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قديم 23-04-2012, 05:49 AM   #141
The moon face The moon face غير متصل
طالب فعال
 
الصورة الرمزية The moon face

 











افتراضي رد: هنااا ستكون مناقشه mta




اقتباس:
المشاركة الأصلية كتبت بواسطة فراشه المنتدى مشاهدة المشاركة
لاتاجلين الاسئله بتكون سهل ذاكري بس الملف الميدتيرمات المكرره

وبالتوفيق للجميع

فديتج نونو هذااا اللي سويته لان أثق بكلامج

الله يوفقج وياي ياارب والجميع


GueSS.q8

خرعتيني وانا مشاعري مرهفه هالحزه


تآآآمرين أمر يالغاليه



>>فديت اللي يعصبون واهمه اصلا رقيقين

يلا كراف تااايم
The moon face غير متصل  
قديم 23-04-2012, 05:57 AM   #142
GueSS.q8 GueSS.q8 غير متصل
طالب مميز
 
الصورة الرمزية GueSS.q8

 











افتراضي رد: هنااا ستكون مناقشه mta


اقتباس:
GueSS.q8

خرعتيني وانا مشاعري مرهفه هالحزه


تآآآمرين أمر يالغاليه



>>فديت اللي يعصبون واهمه اصلا رقيقين





هين اجوفج اليوم ويصير خير

يلا برب مذاكرة اسئلة الميد السابقه وبس


يا الله
GueSS.q8 غير متصل  
قديم 23-04-2012, 06:44 AM   #143
GueSS.q8 GueSS.q8 غير متصل
طالب مميز
 
الصورة الرمزية GueSS.q8

 











افتراضي رد: هنااا ستكون مناقشه mta


GueSS.q8 غير متصل  
قديم 23-04-2012, 02:17 PM   #144
love & stability love & stability غير متصل
طالب نشيط
 
الصورة الرمزية love & stability

 











افتراضي رد: هنااا ستكون مناقشه mta


امرو القيس جت بوقت غير مناسب ...
مافي وقت اقراها
love & stability غير متصل  
قديم 23-04-2012, 08:13 PM   #145
الذاكره ممتلئه الذاكره ممتلئه غير متصل
طــالب
 
الصورة الرمزية الذاكره ممتلئه

 










افتراضي رد: هنااا ستكون مناقشه mta


بنات الله يجزاكم خير هذا السؤال جانا بالاختبار صح


Criticisms of ethnography for "not being scientific" by qualitative re******ers:?

a./ lack of precision b./ observation and interviewing are subjective c./samples are small and cannot be generalized d./ ethnographers can not identify causal relationships e./ its findings can not be replicated.
الذاكره ممتلئه غير متصل  
قديم 23-04-2012, 08:16 PM   #146
الذاكره ممتلئه الذاكره ممتلئه غير متصل
طــالب
 
الصورة الرمزية الذاكره ممتلئه

 










افتراضي رد: هنااا ستكون مناقشه mta


وهذا
chapter 2 : different ways of speech- components of speech
Q.2. What fundamental notions does ethnography deal with? (pp. 11-12)
1. Ways of speaking: the relationship among speech events, speech acts, and styles on the one hand, and personal roles, abilities, attitudes, beliefs, and situations and contexts on the other.
2. Fluent speaker: a person who has both the knowledge and the ability to use it fluently. The standards of fluency may be different in different communities and cultures.
3. Speech community: a community sharing knowledge of rules for the use and interpretation of speech.
4. Speech situation: activities such as fishing, trips, parties, etc that may be considered from the socio-linguistic stand as speech situations. A speech situation may consist of one o more speech events.
5. Speech event: A speech event may consist of one speech act or several speech acts.
6. Speech act: Various types of sentences may be used to produce the same speech act (request expressed in imperative, declarative, or interrogative); and one sentence may express many speech acts depending on the situation and intonation.

.
Components of speech
1. Message form 2. Message content 3. Setting 4. Scene 5. Speaker/sender 6. Addressor 7. Hearer/ receiver or audience
8. Addressee 9. Purposes- outcomes 10. Purposes- goals 11. key ( to
provide the manner or spirit in which an act is done) 12. channels (oral,
written, telegraphic transmission of speech). 13. Forms of speech
(language s and dialects) 14. Norms of interaction (rules governing
speaking). 15. Norms of interpretation 16. Genres (categories such as
الذاكره ممتلئه غير متصل  
قديم 23-04-2012, 08:18 PM   #147
الذاكره ممتلئه الذاكره ممتلئه غير متصل
طــالب
 
الصورة الرمزية الذاكره ممتلئه

 










افتراضي رد: هنااا ستكون مناقشه mta


وهذا

the three important ( ethics- advocacy- empowering)
Ethics
 Social science is not a neutral enquiry into human behaviour and institutions.
 It is strongly implicated in the project of social control, whether by the state or by other agencies that ultimately serve the interests of a dominant group.
 Social scientists recognize the potentially exploitative and damaging effects of being re******ed on.
 An ethically aware social scientist will see the possible dangers and try to forestall them.
 The re******er might exploit subjects during the re****** process.

 In covert re******, subjects cannot give full, informed consent because re******er deliberately mislead them as to the nature and purpose of re******, or conceals the fact that re****** is going on.
 This create ethical problems because it is deception.
eg: Milgram experiments on obedience to authority (pg: 15).
 Most disciplines have strong concern with ethical standards, manifested by published codes of conduct, professional oaths, ethics committees etc.
 They work on the basis of balancing the needs of a discipline in its pursuit of knowledge and truth with interests of people on whom re****** is conducted.
 The interests of the re******ed are a negative force limiting what re******ers can do.
 An ethical re******er ensure that their privacy is protected.
 In ethical re******, there is a wholly proper concern to minimise damage and offset inconvenience to the re******ed, and to acknowledge their contribution.
 Human subjects deserve special ethical consideration, but they do not set the re******er’s agenda.
 Positivist emphasise on distance in order to avoid interference or bias.

 Positivism is strongly committed to the idea that observations procured in a scientific manner have the status of value-free facts.
 The positivistically inclined re******ers go beyond the idea of ethics and make themselves more directly accountable to the re******ed.
 They move to an advocacy position.
ADVOCACY
 Advocacy position is characterised by commitment on part of re******er not just to do re****** on subjects but re****** on and for subjects.
 This commitment formalises common development in field situations.
 Re******er use his/her skills or authority as an ‘expert’ to defend subjects’ interests, getting involved in their campaigns for healthcare or education, cultural autonomy or political and land rights, and speaking on their behalf.
eg: The case of the Ann Arbor ‘Black English’ trial in 1979 (pg: 16-18).
 Sociolinguist William Labov suggests two principles:
(1) Error correction: If we as re******ers know that people hold erroneous views on something, we have a responsibility to attempt to correct those views.
(2) The debt incurred: When a community has enabled linguists to gain important knowledge, the linguist incurs a debt which must be repaid by using the said knowledge on the community’s behalf when they need it.
This is an advocacy position.
 Labov stresses that the advocate serves the community, and that political direction is the community’s responsibility.
 While Labov’s positivism is in some ways extremely radical, it is so within a positivist framework.
 Labov’s positivism is clearly visible in his uneasy juxtaposition of ‘objectivity’ and ‘commitment.’
 In Labov’s view, a re******er’s advocacy might undermine the validity of his/her findings.
 Labov advises advocate re******ers to take an auxiliary role, but in practice it leaves them with some very significant powers: the power to identify the ‘community’ whose interests they will speak for, and the power to decide on an objective truth which they will speak.
 Labov glosses over the anti-positivist argument that observation is theory-laden and observers bring their values and interests to it.

EMPOWERING RE******
• We have seen ‘ethical re******’ as ‘re****** on, ‘advocacy re******’ as re****** on and for and ‘empowering re******’ as re****** on, for and with.
• It is the centrality of interaction ‘with’ the re******ed that enables re****** to be empowering.
• Empowerment is not a requirement on all re****** projects.
• The 3 issues that we take up here are; the use of interactive methods; the importance of subject’s own agendas; the question of feedback and sharing knowledge
الذاكره ممتلئه غير متصل  
قديم 23-04-2012, 08:19 PM   #148
الذاكره ممتلئه الذاكره ممتلئه غير متصل
طــالب
 
الصورة الرمزية الذاكره ممتلئه

 










افتراضي رد: هنااا ستكون مناقشه mta


انا حليت هذولا التلاته اذا صح عليه طمنوني ..
يارب يكون حلي صح لاني ماذاكرت الا متاخر مو كثير مركزه ..
الذاكره ممتلئه غير متصل  
قديم 23-04-2012, 09:31 PM   #149
expresso expresso غير متصل
طــالب
 
الصورة الرمزية expresso

 










افتراضي رد: هنااا ستكون مناقشه mta


سوري بس من وين جايبه الاسئلة

الامتحان موحد صح ولا انا غلطانه
expresso غير متصل  
قديم 23-04-2012, 09:56 PM   #150
^lilly^ ^lilly^ غير متصل
طالب فعال
 
الصورة الرمزية ^lilly^

 











افتراضي رد: هنااا ستكون مناقشه mta


الأسئله اللي اتذكرهم


Criticisms of ethnography for being too scientific:

1-Its commitment to describe & explain the social world rather than seeking to change it. It failed to emancipate people from ideology in capitalist societies in contrast to the critical theory.
2-the relationship between the re******ers & the re******ed people is exploitative: the re****** focuses on powerless groups – the re******er exploits their powerlessness to carry out the re****** which serve the powerful & enable him to exercise control.—even when the re******er & the re******ed person are equal, power is still involved because the re******er is the one who makes decisions about what is to be studied, how & for what.
3-Ethnography's capacity to represent reality is not true. Representing the studied setting "as it is" is not possible because we do not have access to an independent reality. We have only interpretations which are just as much interpretations as are those of the studied people.- To give a sense of reality, ethnographers use rhetorical devices (similar to those used by realist novelists & travel writers). Re******ers may provide detailed de******ions of the studied setting to prove that they have been there.

Explain what is meant by on the spot observation' briefly outlining some
of its advantages and disadvantages. (Swan: Observing and recording talk in?

Types of observation:

-On spot observation: it is a non -participant observation: to observe while someone else is teaching OR to observe a group working independently: because it is difficult to observe & teach the class & take notes at the same time.

Taking field notes: record observation in an open ended way in a class or meeting. The notes may be the main source of information & they may supplement other forms of records.

Observation schedule: it helps to provide structured observation of talk – it is used to record the number & types of participants' contributions. Also it is used to investigate talk in different contexts.

Advantages of "on the spot observation": it provides useful evidence about the quality of interaction & about patterns in the distribution of talk between participants. It does not require technical equipments.
Disadvantages of "on the spot observation": It provides limited amount of data – there is no permanent record of talk ; the observation cannot be checked.

Explain 'Error Correction' and 'Debt-Incurred' in Advocacy according to William Labov , as discussed in Cameron et al. article 'Ethics, Advocacy, Empowerment?



One is the principle or “error correction”: if we, as re******ers, know that people hold erroneous views on something, we have a responsibility to attempt to correct those views, putting truth in the place of error.

The second principle is that of “debt incurred”. When a group has enabled linguists to gain important knowledge, then linguist incurs a debt which must be repaid through advocacy and commitment.

Discuss briefly ' communicative competence' as illustrated by Dell Hymes in "Toward ethnographies of communication".


 The term ’ethnography of communication’ indicate the necessary scope of ethnographic studies in basis and communicative in the range and complexity with which they deal.
 As to scope, one needs fresh kinds of data to investigate directly the use of language in contexts of situation to discern patterns proper to speech activity.
 As to basis, one cannot take linguistic form, a given code or even speech itself, as a limiting frame of reference. One must take as context a community, or network of persons investigating its communicative activities as a whole.
 Communicative form & function is in integral relation to each other.
 For ehnographies of communication, the aim is to keep the multiple hierarchy of relations among messages & contexts in view.

يمكن باقي سؤال بس ما اتذكره
^lilly^ غير متصل  
قديم 23-04-2012, 09:58 PM   #151
فراشه المنتدى فراشه المنتدى غير متصل
مشرف سابق
 
الصورة الرمزية فراشه المنتدى
افتراضي رد: هنااا ستكون مناقشه mta


ميدتيرم 2011-2012



الميدتيرم طبعا كان 5 اساله نحل 3 فقط
اول سوال عن criticism of ethnogrophy for being " too sceintific"
اخ على هذا السوال مذاكرته بس انشليت ماتذكرته بالاختبار انقهرت
وخليته اخر واحد ماتذكرت شي ما تذكرت الا "not sceintific" تكلمت عن هالنقطه
تتوقعونالدكتور ما يعطيني درجه ؟؟؟ولا شي ؟؟ اذا كلمته وفهمته موقفي شنو بيسوي لي؟؟؟ والله اني مذاكرته بس نسيته وكتبت عن النقطه الثانيه

السوال الثاني عن literacy as pratice?? مو متاكده

السوال الثالث عن communicative competence

السوال الرابع عن spot observation, its advantages and disadvantages
الحمدلله جاوبت زين بهالسوال وبطريقه مختصره

السوال الخامس عن Labove principles " error correction & " debt incurred
لخبطت شوي بالتعريف بس الحمدلله ان شاءالله زين حلي وحطيت مثال على ذالك AVBE (black English) trials
فراشه المنتدى غير متصل  
قديم 24-04-2012, 12:14 AM   #152
mhussein mhussein غير متصل
طالب جديد

 











افتراضي رد: هنااا ستكون مناقشه mta


انا زيك يا فراشة با الضبط اول السؤال كتبت عن the 6 feature and not being Sc و لكن با الدقة

بس كنت فاكر انت متخرجة من زمان يا فراس المندي و الف شكر كنت بستفيد منك كثبر
خليك معا نا في TMA
thnx
mhussein غير متصل  
قديم 28-04-2012, 08:36 PM   #153
فراشه المنتدى فراشه المنتدى غير متصل
مشرف سابق
 
الصورة الرمزية فراشه المنتدى
افتراضي رد: هنااا ستكون مناقشه mta


الماده انا خلصتهاااا والحمدلله سهله
فراشه المنتدى غير متصل  
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