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قديم 20-01-2009, 05:47 AM   #1
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مراجعه اخيرة لمادة b631


بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته ..

ببدأ أحط النقاط المهمة لمادة B631 وراح أبدأ بالمقلوب من الكتاب الرابع حتى الأول


الكتاب الرابع ( Managing Stakeholder Interests )

الجلسه الأولى ( Stakeholders and External Environment )

Organizations operate in 3 Environments
- The Internal Environment

- The Near External Environment

- The Far External Environment


**************************
المقارنه بين
In house Activities
Outsourcing


صفحة (10) Table 1.1

**************************

Stakeholders and their interests:
Stakeholders are those people or group who have legitimate interest in activities of the company and other organizations in the society. Employees, ******ers, environment, shareholders are the example of stakeholders. See table 1.2 page 11 for more details.

Table 1.2 صفحة ( 10 )

**************************

All organisations have:
- Internal stakeholders: employees, Managers…
- External stakeholders -Linked: ******ers, Clients, Suppliers.
- External stakeholders - Indirect Linked: Member of community.
- Every stakeholder have different interest and may be in conflict.
- Organisation culture, Structure and Control system determine how to resolve these conflicts.
- Some stake holders are protected by law.

**************************
All organisation have difficulty balancing the interests of their different stakeholders:
- Commercial organisation structure recognize the dominance of shareholders (Shareholders appoint Directors).
- Voluntary organisations less rigidly structured and power structured.
- Government bodies are accountable to taxpayers.

**************************
There are a range of external factors which influence the organizations (STEEP) factors.

1. Social factors:
 Demographical factors: death rate
 Pattern of work: part time jobs.
 Household structure: traditional house of 2P and 1C no longer.
 Patterns of consumption: Increasing mobility and freedom.
 Gender roles.

2. Technological factors:
1. IT is lowering the barriers of time and place.
2. IT creates new industries.
3. Nature of many internal service functions has been transformed.
4. Marginalization: technological advances lead to fundamental changes in the way that products/services are provided.

3. Economic Factors:
1. rate of economic growth
2. Interest rates.
3. Inflation
4. Energy Prices.
5. Exchange rates
6. Unemployment.

4. Environmental factors: Legislation, Information, Employees, Shareholders, Pressure groups, ******ers.

5. Political Factors:
1. Government legislation
2. Trading relationship
3. Government as a major party of transitions.
4. Level and nature of public service
5. Government to regulate many commercial industries.

**************************
Several Forecasting Techniques exsits such as :تقنيات التنبؤ
1. Extrapolation الأستنباط
2. Market Re****** دراسة تسويقية
3. Judgment الحكم
4. Models النماذج
5. Scenarios السيناريوهات




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قديم 20-01-2009, 06:15 AM   #2
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افتراضي رد: مراجعه اخيرة لمادة b631


الجلسه الثانيه ( Satisfying ******ers )

Situation when identifying the ******ers will be difficult:
1. Non commercial organizations
2. Voluntary Organizations
3. Business to Business Organizations
4. Internal Services
5. ******ers and Consumers: person purchasing the good/services is not the actual ******ers.

****************
As a manager, you need to balance the needs/interests of the several ******ers.
o Prioritize demands of different ******ers
o Pareto’s Law states that 80% of the effects in a system arise from 20% of the causes. Think of your company as a chain

****************
(Pareto’s Law TMA 02): 80% of the effects in the system arise from 20% of the causes. It also means that some the ******ers are more critical than others and one has to allocate time and resources to met need of these ******ers

****************

Some organizations may argue marketing is not relevant to them:
 Public service institutions.
 Non commercial organizations.
 The recipients of their services do not pay directly for these services

****************

Marketing mix: Marketing as combination of four factors (4 P model).
1. Product: (Variety, Quality, Design, features, Brand name, packaging, Services, warranties)
2. Price: List Price, Discount, allowances, Payment period and credit terms.
3. Place: Channels, coverage, Assortments, Locations, Inventory, Transport.
4. Promotion: Advertising, Promotions, Personal Selling and Publicity.

For four Ps there are corresponding 4 Cs and these are:

4Cs
******er need and wants
Cost to ******er
Conveniences
Communication

****************

Two marketing approaches (can be applied internally):
 Market re******.
 Communication

****************
Communicating with the ******ers:
For communication is to be effective you should :
1. Identify the groups of ******ers that you need to communicate with (Segmentation)
2. Define the message you wish to communicate (advertising)
3. Medium of Communication (Print/ Electronics)

Segmentation: Dividing the ******ers in the groups whose members share common characteristics.








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قديم 20-01-2009, 06:31 AM   #3
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افتراضي رد: مراجعه اخيرة لمادة b631


الجلسة الثالثهFinancial Stakeholders

Typical Financial Stakeholders:
Internal
External

صفحة ( 53 ) Table 3.1

******************

Internal Stakeholders :
1. Managers: managers have four main financial interests and these are:

a. Stewardship: need to protect an organization's possessions
b. Planning:
c. Control
d. Decision-making.

2. Employees: Wages and salaries

******************

External Stakeholders:
1. Funding bodies and donors: Government, government bodies, institutes companies, Individuals.
2. Owners
3. Lenders of money: banks and Financial Institutions
4. Supplier of goods and services
5. ******ers and clients

******************

External Shareholder Activities:
1. Balance sheet
2. The profit and loss account
3. Cash Flow statement

******************

Financial Statements within the Annual Report:
1. It is the principle means of communicating with the outside world for companies whose shares are traded publically.
2. It contains Profit statement, balance sheet and cash flow statement and additional information relevant to investors, lenders, managers, contributors, managers of public company, employees of public company.
3. Contents of annual Report:
a. Directors Report
b. Auditor’s Report
c. Income Statement
d. Balance Sheet
e. Cash Flow statement
f. Notes to the accounts

******************

Inputs (assets) are divided into 2 groups:
Tangible assets: are resources you can see and touch incl. day-to-day assets & fixed (long-lived) assets
Intangible assets: are the ones you cannot see or touch, such as people’s skills or know-how

******************

بإمكانكم الأطلاع على المرفق للجلسة الثالثه

الملفات المرفقة
نوع الملف: ppt Bk4-sess3chosenslides.ppt‏ (55.0 كيلوبايت, المشاهدات 334)
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قديم 20-01-2009, 07:12 AM   #4
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افتراضي رد: مراجعه اخيرة لمادة b631


مشكووووووووره يا قلبي على النقاط المهمه

ما تقصرين وبالتوفيق يارب بكره ونخلص
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قديم 20-01-2009, 07:25 AM   #5
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افتراضي رد: مراجعه اخيرة لمادة b631


الجلسة الرابعه Reconciling Stakeholders’ Interests

Recognizing Stakeholders’ Tensions:
A. Relationship between business and society
figure 1.4 صفحة 80
B. The enlightened matrix: balance between Self Interest and philanthropy
figure 4.2 صفحة 83


**************

Establishing priorities:
Priorities can be decided through
1. Unpredictability,
2. Competition.
3. capabilities

*************

Evaluating performance:

1. Economy: how cheaply inputs are purchased (economy of operation).
2. Efficiency: Relationship between output and input expressed as ratio (O/I). It is measured through past performance, budget and competitor’s performance.
3. Effectiveness: It is a measure of output and defined as how well final outcome and impact of an organization meet its objectives.
4. Equity: Treat all its ******ers equally and fairly (public organization)


**************

The organizations need to balance and integrate their operations across four key dimensions and these are
• Financial Stakeholders
• ******ers
• Employees
• Innovation, learning and growth

**************

أنتهينا من الكتاب الرابع
وأي شخص عنده معلومه إضافيه يضيف الله يجزاكم الخير
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قديم 20-01-2009, 07:30 AM   #6
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افتراضي رد: مراجعه اخيرة لمادة b631


اقتباس:
المشاركة الأصلية كتبت بواسطة دلوووول مشاهدة المشاركة
مشكووووووووره يا قلبي على النقاط المهمه

ما تقصرين وبالتوفيق يارب بكره ونخلص

العفو غاليتي

وبالتوفيق يارب للجميع
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قديم 20-01-2009, 07:33 AM   #7
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يتطلب التنشيط من بريدك

 











افتراضي رد: مراجعه اخيرة لمادة b631


مشكوره ياعسل على مجهودك الرائع
والله يوفقك
ويجزاك كل الخير
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قديم 20-01-2009, 07:36 AM   #8
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افتراضي رد: مراجعه اخيرة لمادة b631


اقتباس:
المشاركة الأصلية كتبت بواسطة غرنوقه مشاهدة المشاركة
مشكوره ياعسل على مجهودك الرائع
والله يوفقك
ويجزاك كل الخير

العفو حبوبه ويجزاك الجنه وبالتوفيق لك
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قديم 20-01-2009, 07:50 AM   #9
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ناعس رد: مراجعه اخيرة لمادة b631


الكتاب الثالث ( Managing in an Organization )

الجلسة الأولى Introduction to Organization

Organisations:
 Consists of number of people
 Shared views and values about the purpose
 Have control over how they organize themselves
 Income/cost accounts
 Coordinate different activities among people
 Identifiable as different from other groups of people

Definition:
 A designed coordinated social unit composed of two or more people that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals.

 Organizations mean different things to different people.
 Organizations come in all shapes and sizes, and having three common factors and they are People, Objectives and Structure.

Two Key Problems:
1. Balance between differentiation and coordination
2. Create Identity through Purpose

***************

Structure and Process:
Organizations consist of formally defined structures and processes. Generally structure is stable and unchanging while process refers to those fast changing events that happen against the backdrop of the structure.
Organisations have both formal and informal structure and processes.

***************
 Mintzberg and Van Heyden
o Organizational hierarchies are vanishing.
o Employees make decisions: in factories, sales departments, ******er services.
o Employees should create dynamic understanding of the organization (products, processes, ******ers). How?
 Understand the formal and informal structures.
 (organizational chart/ induction courses doesn’t show the processes, it is only album).
 Daily experience to learn product processes or ******ers, how to deal with daily crises, achieving sales targets, achieving deadlines or dealing with dissatisfied ******ers.
 Organizations consists of structures AND processes. Structure is stable but processes are dynamic/ change.

***************

 Handy’s observation about language:
o before it was engineering.
o Now, human dimension: networks, alliances, culture power.

***************

Why all the organizations are alike? Common set of problems in the organizations
a. Differentiation and Integration (How to divide the work and at the same time how to integrate it)
b. Purpose and Identity (How to create sense of identity.

**************
Paton (1991) gave three different types of organizations based on their purpose and identity and these are;
Commercial
Public Sector
Social Economy
Networked Organization

****************

Why all the organizations are different: (factors due to which organizations differ from others)
1. Size and Life Cycle: See example 1.4
Daft suggested that there are four stages in an organizational life cycle and these are Birth, Youth, Middle and Maturity.
Birth: Organization is entrepreneurial with a strong sense of ownership.
Youth: Organization and number of employees grow. Delegation, formalization of systems and procedures and division of labor.
Midlife: Organization may be quite large , formal systems, division of labor, manuals of procedures and policies, more support staff and problems of integration.
Maturity: Large systems and procedures in place, danger of stagnation, Decision-making centralized and slow etc.

2. Location: Due to different culture, tradition , language etc.

3.Technology: Organizations differ in the way they use and utilize the technology. For example utilization of technology in Automobile (production) would be different in service organization (like banks etc.) See Box 1.1 for more details.

***************

 Service organizations: intangible, directly contact ******ers, categorized into:
o Routine service technology
o Non routine service technology

***************

Two components of Organigraphs:
1. Set: Every organization is set of items such as man, machine etc.

2. Chain: (for example assembly line in automobile us a linear chain process.)

3. Hubs: A hub serves as a coordinating center. It is any physical or conceptual point at which people , things or information move. Hubs depict movement to and from the focal point. (Ex. Manager of football team)

4. Web: Webs are the grids having no Center. Hey allow open ended communication and continuous movement of people and ideas.


****************

Aspects of Organization:
The Mintzberg approach helps in complex task of defining and describing relationships in an organization.
1. The whole is greater than its parts.
2. Complex and multiple interrelationships
3. Reframing (new ways of visualizing and defining the situations)
4. Creating maps and models: This can help in understanding the reality of the organization.

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قديم 20-01-2009, 01:50 PM   #10
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افتراضي رد: مراجعه اخيرة لمادة b631


الجلسة الثانيه Mission, Values and ethics

The organizational values apply at different levels (SOGI):
o Societal level
o Organizational level
o Group Level
o Individual level

**********

Organizational mission and values:
 organizations need sense of direction- where they are going- to be able to plan their activities.
 Hierarchy of Purpose:
o Why organization exists: mission and values
o What organization tries to do: aims and objectives
o How organization will do things: goals and targets

صفحة( 37) figure 2.1

***********

Missions have two principle elements
1. Organisation Purpose
2. Purposes are shaped by Values

***********

Mission Statements: (Hudson)
1. They are important for reviewing the future strategy.
2. They need to be written and agreed and their power as a management tool should not be over emphasized.
3. By working on missions and bringing beliefs and strategy together , you can increase the effectiveness of the organization.

***********

Mission Statements assist the organization in the following ways:
1. Fundamental reasons why the organization exist.
2. Communication between organization and other stakeholders.
3. Helps in Decision-Making.
4. It provides yardstick (measures/ benchmark) against which organization can be evaluated.

**********

A Mission Statement should address the following questions:
a. Why does organization exist? b. What are the aims? C. Who is it for? d. Where does it operate? e. How should it pursue its aims?

************
 Miller suggested 5 principles for managing ethical issues:
 Establish written ethical policy
 Set an example
 Instruct by means of case studies
 Reward ethical performance
 Encourage social responsibility

************

 To manage, Lawton said u need to understand:
 The context:
 The formal organization
 The informal organization

*********

According to Thomas and Ely (1996) there are three dimensions of it.
1. Discrimination and fairness
2. Access and Legitimacy
3. Learning and Effectiveness.

*********

 Badly and James suggested two dimensions:
 Political awareness to unawareness: how skilled manager is in knowing how organization works
 Self integrity: are they interested only in their won advancement or company

*********


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قديم 20-01-2009, 02:02 PM   #11
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افتراضي رد: مراجعه اخيرة لمادة b631


الجلسة الثالثه Organizational Culture

 Components of culture:
Decoration/ people attitudes/ Politics/ gossip/ Dress code/working hours

***********
Definitions
 The way things happen( and get done) around here.

 McLean and Martial: the collection of traditions, values, policies, beliefs and attitudes that constitute a pervasive context for everything we do and think in an organization.

 Wilson and Rosenfeld: basic values, ideologies and assumptions…which guide and fashion individual and business behavior. These values are evident in more tangible factors such as stories, ritual, language and jargon, and layout and prevailing modes of dress among staff.

*************

Why is it Important to Understand Culture?
 For better performance
 Shapes the way u go about your job.
 Leads to success.

*************

Two ways to think of Culture


 Model 1: ‘shared value’ Culture
 Model 2: negotiated Culture.

************

Models of a shared culture
 Use of symbols and shared rules.

 The use of symbols:
 High Profile symbols
 Low profile symbols

*************

The 4 Categories of Low Profile Symbols (Trice and Beyer)
 Practices
 Communications
 Physical Form
 Common Language

*************

Handy 4 groups of behavior/ shared rules
1. Power Culture
1. Task Culture
1. Person Culture
1. Role Culture

*************

Stages of Changing Organizational Culture
1. Review external environment and current culture.
2. Determine desired culture model for environment.
3. Programme of action to develop the culture.
4. Embedding the new culture

************

4 related problems managers face when changing the culture( Hendry and Hope)
 Resilience of the existing organizational culture
 Complexity of culture change
 Contradictions in the desired culture
 Mismatch between individual and organizational values



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قديم 20-01-2009, 02:11 PM   #12
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افتراضي رد: مراجعه اخيرة لمادة b631


الجلسة الرابعه Organizational Structure

What is structure?
 Structure:
 departmental and sectional groups, pattern of reporting, meetings, information systems, rules.
 represented by charts and also includes ways of coordination between members.

************
 Why need structure?
people will be in loose connection.
To communicate, coordinate and integrate

**********

Problems if No Structure
 Not clear who is or not part of company.
 No way of setting formally agreed objectives and measuring its achievements.
 No agreed way of making decisions.
 All decisions would be open to reconsideration.
 Not clear who should do what work.
 Outsiders wouldn’t know whom to contact, and if any response meant real commitment.


***********

Advantages of having a structure
 Enabling Participation
 Providing framework for the allocation of responsibilities and authority
 Establishing and organization’s identity
 Continuity and change

*********

Recognizing Structural Problems
Child suggested many problems in companies are symptoms of ‘ structural deficiencies. Listed on pg89:

********

Two types of organizational response to the environment:
1. Mechanistic Organization type
1. Organistic Organization type

********


Forms of Organizational Structure
1. Functional Structure
2. Product/Service Structure
3. Geographic Structure
4. Project Team
5. Matrix Structure
6. Hybrid

**********

Approaches to Coordination
 Rules, Programmes and Procedures
 Remits and Referrals
 Setting Targets and Goals
 Creating slack resources
 Creating self contained tasks
 Investment in vertical information systems
 Creating lateral relations

*********

وأنتهينا من الكتاب الثالث والي عنده أضافات يضيف الله يجزاكم الخير


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قديم 20-01-2009, 03:37 PM   #13
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افتراضي رد: مراجعه اخيرة لمادة b631


وااااو

شئ راااائع


مانقدر نقول غير كفيتي ووفيتي ....

وعسااك ع القوة يااارب
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قديم 20-01-2009, 08:10 PM   #14
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افتراضي رد: مراجعه اخيرة لمادة b631


ألوم يعطيك العافيه

<-- بتنتحر

ماني عارفه كيف اذاكر الماده

امممم عادي اذا حليت الاختياري وتركت المقالي :s
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