp argued that all fairy tales were constructed of certain plot elements, which he called functions, and that these elements consistently occurred in a uniform sequence. Based on a study of one hundred folk tales, Propp devised a list of 31 generic (basic) functions, proposing that they encompassed all of the plot components from which fairy tales were constructed.

Vladimir Propp concluded that all the characters could be resolved into 7 broad character types or [Dramatis Personae]

1. The villain (the anti-hero or the bad man character) struggles against the hero.
2. The dispatcher (he is the person who controls the movements of the hero) character who makes the lack known and sends the hero off.
3. The (magical) helper helps the hero in his quest mission or journy.

4. The princess or prize the hero deserves her throughout the story but is unable to marry her because of an unfair evil, usually because of the villain. The hero's journey is often ended when he marries the princess, thereby beating the villain.
5. The donor (giver or supporter) prepares the hero or gives the hero some magical object.
6. The victim/seeker hero reacts to the donor and tries to wed (marry) the princess.
7. False hero takes credit for the heros actions or tries to marry the princess.

For Vladimir Propp, a function represents the fundamental deep structure of narrative. He lists thirty-one functions from which actions follow in Russian fairy-tales. The same act can have a different function depending on the narrative: killing the King can be seen either as an unforgiveable murder, or an act of release for an oppressed people, and each tale takes the following sequence of 31 functions:

1. ABSENTATION: A member of a family leaves the security of the home environment. This may be the hero or some other member of the family that the hero will later need to rescue. This division of the cohesive family injects initial tension into the storyline. The hero may also be introduced here, often being shown as an ordinary person.
2. INTERDICTION: An interdiction is a prohibition (forbidden things) addressed to the hero ('don't go there', 'don't do this'). The hero is warned against some action (given an 'interdiction').

3. VIOLATION of INTERDICTION
The interdiction is violated (villain enters the tale). This generally proves to be a bad move and the villain enters the story, although not necessarily confronting the hero. Perhaps the villains are just a lurking (waiting) presence or perhaps they attack the family whilst the hero is away.

4. RECONNAISSANCE (investigation): The villain makes an attempt at reconnaissance (either villain tries to find the children/jewels etc.; or intended victim questions the villain). The villain (often in disguise) makes an active attempt at seeking information, for example ******ing for something valuable or trying to actively capture someone. They may speak with a member of the family who innocently reveals information. They may also seek to meet the hero, perhaps knowing already the hero is special in some way.

5. DELIVERY:
The villain gains information about the victim. The villain's seeking now pays off and he or she now acquires some form of information, often about the hero or victim. Other information can be gained, for example about a map or treasure location.

6. TRICKERY: The villain attempts to deceive the victim to take possession of victim or victim's belongings (trickery villain disguised tries to win confidence of victim). The villain now presses further, often using the information gained in seeking to deceive the hero or victim in some way, perhaps appearing in disguise. This may include capture of the victim, getting the hero to give the villain something or persuading them that the villain is actually a friend and thereby gaining collaboration.

7. COMPLICITY (involvement):
Victim taken in by deception, unwittingly (innocently) helping the enemy. The trickery of the villain now works and the hero or victim naively acts in a way that helps the villain. This may range from providing the villain with something (perhaps a map or magical weapon) to actively working against good people (perhaps the villain has persuaded the hero that these other people are actually bad).

8. VILLAINY or LACK: Villain causes harm/injury to family member (by kidnapping, theft of magical agent, spoiling crops, spoils in other forms, causes a disappearance, expels someone, casts spell (magic) on someone, substitutes child etc., commits murder, imprisons/detains someone, threatens forced marriage, provides nightly irritations); Alternatively, a member of family lacks something or desires something (magical potion (liquid or medicine etc.). There are two options for this function, either or both of which may appear in the story.

In the first option, the villain causes some kind of harm, for example carrying away a victim or the desired magical object (which must be then be saved). In the second option, a sense of lack or absence is identified, for example in the hero's family or within a community, whereby something is identified as lost or something becomes desirable for some reason, for example a magical object that will save people in some way.

9. MEDIATION (resolution):
Misfortune or lack is made known, (hero is dispatched, hears call for help etc./ alternative is that victimized hero is sent away, freed from imprisonment). The hero now discovers the act of villainy or lack, perhaps finding their family or community devastated or caught up in a state of suffering and grief.

10. BEGINNING COUNTER-ACTION:
Seeker agrees to, or decides upon counter-action. The hero now decides to act in a way that will resolve the lack, for example finding a needed magical item, rescuing those who are captured or otherwise defeating the villain. This is a defining moment for the hero as this is the decision that sets the course of future actions and by which a previously ordinary person takes on the mantle (veil or covering) of heroism.

11. DEPARTURE: Hero leaves home;
12. FIRST FUNCTION OF THE DONOR: Hero is tested, interrogated, attacked etc., preparing the way for his/her receiving magical agent or helper (donor);
13. HERO'S REACTION: Hero reacts to actions of future donor (withstands/fails the test, frees captive, performs service, uses enemy's powers against him);

14. RECEIPT OF A MAGICAL AGENT: Hero acquires use of a magical agent (directly transferred, located, purchased, prepared, spontaneously appears, eaten/drunk, help offered by other characters);
15. GUIDANCE: Hero is transferred, delivered or led to whereabouts position or location of an object of the ******;
16. STRUGGLE: Hero and villain join in direct combat or battle;

17. BRANDING: Hero is branded (marked with something) (e.g. wounded/marked, receives ring or scarf);
18. VICTORY: Villain is defeated (killed in combat, defeated in contest, killed while asleep, banished);
19. LIQUIDATION: Initial misfortune or lack is resolved (object of ****** distributed, spell broken, murdered person revived or refreshed, captive or imprisoned freed);
20. RETURN: Hero returns;

21. PURSUIT (chase, hunt): Hero is pursued (pursuer tries to kill, eat, undermine the hero);
22. RESCUE: Hero is rescued from pursuit (obstacles delay pursuer, hero hides or is hidden, hero transforms unrecognizably, hero saved from attempt on his/her life);
23. UNRECOGNIZED ARRIVAL: Hero unrecognized, arrives home or in another country;
24. UNFOUNDED CLAIMS (rights) : False hero presents unfounded claims;
25. DIFFICULT TASK: Difficult task proposed to the hero (trial or test by suffering, riddles, test of strength/endurance, or any other other tasks);

26. SOLUTION: Task is resolved;
27. RECOGNITION: Hero is recognized (by mark, brand, or thing given to him/her);
28. EXPOSURE: False hero or villain is exposed;
29. TRANSFIGURATION: Hero is given a new appearance (is made whole, handsome, new garments etc.);
30. PUNISHMENT: Villain is punished;
31. WEDDING: Hero marries and ascends the throne (is rewarded/promoted).
3.2- Greimasian Characterization
Characters are so crucial to the plot in narratives. Some characters are the driving forces behind some plots, and the plots would simply collapse or become non-existent without them; and regarding plots without characters is impossible. According to Vladimir Propp , character is very much subordinate or secondary/minor to analysis of events; and in view of Julius Greimas (1983) analytical scheme in Structural Semantics, events are subordinate to character.

Like Propp, Greimas is another investigator of the deep structures of narrative, i.e. from an inherency perspective Greimas [1983] coined the term actant as a way of classifying types of 'deep narrative agent , equivalent to Propp's 'dramatis personae'. In view of Greimas there are six actants : subject, object, sender, receiver, helper, and opponent. (Propp's equivalents are: hero, sought-for-person, dispatcher, helper, donor, and false-hero.

However, an actant is not the same as a character, since an actant can be constructed out of a number of characters. Because Greimas focus was characters, he wanted also to make his scheme less restrictive than Propps character roles, such as Propps use of HERO or VILLAIN. As a result, Greimas introduced more generic roles such as SUBJECT and OBJECT. Another reason for doing this was to account for character perspectives more richly than that of HERO.

A-Relationship of desire
Greimas'actant ,SUBJECT , is not to be confused with the grammatical subject of a clause . The same applies for the actant and the grammatical object . In fact, OBJECT then in Greimas scheme is not necessarily a person; it can be a thing which is desired. The more generic role of OBJECT allows more flexibility in accounting for the narrative.
SUBJECT OBJECT

B-Relationship of power
HELPER SUBJECT OPPONENT
C-Relationship of communication
SENDER OBJECT RECEIVER

Greimasian analysis of characters in a narrative can be schematized or arranged as follows :


Relationship of communication
SENDER OBJECT RECEIVER
Relationship of
desire
HELPER SUBJECT OPPONENT

Relationship of power

3.3 Halliday Characterization: Transitivity Analysis
Functional grammar , which was developed by Halliday [1960], is concerned with linguistic functions in clauses. In other words, while accounting for the structure of language, a functional approach to grammar places emphasis on describing words or groups of words according to their function within a clause. As for transitivity analysis, it implies the analysis of clauses in terms of process types and their associated participants as well as circumstances.

The Process centers on that part of the clause that is realized by the Verbal Group. Process as a technical term in Systemic Functional grammar has a slightly different meaning from its everyday usage. It is used in two senses: (i) to refer to what is going on in the whole clause, and (ii) to refer to that part of the proposition encoded in the Verbal Group. Processes can be subdivided into different types: Material Process, Mental Process and Verbal Process.

The Participants are the entities involved in the Process, they are mostly humans, but gender, age and nationality are less important for the particular Processes involved than the fact that they are human, or at least animate. For example : The boy broke the window glass. Regarding the circumstances, they mean the words which relate to adverbs of place , time and manner: He goes to the gym at night.

A-Material Process
The prototypical (ideal) action-type clause in traditional school grammars is classified in Systemic Functional Grammar as a Material Process clause. Actually, Material Processes involve 'doing words'. In an action-oriented narrative, such Processes tend to occur frequently, though they are by no means the only type. Consider the following sentence : Jerry took the money, picked up a hat from the table and walked out. This sentence contains 4 clauses and each clause includes a Material Process.

A-1 Actor and Goal
In clause 1 Jerry is explicitly the performer of the action described by the Process took. Therefore, Jerry is labeled as
Actor: Jerry did something to the money, i.e. he took it. It is Jerry who performs the action and the money undergoes the action. As a result, the money in this clause is labeled Goal. A similar analysis applies to Example (2); the elliptical Subject Jerry is Actor; and a hat is Goal; and from the table is a Circumstance. However, examples (1) and (2) differ grammatically from (3) and (4) in one important respect.

Basically, in (3) and (4) we have again a Material Process, but this time there is only one Participant in each: the elliptical Jerry in (3) and he in (4), but there is no Goal involved in the Process. The Process realized by the verb returned is not extended from the Actor he to any other entity. Therefore, the verbs in [3] and [4] are intransitive.


B-Process , Actor & Goal in passive clauses

B-Mental Process
Some processes involve not material action but phenomena which refer to states of mind or psychological events. Therefore, these processes are labeled Mental Processes. Mental Processes tend to be realized through the use of verbs like think, know, feel, smell, hear, see, want, like, hate, please, repel, admire, enjoy, fear, frighten. Consider the following example: He knew what speed was.

We cannot interpret the Process as an action, so we can deduce that it is not a Material Process. In other words, the clause which could not serve as an answer to the question What did I/ you/ he /she /we /they do? includes a mental Process :
(1) He didn't recognize me
(2) We heard an explosion.
(3) I didn't know your phone number. Mental
Processes
(4) She doesn't want to study.
(5) They dislike their arrogant manger.

In all these examples the Subject is the one who experiences the Process. For obvious reasons, this Participant is labeled Senser. What is experienced is given the label Phenomenon. The examples cited all have the same Participant roles in the same order: Senser, Mental Process, Phenomenon, It happens that in all these examples the Senser is realized as Subject and the Phenomenon as Complement, but this is not always the case. Firstly, even with the same verbs, a change of voice would make the Phenomenon the Subject.

Active Voice
S / V / C
He / didn't recognize / me
We / Heard / an explosion
I / didn't know / your phone number
Senser / Mental Process / Phenomenon

Passive Voice
S / V /A circumstance
An explosion / was heard / by us
your phone number / wasn't known / by me
The exam / was studied hard for / by she
Their arrogant manager / is disliked / by them
Phenomenon / Mental Process / Senser

C-Verbal Process
Speaking is certainly a kind of action, and to some extent it would not be unreasonable to treat it as Material Process. But has some features of Mental Process, especially if we believe that verbalization of thoughts is a kind of inner speech. Consider the example below : (1) He said, 'If I'm free, I'll pass by later this evening"

In this example, we have the person who produces the utterance, to whom we give the self-explanatory title of Sayer; the Verbal Process itself, realized here as said; and the representation of the words actually spoken, which in this context we label Quoted. The function Quoted is realized as Direct Speech. The wording is identical to that initially uttered by the Sayer, or at least, it is presented as though it were identical.

On the other hand, there is a Verbal Process where the words of the Sayer are transposed in line with the perspective of the speaker or writer who is reporting the speech. This involves Indirect (Reported) Speech, such as in: ( 2) I said I wanted to relax for a while. Here I is Sayer and I wanted to relax for a while is Reported. It is worthwhile to remember that the Reported element itself contains clauses and so it could be further analyzed in terms of Process and Participant. There are various ordering possibilities with this type of Process, particularly with the direct speech form. The most neutral or unmarked ordering is Sayer-Process-Quoted,

Sayer / Verbal Process / Quoted
He / said / 'If I'm free, I'll pass by later this evening" [ Direct Speech]
I / said / " I wanted to relax for a while."
[ Indirect Speech]
but we can have Sayer following Quoted, as in the examples below :
(3) "'If I'm free, I'll pass by later this evening"
he said
(4)" I wanted to relax for a while" I said.

Quoted / Sayer / Verbal Process
"If I'm free, I'll pass by later this evening"
[ Direct Speech] / He / said
I wanted to relax for a while. [ Indirect Speech]/ I / said
Quoted / Verbal Process / Sayer
"If I'm free, I'll pass by later this evening
[ Direct Speech] / said / He

D- Relational Process
Relational Processes are typically realized by the verb be or some verbs of the same class known as copular verbs, such as seem, become, appear , for example : She appeared cheerful or sometimes by verbs such as have, own, possess. They typically have a Subject and an Intensive Complement. Relational Processes include: Attributive (modifying) & Identifying Processes: Attributive Process assigns an attribute to some entity as in : (1) She was hungry again.

S / V / C [intensive]
She / was / hungry again
The guests / looked / excited at the party yesterday
Carrier / Relational Process / Attribute

According to Martin Montgomery, Hallidayan functional grammar can precisely reveal ambiguity of characterization in a literary short story. If traditional grammar is to a large extent concerned with linguistic form as Michael Toolan stylistic analysis reveals through his use of a traditional grammatical term, finiteness. Finiteness is a formal property of a verb whether a verb carries endings which signal tense (e.g. she plays/ played) or not (e.g. she saw him playing).

Functional grammar is, on the other hand, much more concerned with linguistic function. It is concerned with how grammatical form works or functions to make meaning. To illustrate this idea, consider the following:
Eveline continued to sit by the window.
This clause includes two verbs, continued and to sit.

At the level of linguistic form, we can say that continued is finite, and to sit is non-finite. But how are these verb forms functioning in the sentence to lead us to make meaning in our heads?
If we imagine Eveline here we do not think of two different actions, continuing and sitting, that she is performing. In understanding the meaning here, we think instead of one process. In the functional grammar devised by Michael Halliday, this would be referred to as one process realized by two verb forms :

FUNCTION PROCESS
(Eveline) continued to sit
FORM verb 1 verb 2

The process continued to sit refers to as a material action process. These are processes which involve physical activity and are concerned with who or what does an action and to whom. In Hallidays grammar, processes are accompanied by different roles which have different functions. Consider the examples below:
1-He chased the burly girlies
2- He was slashed by the burly girlies

Basically, these two clauses have different forms and functions . The subject, he, is the same. It is the third-person, masculine subject pronoun. In other words, the subject has the same grammatical form in both these clauses. If they have two functions , it is because in the first sentence above, he is doing the chasing; the grammatical form of the masculine subject pronoun is realizing the role of AGENT as illustrated below:

Function Agent
He (chased the burly girlies)
Form masculine
subject pronoun
But he has a different function in the second sentence as illustrated below:
Function Affected
He (was slashed by the burly girlies)
Form masculine
subject pronoun

In the second clause the subject He is not the AGENT , but 'the burly girlies' are. He is being done to and is thus functioning as a different role, the role of AFFECTED.
Roles such as AGENT and AFFECTED which function at the level of the clause are known in Hallidayan functional grammar as participant roles. There are other types of participant role for other processes which are related to Transitivity.

Actually, transitivity analysis is usually performed on clauses in texts rather than just single clauses; and this analysis has parallels with Greimasian analysis of the relationships between actants. Greimasian analysis, being at the level of plot, is a macro-level analysis of relationships between characters in a narrative. When focusing on characters, Hallidayan transitivity analysis of narrative is a micro-level analysis of relationships between characters in a clause.

[Reading C]
Martin Montgomery initially produces a Greimasian actant representation of characters in the Hemingway story. This is a macro-level representation, at the level of plot, of relationships between the revolutionist and other characters in the story. However with Hallidays functional grammar he is able to produce a participant role analysis which is both qualitative and quantitative.

It is qualitative in that it reveals particular types of participant role for the revolutionist. Since it is also quantitative, we can compare different numbers of participant roles. As a result, we are able to see that the revolutionist is a SENSER and a SAYER in roughly equal proportions to instances where he is an AGENT With the functional grammatical analysis, and thus micro-level of analysis of narrative, it becomes clear that Hemingway has produced a reasonably balanced set of participant roles.

He has produced an ambiguous character Unlike an obvious hero in a plot-driven narrative such as Goldflnger who would automatically slot into SUBJECT position on Greimas scheme, Montgomery shows that it is difficult to assign the actant of SUBJECT to the revolutionist. Because Greimas actants are organized dynamically along axes, we are able to think of these axes as continua (ranges). So the revolutionist can be placed between SUBJECT and OBJECT on the axis of desire.

Thus, Montgomery shows that Greimas scheme is usefully synthetic (artificial) in that it nicely accommodates ambiguity in characterization. The ambiguity of characterization here could not be accommodated in Propps scheme. From a Formalist poetic point of view , the Hemingway story is seemingly not so interesting. There is little use of poetic literariness.

Literariness instead derives from the choice of participant roles, which create ambiguity of character. But for there to be successful literariness for a reader and thus for a reader to ascribe value to a story, he or she needs to be fascinated, in part, by the characterization, spending time for instance in trying to resolve any ambiguity. From a physical perspective, the boy is a revolutionist, in the sense of revolving, since he is being passed from one set of people to another. This seems to reflect that he is still reeling from the brutality he has suffered at such a young age under Horthy. His psychological damage means he fails to realize himself as a man of action in keeping with the title.

Conclusion
This chapter has explored characterization and plot in a number of different narratives. It has highlighted the limitations with Propps framework for dealing with subtle linking of plot and characterization. To capture this subtlety, Greimas framework analysis at clause level was introduced. Likewise, it has been underscored that finest conditions for literariness in relation to plot and characterization have some interdependency.

To show such interdependency, inherency perspective was implemented. This chapter has also indicated how a sociocultural perspective could be used. In addition, a purely grammatical focus is unlikely to reveal plot and characterization comprehensively. This chapter has also stressed that stylistic analysis of narrative can draw on a number of tools for studying linguistic form and function, and that these tools are useful for helping to articulate how a good literary writer draws a reader into a story through tensions, indeterminacies and ambiguities in plot and characterization.




    
26-05-2014, 03:24 PM   #5
 

 












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21-11-2014, 08:18 AM   #6
 

 











: E301b





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