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قديم 08-08-2011, 07:13 PM   #1
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فاينل مراجعة عامه خطوه بخطوه // تعاريف + سؤال وجواب ( عبير الورد )


سأبدأ أولا بجميع تعاريف المادة

ركز وأحفظ




BMP file : Bitmap file
JPEG file : Joint Photographic Experts Group
PNG file : Portable Network Graphics
GIF file : Graphics Interchange Format
TIF file : Tagged (Tag) Image File )
cvs file :
LZW : Lempel-Ziv-Welch
CGI program : Computer Generated Imagery
WHO : World Health Organization
NHS : National Health Service
NPfIT : National Programme for IT
GEO : Geostationary (Geosynchronous) Earth Orbit
LEO : Low Earth Orbit
ISDN : Integrated Services Digital Network
DSL : Digital Subscriber Line
ADSL : Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line
3G : Third Generation
MIMO : Multiple Input, Multiple Output
N3 Network : New National Network
VPN : Virtual Private Network
PACS : Picture Archiving and Communications Systems
SUS : Secondary Uses Service
NLH : National Library for Health
RDS : Radio Data System
VMS : Variable Message Sign
ANPR : Automatic number plate recognition
GPS : Global Positioning System
GIS : Geographic Information System
CAN : Controller Area Network
DSRC : Dedicated Short-Range Communication
ABS : Automatic Braking System
e-government : Electronic-Government use by governments of ICTs
SQL : Structured Query Language
XML : eXtensible Markup Language
HCD : Human-Centred Design
e-GIF : Electronic-Government Interoperability Framework
ITS : Intelligent Transport Systems
UTMC : Urban Traffic Management and Control
DVLA : Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency
IEEE : Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Wi-Fi : Wireless Fidelity
LED : Light-Emitting Diode
GP2GP :



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قديم 08-08-2011, 07:16 PM   #2
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افتراضي رد: مراعة عامه خطوه بخطوه // تعاريف + سؤال وجواب


Unit 1


عرف السبرت شيت وهاتى أمثله عليه ؟


Briefly define what spreadsheet programs are and give one example?
A program which allows you to enter, manipulate and display data, including numbers, text, dates and mathematical formulae. It is arranged in a set of columns and rows. (Examples: Microsoft Excel, StartOffice, SPSS, Visicalc, Lotus 1-2-3, Gnumeric)


2-
Explain what is the difference between lossy and lossless compression technique is and give an example for each?
Images with few colors – hence a lot of repeating patternsà lossless is more effective . (Examples : GIF,PNG,LZW)
Else àlossy is more effective . (Examples : ipg,ipeg)


3-
Define what CGI programs are and mention one example?
عرف CGI>>>>>>>>>> وهات أمثله عليه وفيما يستخدم
computer generated imagery (CGI, ex. Maya program ) is used extensively to provide virtual sets, animated scenes and characters in movies

4
Why the current memory size of the image sunset.jpg is much larger than the disk size compared to sunset.bmp.?
الجواب حله بأسلوبى

Because the pictures in disk size is the comprssion size but in ram is uncompressed size . and The JPEG standard the colour depth of 24 bits per pixel, and BMP file used only 8 bits per pixel.
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قديم 08-08-2011, 07:18 PM   #3
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افتراضي رد: مراعة عامه خطوه بخطوه // تعاريف + سؤال وجواب


تعاريف الوحدة
BMP file : Bitmap file
JPEG file : Joint Photographic Experts Group
PNG file : Portable Network Graphics
GIF file : Graphics Interchange Format
TIF file : Tagged (Tag) Image File (TIFF: TIF Format)
cvs file : format is used to transfer data between spreadsheets from different software products.
Rtf file : format allows data to be transferred between word-processor programs from different software companies
LZW : Lempel-Ziv-Welch

True color Monitor: A monitor that can display 256 x256 x256 = 16 777 216 number of colors.
Zooming in: in zooming in the picture is magnified, a single pixel from the picture is spread across several neighboring pixels in the screen.
Monochrome pictures: literally means ‘one color’. By implication that one color is black. (White is assumed to be present as well.)
Colour depth: represents the maximum number of possible colours in a digital image.
Dithering: is a way of giving an illusion of there being more colours than there actually are, rather as grey can be suggested by juxtaposing small black and white dots.
Digital actors: actors - are animated to move and behave as if they are human.
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قديم 08-08-2011, 07:24 PM   #4
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Unit 2


1-Four types of ICT system and used in communicating health information:
-1telephones
-2broadcast radio البث الإذاعى
-3digital television
-4 internet


2-mportant factors in access to all ICT systems
Cost,
skill
availability القابليه أو المتاحيه


3-What is the benefit to dividing cells ?


1-increase signale strength .زيادة قوة الإشارة
2- Increase capacityزيادة السعة .
__________________________________________________ ________________________________

4-two ways broadcasting signal

1. By terrestrial broadcasting . البث الأرضى
2. By satellite broadcasting . البث الهوائى



5-What is obstructions in the line of sight ?

ماهى معوقات خط البث

-1Buildings
-2 hills
-3curvature of the Earth انحناءات الأرض .


6-What is the factors that coverd area depends on ?

1. satellite height of the Earth ارتفاع القمر الصناعى
2. beam width عرض الشعاع
3. nember beam


\list the problems of broadcasting ?

1- coverage :- strong broadcast signal being available over a wide geographical area.
.
2- Attenuation :- practice signal strength diminishes rapidly with distance from the transmitting aerial .
3- Distortion :- any obstructions in the line of sight ,such as buildings, hills and the curvature of the earth ..can further degrade the received signals and cause poor reception.


-8 What is the feathure of digital T.V ? مزايا أوشرح يكون السؤال هنا


1-offer more channels
2- offer packed into the same broadcasting band in the channale
3-High quality


This can be done by

*Compression
*Dynamic capacity allocation


- 9 Give an example for each of the following:

Information pull technology.
-1- A visit to a library to find some information
-2- The internet used to access the Web
___________________________________
___
-10
information push technology:
-1-Television program pushed in the home.
-2-Listening program in the radio.

-11
List two weakness of using Internet for accessing health information.

-1-Cost of equipment and sub******ion to internet services
-2-May not understand information and advice given.
-3-Could be slow if no broadband.

-12
List two skills needed for using Internet in accessing health information.
- use a computer
- ****** web pages
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قديم 08-08-2011, 07:25 PM   #5
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افتراضي رد: مراعة عامه خطوه بخطوه // تعاريف + سؤال وجواب


تعاريف الوحدة المهمة
WHO : World Health Organization

NHS : National Health Service
وظيفتها use modern ICT systems for medical information and communications within the National Health Service (NHS)).

PSTN : public switched telephone network

وظيفتها is used to refer to a national communication infrastructure network

Footprint: ( الأثر ) is the area on the Earth’s surface covered by a satellite’s beam.

Wind-up radio: provides access to radio broadcast with out the need to mains electricity and with cheap batteries.

Decision Tree: ( شجرة القرار ) used to help in decision making in all sorts of circumstances.

Information pull technology: Is a technology that allows user to be active and selective for the information required.

Broadcast: means to send the same message simultaneously to all users on a network. ( البث الاسلكى )
Coverage: means sufficiently strong broadcast signal being available over a wide geographical area ( التغطيه )
Probability : Because knowing the probability --that is, the likelihood --of various outcomes can help in decision making.
Push : one way information
Pull: two way information
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قديم 08-08-2011, 07:29 PM   #6
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افتراضي رد: مراعة عامه خطوه بخطوه // تعاريف + سؤال وجواب


Unit 3


تعريفين
Telemedicine: literally means medicine at a distance.
Telemedicine: the application of information and communication technologies to the practice of healthcare.


Benefits Telemedicine:
اختصار فوائد التطبب عن بعد بأسلوبى الخاص
-1Save time and cost .
-2Reducing the need to visit clinics and hospitale تقلل الحاجة لزيارة العيادة والمستشفى


A transducer: محول الطاقة يحول الإشارة الصوتيه إلى الكترونيه (to convert the audible signal to an electrical signal) with an amplifier.) in sound files)
Technological implications : المعالجة التقنيه عن طريق
1) sound files. الملفات الصوتيه
2) capturing and sending images.


التقاط الصور وارسالها
capturing and sending images:عن طريق التقاط وارسال الصور
1- Digital cameras 2- Mobile phones 3- Webcam


Webcam in a teleconsultation system:
used for video conferencing (live communication with voice and moving images) between the patient and he doctor.


Example of Home telehealth equipment used by the patient.
CareCompanion equipment
What is the function CareCompanion?

for monitoring patient health situation at home.
Telesurgery: is surgery at a distance; Telesurgery is or closely related to robotic surgery.



مهم هذا الجهاز فى الجراحة عن بعد: تعريفة


Keyhole surgery: uses a small access areas to the body’s interior and is carried out using equipment outside the body to move and manipulate surgical instruments, or tools, inside the body.


Zeus robotic surgery system: used in telesugery where it is divided to two parts one used by the surgery and the other used by the patient and the rest of the medical crew.


List tow situations where Telesurgery is a suitable option:


1-surgeon training
2-battlefield situation


List three causes for latency in a telesurgery ICT system.


1-Propagation delay of the signals
2-Video coding and decoding.
3-Temporary storing of data.

List the problems in Telesurgery:

1- Delay التأخير
2- Force feedback التغذيه الراجعة
-3Vision and Depth العمق


تعاريف الوحدة
ISDN : Integrated Services Digital Network .
وظيقتها provided data rates in multiples of 64 kbps
Broadband: data can be transmitted or received at a rate. (ISDN-old, Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)-new). معلومه زيادة للفهم بالون الأسود وهو تطبيق يستخدم لمعالجة الداتا ريت العاليه فى الشبكه
DSL : Digital Subscriber Line
: وظيفتها reducing the effects of noise, using advanced error detection and correction . تقلل من الإزعاج وتستخدم مميزات التحقق وتصحيح الخطأ
ADSL : Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line.

ADSL: A technology used for providing broadband to domestic or business ******ers.
مهم جدا ‘asymmetric’ is used bit rate is significantly greater for data being sent to a user compared with data sent from the user
سؤال مهم على هذة النقطه
Atechnology used ---broadband---businss costomers لأغراض تجاريه

1- DSL 2- ADSL
MIMO : Multiple Input, Multiple Output
feedback: mean checking the result of an action, and then applying the information to subsequent actions
3G : third generation
وظيفتها handsets are capable of downloading data at broadband data rates of around 2 Mbps, but this can reduce to just 144 kbps when a user is in a moving vehicle
N3 Network : New National Network.
وظيفتها link doctors, hospitals, consultants in NPfIT
NPfIT : National Programme for IT
وظيفتها creation of a database of medical records of all UK citizens, called the Care Records Service.
Care Records Service: creation of a database of medical records of all UK citizens.
Spine: is the summary of care and clinical history for each patient in the national database of the Care Records Service. it includes all patients health information.
Components of the NPfIT: مهم حفظ الإختصارات
PACS : Picture Archiving and Communications Systems.
SUS :Secondary Uses Service.
NLH : National Library for Health.
GP2GP: A system for transferring medical records from one general practitioner to another.

Benefits or advantages of (NPfIT): نكتفى بحفظ 2
-1Brings modern computer systems into the NHS to improve patient care and services.
-2Give patients access to their personal health and care information.
-3Transforming the way the NHS works.
List two reasons why the NHS’s broadband provision is specially managed
1-security
2-availability
3-cost
Smart health card:
used for identifying patients in an e-health database in order to receive health care regardless of patients place.
Availability of a system: is the proportion of time, on average, for which a system is available for use.
مهم جد حفظ قانون التأخير
Latency = travelling time of a signal (propagation delay) + manipulation delay + delay due to the temporary storage.
VPN : virtual private network
VPN: traffic passes over a shared network à concern about security. The solution:
كيف نحقق الأمان على الشبكه الخاصه
Encryption
Authentication
تعريف كلا منهما
Show how security problem in virtual private networks was solved. (Give two methods). السؤال مع التعريف
Encryption: is the process of scrambling text to make it incomprehensible to unauthorised recipients.
Authentication: users need to demonstrate that they are entitled to use the network, and the data to which it provides access.
What is the difference between private network and virtual private network (VPN)
virtual private network (VPN)
PVN uses a shared, or public, network for part of its data transmission and to its users
A private network: is a data network for the exclusive use of an organization, joining its branches LANs.
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قديم 08-08-2011, 07:31 PM   #7
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افتراضي رد: مراعة عامه خطوه بخطوه // تعاريف + سؤال وجواب


Unit 4
Management : planning, monitoring, and controlling.
Planning à plan for requirements.التخطيط للمتطلبات
Monitoring à,means observing and, measuring what is going on in a system.
Controlling à resolve a problem تصحيح الحدث ثم إعادة حل المشكله

تعريف
open-loop control à No corrective action that can be taken if the outcome is not going to be right.
أمثله عليها
-1Aiming and firing a single arrow at a target in archery السهم والنيال لا يغير إتجاهة
-2Cooking a souffle´, :in which opening the opaque oven door to check progress can ruin the result. الكيكه فى الفرن عند فتح باب الفرن تتلف
تعريف
closed-loop control à Corrective action can be made during the process to ensure that the right outcome is achieved.
-1Steering a car round a bend استدارة السيارة عند منعطف االطريق
-2Cooking a casserole, in which experienced cooks test the dish from time to time and add more herbs, salt or pepper as necessary طبخ الشوربه
RDS : Radio Data System وظيفتها + شرح
some time to deliver information to drivers on the move. RDS can automatically
interrupt the broadcast the driver is listening to with local information about
traffic problems.
3G / mobile phone system: is used in at least one method of sending traffic data to drivers مهم جدا
However information relevant to travel plans (such as details of significant sporting events) may be obtained before starting a journey by:قبل بدء الرحله عن طريق
-1Teletext
-2interactive digital television services
variable message sign: مهم حفظ + الشرح
One widely used method of delivering information to motorists while they are travelling is the variable message sign (VMS).
VMS displays use arrays of light sourcesمهم جدا
Use light-emitting diodes (LEDs).
Advanced Motorway Indicator AMI)
Communicate information to drivers
include colored hazard warning symbolsمهم جدا تتضمن الوان ورموز تحذيريه
**************
Webcam in a teleconsultation system:
used for video conferencing (live communication with voice and moving images) between the patient and he doctor.
There are 2 ICT technologies to provide drivers information about traffic, congestion, weather conditions during driving/traveling. Explain them.

RDS with explanation
VMS (and maybe AMI) with explanation

Properties of LEDs:
-1used as light sources
-2use in traffic light illumination
-3can offer high levels of brightness
Traffic has three categories: ثلاث أشكال
-1Freely flowing بدون ضوابط
-2Jammed جامد أو ثابت
-3pinch effect وسطى
elements of a queuing system:
-1arrivals الوصول للرتل
-2buffer store تخزين الخزان
-3service point نقطه الخدمه
Buffer:
A short-term storage area which holds a queue of arrivals waiting to be served
Queue: الرتل أو الطابور
Forms when ‘things’ have to wait for a ‘service' where the first arrives gets the service
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قديم 08-08-2011, 07:33 PM   #8
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افتراضي رد: مراعة عامه خطوه بخطوه // تعاريف + سؤال وجواب


امتلاء الخزان
full buffer: means that there is no storage available.
فوق الإستطاعة
Buffer overflow’: arriving traffic to full buffer could not be redirected.
-1What are the feature of a queuing system could be changed to help reduce the delays and also the possibility that packets would be lost
-2List two possible solutions to avoid buffer overflow in queuing system?
حل السؤالين يكون
-1increase buffer size زيادة سعة الخزان
-2increase number of service points.زيادة نقاط الخدمه
3- increase the speed of service
The throughput of the network is, معدل النقل على الشبكه
the number of packets that are successfully handled per timeمهم

Smart health card: used for identifying patients in an e-health database in order to receive health care regardless of patients place.
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قديم 08-08-2011, 07:36 PM   #9
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Unit 5



ANPR: Automatic number plate recognition
وظيفته system for charging vehicles for road using and monitoring vehicles speed
Considering ANPR System, List three ways to decrease data rate by doing some of the processing in roadside installations near the cameras?


-1The roadside installation can work out which part of the picture is the number plate, and to send only that part for central processing
-2Compressing the image in the roadside cabinet before sending it to the centralized processing facility.
-3Sending Codes of the characters.


List four technologies used to detecting vehicles.
a) Radar and microwave
b) Optical / video imaging
c) Infrared
d) Inductive loop
e) Magnetic
f) Acoustic
g) Ultrasonic

Non-contact detecting technology. مهم
Technologies that do not rely upon making any direct physical contact with vehicles.
DVLA : Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency
مقارنه
Active methods: depend on signals being sent out from the vehicle to a receiver
passive methods do not require the vehicle to have an on-board transmitter, to which a roadside detector might respond).
technologies to detect vehicles passively uses visible light:
Optical/video imaging
Name 3 passive + 1 active ways to detect vehicles

Passive: radar/microwave – optical/video imaging – infrared – inductive loop – magnetic - acoustic - Ultrasonic
Active: RFID - any type of on-board transmitter

A detecting vehicles technology that Make use of different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.

-1-radar and microwave
-2-optical
-3-infrared

Character recognition software :وظيفتها
Scans an image and identifies characters such as numbers and letters in it

What is the function:

Variable message sign
Deliver road traffic information to drivers while driving
GPS: Global Positioning System.

For locating vehicles for tracking vehicles for road chargin
DSRC: Dedicated Short-Range Communication مهم شرح وأنواع المعلومات التى تصدرها للسائقين

Communicating between vehicles and roadside beacon is to use a mobile wireless data-networking system called Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC)

Write the three uses of the Dedicated Short-Range Communication (DSRC).
-1Road charging
-2Vehicles could communicate their braking behaviour to other vehicles
-3Many types of information could be relayed between the vehicles such as fog, congestion, accident.
-4Adaptive cruise control

List two Information that could be transferred among vehicles in a DSRC network.

-1fog
-2ice
-3Congestion
-4An accident

Explain how GPS works. Mention the use/function of each satellite in the system

For locating vehicles for tracking vehicles for road chargin
• GPS satellites transmit radio signals that are picked up by the GPS receiver.

• The GPS receiver can calculate its distance from each of three satellites based on the speed of radio waves and the times taken for the waves from each satellite to reach the receiver.


CAN: Controller Area Network
What is the function:
On-board satellite navigation service :
Supplies the driver with a suggested route with necessary diversions round the traffic problems to my destination.

ABS: Automatic Braking System

Automatic Braking System (ABS).
The car takes over some control of the brakes during emergency braking to prevent the wheels locking, is already well established.

GIS : Geographic Information System

Inductive loop technology وظيفتها
For detecting vehicles.
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قديم 08-08-2011, 08:40 PM   #10
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افتراضي رد: مراجعة عامه خطوه بخطوه // تعاريف + سؤال وجواب


هكذا نكون غطينا المادة إلى المحاضرة الخامسه ويتبقى علينا محاضرتين فقط وكتبنا كل سؤال متوقع يأتى فى الإختبار



شكرا لكم ولحسن استماعكم

وشدوووا الهم بنى درجات عاليه
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قديم 11-10-2011, 08:18 AM   #11
alwardi333 alwardi333 غير متصل
طالب جديد

 











افتراضي رد: مراجعة عامه خطوه بخطوه // تعاريف + سؤال وجواب ( عبير الورد )


ما شاء الله عليك

ولا اروع الغالية

يسلمو والله
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قديم 12-10-2011, 12:04 PM   #12
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افتراضي رد: مراجعة عامه خطوه بخطوه // تعاريف + سؤال وجواب ( عبير الورد )


شكرا لكم جميعا
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قديم 05-11-2011, 01:56 AM   #13
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افتراضي رد: مراجعة عامه خطوه بخطوه // تعاريف + سؤال وجواب ( عبير الورد )


للإفادة
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قديم 08-11-2011, 11:13 PM   #14
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طالب فضي
 
الصورة الرمزية إنزعه صمتي

 











افتراضي رد: مراجعة عامه خطوه بخطوه // تعاريف + سؤال وجواب ( عبير الورد )


عبير الورد

تقبلي تحياتي على الجهد الطيب وبميزان اعمالج
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مواقع النشر (المفضلة)

أدوات الموضوع
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