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قديم 15-04-2014, 03:39 PM   #1
jula jula غير متصل
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افتراضي summary


Chapter three

Biliterate children:
They are the children who are able to read and write two languages.
Kenner’s study (biliterate)
Kenner told that one of the advantages that biliterate children acquire is the greater awareness of how language systems differ, in other words what is known as ****linguistic awareness.
Gordon Wells proposition (social behavior)
-Anthropologists argue that children begin communication by learning the meaning of speech acts and then gradually learn the language that is used in the community around them.
-Gordon likened this to the conversation without words between infants and their caregivers.
- It could be said that learning to speak is a matter of learning the rules of social behavior.
Bilingual children: how they come to know English and what is not?
-bilinguals are the children who are able to speak two languages.
-Re****** with infants growing up bilingual suggests that they tend first to distinguish the sound systems of their languages, followed by the vocabularies and then the grammars. While function words (such as Articles, prepositions, auxiliary verbs, and morphological inflections) are normally acquired late.
Grammatical inflections:
It appears when children start making grammar mistakes. This is because they replace simple imitation (she held two mice) by the application of a set of rules (she holded two mouses).
Nativist position:
Chomsky argued that language is an innate human ability which is biological determined and follows a predicable developmental path.
Emergent literacy:
When children use many strategies to work out what adults are doing with magazines, pens, computers and all the other things associated with literacy. These first discoveries of reading and writing have been described as emergent literacy.
Over-extension:
-It is the act of making something longer or larger.
-It has been observed that young children tend to over-extend the meanings of words, as they try to maximize their limited vocabulary. (For example, children name all animals with 4 legs as “dog” because they don’t know the exact name of each animal)
-over-extensions can be classified according to the apparent similarity such as (shape- size--)
Universal grammar principles:
-Chomsky argues that there are universal grammar principles (such as noun and verb) that are common to the grammars of all human languages, but the parameters of variation (such as word order or morphology) need to be set differently according to each language.
-All children are born with awareness that language is composed of certain building blocks, but they do not know how to combine these elements into sentences until they are exposed to some input in a particular language.
The basis of the different writing systems:
Two principles are identified: that symbols should represent meaning, as in logographs or pictograph, or that symbols should represent sound, as in alphabets or syllabaries.
The advantage of learning to read in an alphabetic or syllabic system
-The advantage is that, any new word can be worked out, while the learning of new logographs has to continue for many years.
-However, alphabetic systems may represent another kind of learning challenge in terms of their spelling system or orthography
The advantage of learning to read in an alphabetic or syllabic system
-The advantage is that, any new word can be worked out, while the learning of new logographs has to continue for many years.
-However, alphabetic systems may represent another kind of learning challenge in terms of their spelling system or orthography
Knowledge children need to acquire in order to speak English:
1. They have to know that there are 20vowels and 24 consonants in English
2. 300 ways of combining vowels and consonants
3. 50000 active words
4. Thousands aspects of grammatical construction
5. Hundreds ways of using prosodic features
6. Large number of rules for combining sentences
Is English literacy harder to acquire than literacy in other languages?
-English writing is more complex, as there are fewer symbols (twenty-six-letters) in written English, while there are more 44 sounds in the spoken language.
-So Children have to be aware that some symbols can represent more than one sound, such as the letter (a) in the words (cat and play)
-Also the standard orthography does not correspond exactly to any particular accent.
- Moreover, there are also many letter combinations which may have to be memorized as they were logographs (knight and through).
Child-directed speech (CDS), or baby talk.
It happens when adults tend to use a simplified style of speech with exaggerated intonation.
What are the functions of CDS?
1. It may help children to attune their ear to the strong-weak stress pattern of English words by retaining this pattern in diminutives like (mummy, daddy).
2. CDS may serve to direct the child’s attention to the key elements in an utterance by using exaggerated stress at the sentence level.
3. CDS may help to facilitate turn taking in conversation by emphasizing question-and-answer exchanges and other adjacency pairs. Or by means of involving rising or falling pitch.
4. Cross-cultural
Difference between performance and competence linguistic:
Linguistic competence refers to our knowledge of a language as a system.
While linguistic performance refers to how we actually use it in communicating with others
Difference between Logograph and Pictographs:
Logograph or logogram is a symbol stands for a whole word. (H for hospital)
Pictographs or pictogram is an image denotes a phrase or concept. (Traffic signs)



Difference between telegraphic and formulaic linguistic:
Telegraphic language: it happens when children between the ages of eighteen months and two years start to produce two-words (mini sentences) expressing simple semantic relations such as actions or belonging.
Formulaic language: it happens when Children are able to deduce the meaning of whole phrases from the communicative context, without necessarily analyzing them into their component parts.
Actually, Formulaic language is reproduced by imitation, with the emphasis on its social function, whereas telegraphic language is generated independently of any adult model and appears to reflect a deeper level of grammatical analysis.
Difference between cognitive and social perspectives:
-Cognitive perspectives: seek to understand the mental processes within children’s mind, focusing on the relationship between the external form of their utterances (grammar & vocabulary) and what these may reveal about their understanding of language and the world.
-Social perspectives focus on how children learn to take part in conversation with others, and how they use language to perform particular speech acts and to express social identity.
-Whereas cognitive perspectives focus on processes internal the child’s mind in making sense of language as a system, Social perspectives focus on the role of language in social context, with the emphasis on communicative function.
How do children learn to use English?
1. Some re******ers treat this question as a question about how the human mind works and how children make sense about the world.
2. Others treat it as a question about how children socially interact with the people around.
3. Re******ers have also made a distinction between our knowledge of a language as a system (linguistic competence) and how we actually use it in communicating with others (linguistic performance)
4. Moreover to answer this question we have to consider how children learn to use written English and consider that this involves both cognitive and social aspects.
How infants communicate? Or how do children acquire their early words?
• Prior to the 1960s, the dominant understanding was that children learn to speak by imitation of the language modeled around them.
• But Chomsky argued that language is an innate human ability which is biologically determined and follows a predictable developmental path.
• Recent re****** findings have taken a step back in the direction of imitation, although much of any language is probably stored as a set of rules, there is also a large element of habit formation.
• It is suggested that there is a critical period for language acquisition.
• No baby is pre-programmed to speak English or any other language, but It has been observed that babies are able even within the womb to attend to the particular melody of the language that surrounds them.
• Infants come to recognize the boundaries of English words by the frequent stress on the first syllable, and their early experimentation with babbling.
• Anthropologists argued that children begin communication by learning the meaning of speech acts and then gradually learn the language that is used in community around them.
• The first baby’s experience of communication is in the dialogue with the caregiver who tend to use a simplified style of speech with exaggerated intonation
jula غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 15-04-2014, 04:16 PM   #2
jula jula غير متصل
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افتراضي رد: summary


Chapter 0ne
The difference between text and talk
Talk: if words involved are composed of sounds produced by human mouth. And refer to rapid interaction
Text: if words involved are composed of visual symbols or letters.. And refer to more extended & crafted communications.
The difference between pure and applied linguistic
-Pure linguistics involves studying the structure of the English language itself. -Applied linguistics involves studying the ways that people use the English language to communicate and interact.
the difference between talk and conversation
-Talk means any kind of spoken interaction between people.
-Conversation means the specific kind of talk that people engage in when their spoken interaction is not organized by institutional rules.{e,g, contrasting the classroom (where there are rules about who speaks when and in what way) with the playground or schoolyard (where there are no such rules, enabling conversation to occur)}.
The structure and functions of talk:
- There is a huge difference between formal and informal talk, your talking has to be formal while you are speaking with your manager or while meeting for a job.
-Informal talk is unplanned talk because it arises spontaneously out of continues and changing everyday activities and relationships, and has to be produced and comprehend in real time.
- It is a normal feature of spoken language and everyday talk.
-Although informal talk contains inexplicit references, as well as unfinished and overlapping utterances, linguists have demonstrated that it is far from being disorganized because it has its own distinctive grammar.
-Actually, everyday talk is dialogic. It means that each person’s contributions are oriented towards other speakers.
-The purpose of this kind of talk is specifically to bind people together and to establish an interactional framework for the encounter.
-Any speech event fulfills both a referential function (dealing with information) and a phatic function (dealing with social relationships); these are now called the ideational and interpersonal functions of language.
Paralanguage:
People convey meaning in spoken English not only by words but also by non-verbal or paralinguistic features such as gesture and facial expression or volume and tone of voice.
A language practice approach
It focuses on how language is part of daily routines and how it functions to help us get things done.(e.g. Persuading somebody to do something )

Context
It refers to the physical location and social circumstances in which a particular example of language use occurs. It may include the following elements (physical surroundings, relationship between the speakers, past shared experience, Institutional setting, current goals…)
Speech act
-The actions that are carried out through speaking. It means that any speaker is doing something while he is saying something. (e.g. making promise)
-The linguists argued that more attention should be paid to the social conditions that make particular speech acts possible. (e.g. soldier and his captain)
Discourse analysis:
Focuses -in detail- on the surface form of what people have said or written, looking carefully at the way they use language.
Conversation analysis
-The linguists developed the discipline of conversation analysis, which examines occurring talk in detailed and methodical way.
-Conversation analysts do not only transcribe the words that are spoken but also note such interactional features such as (the length of pauses between turns, overlapping, the loudness of speech delivery, and non-verbal actions such as direction of gaze).
Tran****** even recording)
-it is a representation of what somebody said. It is not talk itself, while some tran******s include more information than others.
-Process of tran******ion helps us to focus on what is useful for our purposes.
For eg: to analyze the role of silence in speech, we transcribe every slight pause & hesitation. But in analyzing other aspects of speech like pronunciation or vocabulary, we leave out such unimportant details.
Adjacency pair
-Sacks argue that spoken exchanges are composed of 'single units', which tend to function together in pairs. These units are called adjacency pair, which are also composed of particular kinds of speech act that tend to follow one another.
The difference between preferred and dispreferred response
-If you say the first part of an adjacency pair to somebody else, that person will usually realize that he ought to respond with you.
The preferred response: is the proper way of responding that the first speaker would be assumed to expect. For example, a greeting followed by a mutual greeting or a question followed by an answer.
The dispreferred response: is improper response that the first speaker would not be assumed to expect. For example, a question may be followed by a change of topic or a greeting followed by silence.
Terms of address
They are a part of politeness conventions and depend on the difference in status between the speakers and how they know each other.
Turn taking
-It happens when one person spoke at a time and that overlap was generally kept to a minimum.
-Forms of turn taking happened when speakers have been argued to use their grammatical knowledge of English, coupled with their knowledge of paralinguistic features in order to respond to interlocutor at the end of the speech rather than in the middle.
Transition relevance place (TRP)
-It happens when the speaker pauses very briefly for a response, but it is equally likely that other speakers will come in with their next turn, perhaps leading to a slight overlap.
-Overlap that occurs before a transition relevance place may be considered as an interruption.
Politeness and interpersonal meaning: Face needs and relationship constraints
-According to Goffman, efforts to maintain one’s own or others’ face is known as face work; which is an aspect of politeness and the interpersonal function of language use.
-Thus, we may speak and act as face threatening (possibly causing someone to lose face) or as face saving (enabling the speaker to escape from lose face).
-Politeness also involves using strategies such as (appropriate terms of address and degrees of formality) which are vary according to people’s relative status, the degree of social distance between them and the extent of their solidarity with one another. (e.g. Eat up your lunch, dear! might be an appropriate command to a child, or even to a friend, but not to your manager at work or your grandmother)
-People in a lower status have to pay more attention to the face needs of those in a higher status than the other way round.
-Being polite involves sensitivity to the social and cultural context and to sociolinguistic rules about behavior.
Conversational style
- It refers to a combination of features relating to the meaning and management of conversation.
-It is the way we use stories, or how much personal information we tend to reveal, or how we express politeness. However, aspects of our conversational style can also be traced to social variables like (place of origin, social class, ethnicity, age, and gender)
Storytelling:
Informal spoken narratives are composed of up to six kinds of narrative clause
1. Abstract: a brief preview of what the narrative is about.
2. Orientation: where and when the story took place.
3. Complicating actions: events are told in the order.
4. Resolution: the way in which the complicating action came to an end.
5. Coda: the end of the telling.
6. Evaluation: the point of the story
How do Conversational styles or strategies or behaviors vary?
-There can be a remarkable diversity of conversational styles even among speakers of standard varieties of English. There are differences in communication styles according to culture and gender.
1. Cultural differences
-There are differences in communication styles in different cultural group.
-for example, Aboriginal ways of using English are closely related to their lifestyle and culture, and to their beliefs about how people should relate to one another.
-Aboriginal people tend to express personal opinions and supply information directly.
-Indirectness is not unique to aboriginal speakers, but it is a common feature of the speech of many groups who lack social power.
2. Gender differences
-Another way of identifying significant aspects of conversational style is to compare the conversational behaviors of men and women.
-The performance of gender involves what is said as well as how it is said.
-It is often argued that in conversation, women are less competitive and more cooperative than men, and work harder to make the interaction run smoothly, this is because women are brought up to occupy a less powerful position in society.
-Also women usually use more tag questions (e.g. isn't it? don't you think?) and they tend to use more indirect polite forms (e.g. could you possibly?)
-There are two approaches towards men’s and women’s talk (the dominance and the difference approach): the former suggests that men dominate women in spoken interaction; the latter suggests that men and women simply communicate differently.
3-Style, identity and performativity
-they are particular patterns of language features that communicate social messages and serve to index a particular social identity on the speaker.
-They are part of both the formation and the expression of identity: each of us has a toolbox of communicative resources, and uses that toolbox to produce a communicative style.
-In a multilingual context, speakers are able to use linguistic resources from more than one language, performing complex identities: which is called code switching.
-In some communities, a mixed code may be used routinely; this practice has been termed plurilanguaging
Style shifting
When speakers adopt different accents or dialects or use a more or less formal register, in order to serve particular purposes, or to achieve particular effects.
jula غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 15-04-2014, 04:19 PM   #3
jula jula غير متصل
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افتراضي رد: summary


Chapter two
Language practices:
It focuses on how language is part of our daily routines and how it functions to help us to get things done.
Literacy practices:
-It focuses on how people interact with texts (written, printed and digital) and focuses on their ability to read and write.
-This concept was proposed by Brian Street, who used it to emphasize the connection between an individual’s use of written language and social identity.
-Literacy practices may vary between groups of people and between different cultures. We need to look beyond text to understand communication.
Multimodal Literacy: to understand communication
-It is all the different ways in which meaning can be created and communicated.
-Actually, it is the mixture of textual, audio, and visual modes in combination with media and context to create meaning.
-A simple illustration of this is the genre of the cartoon strip, which combines image and text.
Several influential approaches to the analysis of texts
Semiotics theory
-It is the studying of written language in terms of signs: words associated with particular concepts.
-Actually, it is the study of signs and symbols and of their meaning and use.
-It is founded by linguist de Saussure who argued that signs are only meaningful because they belong to accepted sign systems.
- Understanding texts requires us to consider the purpose and this requires us to consider the Genre.
-Although Semiotics theory was originally accepted as a theory of language rather than a mean of analyzing texts, it has suggested some valuable methods for textual analysis.
-Semiotic analysis has been applied not only to texts, but also to a huge range of other cultural products, including photographs and food.
De Saussure Theory:
-The most basic elements of a text in modern English is its letters. For de Saussure, an alphabet can be understood as a sign system in which letters play the role of signs: each letter has particular visual characteristics and is associated with particular sounds.
-Saussure regarded the vocabulary of a language as a sign system functioning in the same basic way. But many linguists now reject this view.
-Denotation and connotation
- Denotation: the explicit literal meaning of a word.
-Connotation: the meaning of a word that is suggested or implied.
-Actually, the word 'rabbit', and the word 'bunny' denotes a particular species of animal ,but unlike “rabbit” the word “bunny” also express about (childish) which is referred as connotations.
Reading signs and images:
-Living languages accept new words all the time, both in the form of coinages (newly invented words, IE. nylon- Kleenex ) and in the form of borrowings (words originating in other languages, IE. Algebra, lapin)
-Semiotic theory suggests that, in order to enter a new language, an existing word must change in some way, becoming a new sign in a new sign system, and this is clear in borrowing.
-Sometimes, the change can be very deep. Switching (rabbit) for (lapin) would produce a very obvious change to a sentence (in this case, a type of animal and a type of animal product). But switching (rabbit) for (bunny) would produce a less obvious change, since both words are synonyms (same meaning).
Typeface and Font:
-typography: is the art of preparing books for printing.
-font is a set of letters, numerals and punctuation marks in a particular size (10-12 points) and style (e.g. bold or italic)
-typeface is a design for a complete set of fonts (Times New Roman).
-in recent years, font and typeface have come to be treated as synonyms
-Just as writers may struggle over a choice between words, graphic designers will struggle over a choice between typefaces
- A particular typeface can be used in advertising and politics to index particular identities for people and products.
-If the choice of typeface is so distracting, that is because it is so meaningful and important.
- The very first typeface in Europe was the black letters created by Gutenberg.
Genre:
-it is a French word for particular type of literature, art, film that you can recognize because of its special features.
-Understanding texts requires us to consider the purposes for which people it is used, and this requires us to think about the genre of any text we analyze.
-each genre is a social action that one carries out through writing.
- Sociolinguistics now define genres according to their function (formal characteristics or rhetorical purpose)

Linguistic and bibliographic codes:
Linguistic codes include punctuation marks and the letters of the alphabet, while bibliographic codes include the visual and material characteristics of a printed text. These characteristics show the ways in which the text was produced and used.
-Perhaps the relationship between the linguistic and bibliographic is becoming easier to understand in the age of the internet. Digital devices can process information only in numerical form.
- Just as there are always different ways to say the same word, there are different ways a text can be made to look.
Differences between blogging and diary writing
-One of the most important differences is that blog is public and can be read by unlimited numbers of people unknown to the author.
-blog can incorporate technical features specific to the internet.
-blogging is social action performed in response to a demand for the public cultivation of the individual self: a demand that is not technological but cultural.
-By contrast, the diary entry is much less conversational in tone
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