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قديم 13-04-2014, 11:49 PM   #1
فيحاء العسل فيحاء العسل غير متصل
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منقول اسئلة اختبار الميد+ الاجوبه من دكتور بران 2013



هذا الاختبار والاجوبه لعام 2013 من دكتور بران (منقول من يمعة )


Section 1: Answer either 1 or 2:

1- Examine the important features of British publishing for children between 1950 and 1990 with reference to Nicholas Tucker’s essay ‘Twentieth-century British publishing.’

In the early 1950's CL still remained simplistic in its themes and unsophisticated in its content.

Post-war period saw real improvement in publishing for children. Much energy was spend arguing over different issues like amount & supposed poor quality of Enid Blyton’s writing & its supposed bad effect on children.

During this period, radio was seen as diverting children from reading books. Providing children with attractive books depicting positive, optimistic view of childhood was seen as important.

‘Good’ book had to satisfy editor regarding taste & general suitability.

While intention of publishers was to uphold literary standards, effect was also to limit the appeal of their books to a more educated audience.

An important agent for immense changes in CL started to occur in 1960s with the growth of children’s libraries. Librarians noticed that majority of books still reflected middle-class background. Inner-city librarians & teachers became conscious that young readers from new ethnic minorities have little to read reflecting their own experiences. Publishers responded with new books reflecting new attitudes.

Pioneering movements like Anne Woods’ Federation of Children’s Book Groups encouraged book purchasing across all social classes.

Another important influence for change was new insistence on changing role of girls & women in fiction as in life. Previous attitudes in picture books depicted boys in action & girls supporting domestic roles. New women of 1970s wanted something better.

1980s saw new demands for widening CL catchment area even further by including more disabled characters in stories. Consciousness of a widening children’s market with individuals from different backgrounds destroyed former, unitary image of child reader as essentially white, middle-class & privately educated.

Competition among book publishers became fiercer realizing children’s books as money-spinners when profit margins elsewhere became severely squeezed. Widespread TV viewing by children in 1960s & coming of electronic equipment in market were important challenges confronting children’s publishers.
The whole concept of ‘good’ book for children began to change. Literature as a source of desirable role-models conveyed through characters talking in Standard English gave way to fiction with characters more earthy & less idealized than before.

Another important factor was dramatic growth of paperback editions for children in 1960s. Self-improving tone of many Puffin Books gave way to more lively & contemporary fiction.

Children began watching much adult material on TV. Children’s books began to take on once-controversial themes unknown to previous generation readers. Many social problems like homosexuality, child abuse, incest, rape, drug-taking, alcoholism appeared in some children’s books during and after1970s.

Language of children’s books also changed. Swear-words, rude jokes, slang & ungrammatical speech emerged. Roald Dahl became a millionaire providing books with bad humour irresistible to children.




2- What does Nicholas Tucker’s essay ‘Twentieth-century British publishing’ tell you about the values that Tucker himself places on different kinds of books, and how far would you agree with these?
In his essay ‘Twentieth-century British publishing’ Tucker tells the reader about values that he himself places on different kinds of books. Tucker values the following:

•Good children’s books should appeal to adults. Books which appeal equally to children and adults become classics and part of our collective memory.
•He clearly values literature that reflects real lives of ordinary children & social and ethnic diversity of contemporary life. According to Tucker, children’s fiction should be socially representative. Books with a narrower social setting or fantasies can equally deal with moral complexity & appeal to a wide audience.
•He clearly values literature that reflects real lives of ordinary children & social and ethnic diversity of contemporary life. According to Tucker, children’s fiction should be socially representative. Books with a narrower social setting or fantasies can equally deal with moral complexity & appeal to a wide audience. It can be appreciated both as pleasurable play in relation to a romantic conception of childhood & also in more pedagogic terms, as ****phorically conveying important insights that contribute to the child reader’s development & preparation for adulthood.
•According to Tucker, the war has triggered some social and economic changes which have resulted in a new kind of working class readers, and prompted publishers to publish books more relevant to the interests of the new readers.
•According to Tucker, the war 2nd world war has brought a better kind of children's literature.

In the second part of the answer students should comment on Tucker's values and explain whether they agree with these values.




Section 2: Answer either 3 or 4:

3- Mention the main features of ‘fantasy’ and discuss how Philippa Pearce draws the reader into Tom’s world in her novel Tom’s Midnight Garden.

Fantasy can be defined in relation to reality. Fantasy is any departure from consensus reality. One characteristic element of fantasy is presence of magic, or any form of supernatural, in an otherwise realistic, recognizable world. The essence of fantasy is a confrontation of ordinary & fabulous. Adult fantasy has traditionally been categorized as popular rather than prestigious literature. Fantastic has been a more acceptable and sometimes highly valued feature in CL. This is because it can be appreciated both as pleasurable play in relation to a romantic conception of childhood & also in more pedagogic terms, as ****phorically conveying important insights that contribute to child reader’s development & preparation for adulthood.
One of the challenges for writers of fantasy is to persuade readers to suspend disbelief & accept that, within terms of constructed world, characters & events that are believable.
In Pearce’s ‘Tom’s Midnight Garden’ Tom is not the narrator; but he is the focaliser. Readers see & feel through his eyes & sensibilities the entire events in the story. Characters and places are presented from his perspective. Eg: Peter as valued playmate; Uncle Alan as morose & sarcastic; Aunt Gwen as fussy & over-attentive. Significance of nursery bars & freedom of midnight garden are also presented from Tom’s point of view. Thoughts & feelings of the Kitsons, Peter or Hatty are less shown. Pearce often uses free indirect discourse to convey Tom’s thoughts. The coloring of narrator’s voice with Tom’s feelings strengthens reader’s identification with him. Through focalization, reader accepts Tom’s experiences in garden as believable within the framework of Pearce’s constructed world.

4- Discuss how time functions in Philippa Pearce's novel with reference to Maria Nikolajeva's article 'Midnight Garden, magic Wells' and other critical essays.

The answer is found in the study Guide p. 172
• Nikolajeva suggests that in Tom’s Midnight Garden the garden ****phorically symbolizes time of childhood.
• She points out that this particular chronotope (a typical configuration of time & place in a literary genre) is associated in Christian ideology with Paradise.
When Tom &Hatty step into the garden, they enter mythical time (kairos) which does not obey rules of ordinary linear time (chronos); but is instead evoked by Mrs. Bartholomew’s fragmented memories of her childhood.
• For Tom, home means ‘order, linearity, & growing up.’
• Nikolajeva directly tackles mystery of time that Pearce said was central to the novel. Her discussion of interplay b/w chromos & kairos in the story could be seen to add a further dimension to other critics’ discussion of ****phors of time & garden, & of struggle involved in moving out of childhood.
•Students should discuss the use of magic to create a time-slip fantasy.
•In Tom's Midnight Garden, Pearce uses a variety of ordinary household items as a means to transport Tom from the real world to another place in time. The two main objects that Pearce employs to carry Tom from the present to the past are Mrs. Bartholomew’s grandfather clock and the back door, which opens into the “midnight garden”.
•It is in the core of the book, Tom’s maturing principally occurs in the shifting of time. The first intimation of magic appears when Tom is drawn to the grandfather’s clock. Uncle Alan reports its peculiar habits, which puts time itself into question. The clock is the most enduring magical element. It calls to Tom by striking thirteen times. As Tom ponders the magic working, the house becomes alive. It holds its breath, waits, sighs, and whispers while Tom considers responding to the thirteen chimes. The clock, house, and moonlight cooperate in transporting Tom across time.
•The very idea of time is a strong theme throughout. The sundial in the garden picks up this theme. “The sundial’s iron finger threw a shadow at last, and told the time, Day beginning, and Tom was afraid of being caught in a daytime not his own” (Pearce 42). As Tom gets to know Hatty better, they both discuss the mysteries of time and he observes that when he is in the garden “this was somehow made his Present too”. (Pearce 148). As he tries to puzzle time out with his Uncle, the scientific and magic collide and Tom concludes, “Apparently, about Time, as about some master-criminal, you could prove nothing” (Pearce, 173 ).Tom’s struggle with time becomes part of his maturing process. He realizes the inadequacies of adults in explaining his experience and must rely on his own reason and experience.


Section 3: Answer either 5 or 6:

5. It is said that Taylor has pedagogic purposes in her books. Is this true for Roll of Thunder, Hear my Cry? How is this purpose achieved in the novel?
The answer is found in the Study guide p. 175
The student may begin by introducing background information on the novel and how Taylor drew on her own life experience. (Janet Maybin's Introduction to the section on Roll of thunder, Hear my Cry in Reader 2 is helpful in this regard. Students should refer to the novel and give concrete examples to support his/her ideas.

Realism has an important function in relation to Taylor’s pedagogic purposes: she needed to provide contemporary child readers in the 1970s with a convincing vicarious experience of 1930’s Mississippi, so that they could understand the impact of the social injustices experienced by black people.
• In the first chapter, as throughout the book, every realistically presented incident (meeting friends, the skirmish with the bus, the second-hand school books) simultaneously builds a picture of the children’s lives and is a vehicle for conveying the nature and effects of racism.
• At the beginning of chapter 3, Taylor uses the following techniques to create an identifiable social & historical context:
•Detailed de******ion of place and weather, activities and events.
•Poetic language describing place and weather.
•The naming of specific places, characters and events.
•Indications of the passage of time and of a precise historical time period.
•Passages of direct speech including phonetic spelling and colloquial grammar.

•At the beginning of chapter three, up to page 49 we may have noticed how the depiction of warm, intimate family life throws into stark relief the danger from the night riders in the dark, wet, muddy world outside, which are described later in the chapter. Throughout the book, Taylor’s juxtaposition of realistically presented, secure loving family scenes inside the home with accounts of the danger and violence that threaten to destroy them intensifies the effects on the reader of each of these contrasting aspects of Cassie’s experience.
•These are all techniques employed to create the illusion of a real world and convey the authentic representation of a specific period in history.
•Mildred Taylor's Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry (1976) was one of the first children's novels to contain detailed and candid discussions about the controversial issues of slavery, racism and segregation. Taylor's focaliser is the naïve, but strong willed, nine-year old Cassie Logan, and through her interactions with the white world, we get a sense of the intense persecution that comes from being black in nineteen thirties Mississippi.
•Taylor uses various incidents to demonstrate how racism and segregation affect daily life: the school bus driver's repeated attempts to humiliate the Logan children on their walk to school, the store owner who tells Cassie to get her ‘little black self ‘ back to waiting, her forced apology to ‘Miz Lillian Jean', and the near lynching of young T.J. Avery. Taylor's characters are shown to stand up to the more powerful white community and challenge this oppression. The Logan children for example, use their wits and cunning to sabotage the Jefferson Davis bus by digging a trench in the road. Cassie also plots a well planned revenge on Lillian Jean Simms: after allowing Lillian Jean to think she has accepted that she is inferior, Cassie offers to carry her books saying: ‘The way I see it … we all gotta do what we gotta do. And that's what I'm gonna do from now on. Just what I gotta' (Taylor, p. 190). Lillian Jean interprets Cassie's words (and behavior) as being sincere and submissive. But they convey a double meaning as Cassie also communicates her intent to obtain revenge, which she does in a very physical way.
•Integral to the development of Cassie is showing her reacting to historical events, being challenged and changed by them. Cassie's actions, and those of her siblings, allow them to gain some control of their lives and not be totally dominated by the white kids. Taking matters into their own hands demonstrates what Kelly McDowell calls ‘child agency', in that they become agents of resistance within their oppressed culture. Another way in which child agency is enabled in the novel is through the parents actions show not being cautious can lead to disastrous consequences, as represented through T.J. Avery Cassie is depicted as a vital figure whose rebellion can be seen a positive means to provoke change and validate her need for self respect.


6. Discuss how Mildred D.Taylor creates realism in the novel, Roll of Thunder, Hear my Cry.

Realism in children’s literature deals with the literal truth. The settings, storylines and characters will often seem to be realistic and recognizable. Although recognizable, one should resist the temptation to describe realism as real life but rather that realism attempts to ‘reproduce something of the complexity of life itself’ (Hunt, P 1994).

Mildred D. Taylor’s Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry (1972) is a historical story of racism & struggle in 1930s Mississippi. It has been praised for its potential to raise young people’s consciousness about social injustice. Its realistic portrayal stems from the author’s narrative technique and the fact that it is a semi-autobiographical and family memoir. The writer, an African American drew upon similar events in her own life as that of the protagonist Cassie Logan’s family in the novel.(Janet Maybin,in Reader ,Introduction to the Section).

Realism has an important function in relation to Taylor’s pedagogic purposes. She wanted to provide contemporary child readers in the 1970s with convincing vicarious (indirect) experience of 1930s Mississippi, in order to understand the impact of social injustices experienced by black people. The realistically presented incidents help build a picture of children’s lives in that period and are a vehicle for conveying the nature & effects of racism. For example, at beginning of Chapter 3, Taylor uses the following techniques to create an identifiable social & historical context:

• Detailed de******ion of place & weather, activities & events.
• Naming of specific places, characters & events.
• Indications of passage of time & of precise historical period.
• Passages of direct speech including phonetic spelling & colloquial grammar to portray community speech of the Blacks.
• Depiction of warm, intimate family life in the novel throws into stark relief the dangers from night riders in the dark, wet, muddy world outside.
• Taylor’s juxtaposition of realistically presented, secure, loving family scenes inside the home with accounts of danger & violence that threaten to destroy them intensifies the effect on Cassie.
All these techniques help create an illusion of a real world & convey authentic representation of a specific period in history.



نقلته هنا للتذكير بدراسته *_^



التوقيع

الحمدلله
فيحاء العسل غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 14-04-2014, 10:49 AM   #2
اسامه الشراب اسامه الشراب غير متصل
طــالب
 
الصورة الرمزية اسامه الشراب
افتراضي رد: اسئلة اختبار الميد+ الاجوبه من دكتور بران 2013


section 1: answer either 1 or 2

1.Examine the main features of British publishing for children between 1914 and 1 1945 with reference Nicholas Tucker's essay Twentieth-century British to publishing

2. In what does Tucker suggest that the concept of a good children's book 2 way began to change by the 1950's

Section 2: Answer either 3 or 4

3.with reference to Roni Natov's Tom's Midnight Garden and Margaret Rustin's.3 and Michael Rustin's Loneliness, dreaming, and discovery: Tom's Midnight Garden', discuss the relationship between fantasy and reality in Philippa Pearce's novel

4.Discuss Tom's Midnight Garden as a coming of age novel

Section 3: Answer either 5 or 6.

5.Discuss the role of education in the novel Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry.

6. What are the benefits and drawbacks of using a child narrator in a Text Discuss it in the light of Mildred D. Taylor's novel Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry

بالنجاح والتوفيق

التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة اسامه الشراب ; 14-04-2014 الساعة 10:50 AM
اسامه الشراب غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 14-04-2014, 02:18 PM   #3
Eiroka Eiroka غير متصل
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الصورة الرمزية Eiroka
افتراضي رد: اسئلة اختبار الميد+ الاجوبه من دكتور بران 2013




يعطيكمـ العافية فيحاء و أخ أسامه ^_^



Eiroka غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
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